Maya Mountains

Coordinates: 16°53′58″N 88°40′18″W / 16.899443741204585°N 88.67161109755861°W / 16.899443741204585; -88.67161109755861
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Maya Mountains
Montañas mayas
Maya Mountains, Cayo District, Belize.jpg
Maya Mountains during clear conditions / 2012 photograph by E. xxx / via Flickr
Highest point
PeakDoyle's Delight
Elevation3,688 ft (1,124 m)1
Coordinates16°40′04″N 88°49′59″W / 16.667652361130873°N 88.8331618650507°W / 16.667652361130873; -88.8331618650507
Length70 mi (110 km) northeast1
Width40 mi (64 km) southeast
Area1,970 sq mi (5,100 km2)2
Maya Mountains is located in Belize
Maya Mountains
Countriessouthwestern Belize and northeastern Guatemala
DistrictsCayo, Stann Creek, Toledo, Peten
Range coordinates16°53′58″N 88°40′18″W / 16.899443741204585°N 88.67161109755861°W / 16.899443741204585; -88.67161109755861
Age of rockPalaeozoic‍–‍Cenozoic3
Type of rock
  • sedimentary
  • granitic
  • volcanic
Volcanic arc/beltBladen Formation3
Last eruptionc. 410 Ma3
1 Per EB 2017, para. 1 / 2 Per Briggs et al. 2013, para. 2 / 3 Per Martens 2009, cap. 4

The Maya Mountains are a mountain range located in Belize and eastern Guatemala, in Central America.[note 1]


The Maya Mountains were known as the Cockscomb or Coxcomb Mountains to Baymen and later Belizeans at least until the mid-20th century.[1][2][3][4][note 2][citation needed] Their current appellation is thought to be in honour of the Mayan civilisation.[5]


Maya Mountains, with Victoria Peak in the centre.



The range's highest peaks are Doyle's Delight at 3,688 feet (1,124 m) and Victoria Peak at 3,680 feet (1,120 m).[5]


Nine streams with a Strahler order greater than 1 flow from the Mountains into the Caribbean Sea, namely, five tributaries of the Belize River, two tributaries of the Monkey River, and the Sittee River and Boom Creek.[6]


Prominent karstic features within the Mountains include the Chiquibul Spring and Cave System, the Vaca Plateau, the Southern and Northern Boundary Faults, and possibly an aquifer contiguous with that of the Yucatán Peninsula.[7][8][note 3]


The Mountains 'are the only source of igneous and metamorphic materials' in Belize.[9] These are exposed in three plutons, i.e. Mountain Pine Ridge, Hummingbird Ridge, and the Cockscomb Basin.[10] It has been recently suggested that the former was mined by stonemasons at Pacbitun for the manufacture and trade of stonetools, e.g. manos and metates.[11]


Precipitation decreases from 98 inches (2,500 mm) per annum in the northwestern extreme of the Mountains to 59 inches (1,500 mm) per annum in its southeastern extreme.[12]



Much of the Mountains is in protected areas spanning seventeen parks, reserves, sanctuaries, or monuments in southern Belize and northern Guatemala.[13][14]

Protected areas encompassing the Maya Mountains.[15][16][17][note 4]
WDPA ID Name Type District Notes
3306 Chiquibul forest reserve Cayo
3314 Columbia River forest reserve Toledo
3311 Deep River forest reserve Toledo
28850 Maya Mountain forest reserve Stann Creek
3305 Mountain Pine Ridge forest reserve Cayo
3307 Sibun River forest reserve Cayo
12229 Sittee River forest reserve Stann Creek
116297 Vaca forest reserve Cayo
301932 Noj Kaax Me'en Eligio Panti national park Cayo
20230 Chiquibul national park Cayo
12241 Bladen nature reserve Toledo
10579 Cockscomb Basin wildlife sanctuary Stann Creek
20229 Caracol archaeological reserve Cayo
301918 Victoria Peak natural monument Stann Creek
30614 Montañas Mayas Chiquibul nature reserve Peten
30618 San Román nature reserve Peten
902858 Yaxhá-Nakum-Naranjo national park Peten


Unauthorised farming and resource extraction by Guatemalans have been identified as a significant threats to Belize's protected areas bordering Peten.[18] For instance, in 2008 an estimated 1,000‍–‍1,500 xateros i.e. fishtail palm foragers were operating in the region, and by 2011 some 13,500‍–‍20,000 acres had been cleared for various agricultural activities, thereby severing the ecologically important contiguity of Belizean forests to the Guatemalan Selva Maya.[19] Furthermore, unlicensed interlopers often hunt for sustenance during their extended incursions, leading to worrying declines in wildlife populations, such as that of the white-lipped peccary, which has been extirpated from 'was once the species' primary stronghold in Belize [i.e. Chiquibul].'[20] Threats indigenous to Belize have also been identified, however, with demographic pressures deemed the most significant.[21] The recent construction of the hydroelectric Chalillo Dam in the Mountains, for instance, 'sparked international controversy for its widespread ecological effects,' including the inundation of 2,400 acres of forested and riparian ecosystems, and exposure of downstream villages to significant pollutants in 2009 and 2011.[22]


Maya Mountains
Maya Mountains / in 2006 map by French & Schenk / via USGS
Maya Mountains / in 2006 map by French & Schenk / via USGS
Grid positioncoordinates =
Locationcentral Belize, northeastern Guatemala
Part ofMaya Block
 • Total4,470 sq mi (11,600 km2)1
 • Length95 mi (153 km)1
 • Width65 mi (105 km)1
USGS geologic province number6125
1 As per French & Schenk 2004 and French & Schenk 2006 maps.

The Mountains and their abutting foothills and plains, considered as a north-easterly trending structural uplift of Palaeozoic bedrock, constitute a geologic or physiographic province in the Maya Block of the North American Plate.[23][24][25] The province is bounded by the seismically inactive Northern and Southern Boundary Faults.[26][27][28][note 5]


The Mountains' orogen mainly consists of metamorphosed late Carboniferous to middle Permian volcanic-sedimentary rocks overlying late Silurian granites.[27]



The Mountains' basement is sub-aerially exposed in four extremes of the mountain range.[23][29][30] The exposed portions in the northwestern, northeastern, and southeastern points of the range are predominantly composed of intermediate-to-silicic Palaeozoic plutons, with exposed portions in the southern point of the range predominated by Palaeozoic volcanic rocks.[23][note 6][note 7]

The geologic evolution of the exposed portions of the Mountains' basement has been deemed 'one of the most disputed aspects of Central American geology,' though it has subsequently been suggested that these formed during the late-Neogene to late-Pliocene.[31][32]


The Mountains' sedimentary cover blankets all of the province's foothills and plains, and all but a few portions of its mountain range.[23][32][30] The cover in the foothills and plains is predominantly composed of Cretacaeous marine strata to the south, west, and north, but this transitions into Quaternary alluvium to the east.[23][note 8] In contrast, the cover in the mountain range is predominated by Palaeozoic strata.[23][note 9]

The Mountains' cover in the mountain range has been recently characterised as an elevated relict landscape, i.e. an area where basement uplift has not been counterbalanced by fluvial erosion.[33]


Geologic mapping and dating of rocks in the Maya Mountains have 'led to a varierty of interpretations and eventually to puzzling discrepancies between reported field relations, age of fossils, and geochronologic data.'[34] An early 1955 study divided the Mountains' sedimentary rocks into Macal and Maya series or formations, but these were subsequently rejected in favour of the single Santa Rosa Group of sedimentary rocks (discovered in Guatemala in 1966).[35] However, this consensus was upended upon the 1996 discovery of deeper granitoids which crystallisation ages 'considerably older' than known post-Devonian ages of Santa Rosa fossils.[36] The presence of pre-Devonian sediments was 'a matter of debate' until 'conclusively demonstrate[d]' in the affirmative in 2009.[37]

Stratigraphic units of the Maya Mountains per 21st century literature.[38][39][note 10]
Name Rocks Epoch Age Unit Notes
Maya Block crystalline basement Ediacaran – Cambrian 560‍–‍540 Ma cf [note 11]
Baldy Unit
  • sandstone
  • quartz
  • phyllite
Cambrian – Silurian 517‍–‍406 Ma cf [note 12]
Mountain Pine Ridge Pluton granite Ordovician – Silurian 420‍–‍405 Ma cf [note 13]
Bladen Formation
  • rhyolite
  • dacite
  • tephra
Silurian – Devonian 413‍–‍400 Ma cf [note 14]
Macal Formation
  • sandstone
  • shale
Pennsylvanian – Permian 330‍–‍270 Ma cf [note 15]
Hummingbird‍–‍Mullins Pluton granite Triassic 250‍–‍220 Ma cf [note 16]
Cockscomb‍–‍Sapote Pluton granite Triassic 240‍–‍206 Ma cf [note 17]
Todos Santos Jurassic – Cretaceous 175‍–‍125 Ma cf [note 18]
Coban Limestone
  • limestone
  • dolomite
Cretaceous – Holocene 150‍–‍0 Ma cf [note 19]



The Mountains are wedged between the easterly to northeasterly trending Corozal and Belize Basins, themselves sub-basins of the Peten‍–‍Corozal Basin, which fully encompasses the Mountains.[27][40][note 20]



The Mountains are thought to have remained sparsely populated, and culturally and economically isolated, until 600‍–‍830 CE, during the Late Classic, when the region experienced major demographic growth, possibly peaking in the 8th century.[41] In c. 830 CE, during the Classic Maya Collapse, most of the Mountains' settlements experienced demographic decline, leading to sparse settlement during the Postclassic.[41]


The mountains are mainly made of Paleozoic era granite and sediments. The Maya Mountains and associated foothills contain a number of important Mayan ruins including the sites of Lubaantun, Nim Li Punit, Cahal Pech and Chaa Creek.[42][43]


In Belize[edit]

The earliest public conservation-like efforts in Belize are thought to have been geared towards regulating mahogany logging, via a 28 October 1817 proclamation vesting unclaimed lands in the Crown.[44][45] The measure quickly proved futile however, as by 17 April 1835 Belize's Superintendent would note that 'no regulation or restriction has prevailed respecting the cutting of Wood or the occupation of Land and thus the mahogany on the extensive Tracts to the Southward of the Sibun and between the Rivers Belize & Hondo above Black Creek has been subjected to great waste and devastation.'[46][45] The next step is thought to have been in 1894, with the passage of the first legislative protections for antiquities in colonial Belize, subsequently strengthened in 1897, 1924, and 1927.[47][48][49][50] Archaeological conservation in Belize progressed quickly with the 1952 appointment of Alexander Hamilton Anderson as First Assistant Secretary to the Governor with responsibility for archaeological activities in the country, and the subsequent 1954 establishment of the Department of Archaeology, with Anderson as its inaugural commissioner or permanent secretary.[51][52][53][note 21] Natural conservation likewise advanced with the 1887 Hooper and 1921 Hummel Reports, the 1922 establishment of a Department of Forestry, with Cornelius Hummel as inaugural conservator or permanent secretary, and the 1924, 1926, 1927, 1935, 1944, and 1945 passages of legislative protections for flora and fauna.[54][55][56][57][45][58][note 22] Significantly, Silk Grass and Mountain Pine Ridge were gazetted as forest reserves in 1920, making these Belize's earliest non-archaeological protected areas.[45][59]

In Guatemala[edit]

The earliest conservation efforts in Guatemala are thought to have been the 1921 and 1945 Leyes Forestales, leading to the 1955 establishment of the country's first protected areas, the Atitlán and Rio Dulce National Parks.[60]


A map of a part of Yucatán / 1787 map printed for W. Faden / via LC


The earliest known exploratory expedition into the Mountains was led by captains Samuel Harrison and Valentín Delgado in 8 July – 9 August 1787 (1787-07-08 – 1787-08-09). The captains had been commissioned by the superintendent of colonial Belize, Edward Marcus Despard, and the visiting Spanish commissary, Enrique de Grimarest, to discover the source of the Sibun River, so as to ascertain the limits of the British settlement under the 1786 Convention of London.[61][62][63][64]

Subsequent pioneering explorations were led by Henry Fowler in 1879, C. H. Wilson in 1886, Karl Sapper in 1886‍–‍1935, J. Bellamy in 1888, L. H. Ower in 1922‍–‍1926, C. G. Dixon in 1950‍–‍1955, and J. H. Bateson and I. H. S. Hall in 1969‍–‍1970.[65][66][1][67] Sapper's trips have been deemed 'the first geologic expeditions' into the Mountains, while Ower's survey produced what has been called 'the first geological map of the Colony [of British Honduras, including the Mountains].'[65][66][note 23]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Explanatory footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The term Maya Mountains may additionally refer a geologic or physiographic province coincident with the mountain range and its abutting foothills and plains, rather to the mountain range per se, eg as in Andreani & Gloaguen 2016, pp. 76–77. This article employs the geologic sense of the term when appropriate, eg in the 'Geology' section.
  2. ^ Mountains called only Cockscomb or variants in Bellamy 1889, Sapper 1896a, Sapper 1899; called both Cockscomb and Maya in USDI 1947 and Dixon 1956; and called only Maya in Dixey 1957, Bateson & Hall 1977. The Cockscomb name survives in various designations, including that of the Cockscomb Range, an east-west spur of the Maya Mountains extending some 10 miles (16 km) (EB 2012, para. 1).
  3. ^ The aquifer's existence has been suggested on the basis of karstifiable carbonates and evaporites, contiguous to those of the Peninsula, being present in the western and southern foothills and plains of the Mountains (Goldscheider et al. 2020, p. 1666).
  4. ^ WDPA ID is the identifier used in the World Database on Protected Areas in UNEP-WCMC 2022a, sec. 'Belize Protected Areas' and UNEP-WCMC 2022b, sec. 'Guatemala Protected Areas'.
  5. ^ Though Bundschuh & Alvarado 2012, pp. 77–79, 80 do not consider the mountain range and surrounding environs to constitute a physiographic province.
  6. ^ The southern extreme of the range further includes an exposed portion predominated by intrusive, undivided, intermediate-to-silicic rocks of unknown age (French & Schenk 2004).
  7. ^ Martens 2009, pp. 7, 23 give the basement as being sub-aerially exposed in three extremes of the mountain range, with exposed portions mainly composed of Palaeozoic granitic batholiths and stocks. Martens 2009, p. 121 give a more accurate picture of the basement as being exposed in four extremes of the range, with Devonian–Silurian granitoids prevailing in portions in three extremes, and lithic conglomerates, sandstones, and rhyolites prevailing in portions of one extreme.
  8. ^ The cover in the western foothills and plains further includes some islands of Quaternary alluvium, Aeocene-to-Palaeocene marine strata, and Jurassic-to-Triassic marine and continental strata (French & Schenk 2004).
  9. ^ Martens 2009, p. 7, fig. 1.2 describe the cover over the mountain range as mainly composed of low-grade metasediments and local hornfelses.
  10. ^ All units informal as of 2019 (King et al. 2019, p. 222, fn. 1).
  11. ^ Age as per Martens 2009, p. 142, and noted as the 'recognised' basement age of the Maya Block. Though Martens 2009, p. 148 further notes that this age 'seems only valid for the northernmost tip of the [Maya] block.'
  12. ^ Age as per Martens 2009, pp. 123, 137. Lower and upper ages considered uncertain per Martens 2009, p. 123, fig. 4.2. Sandstones mature, in contrast to Macal Formation, per Martens 2009, pp. 124–125. Detrital zircons from sandstone samples dated 1.9‍–‍0.5 Ga, with 1.2 and 1.0 Ga ages most prominent, per Martens 2009, pp. 128, 133–134, 136–137, 140–143. Martens 2009, pp. 142–143 suggest the 1.2‍–‍1.0 Ga Grenvillian zircons 'could be local to the Maya Block' or neighbouring Oaxaquia microcontinent, while the 1.6‍–‍1.5 Ga zircons are 'probably not autochthonous to the Maya Block nor [the] Oaxaquia [microcontinent], inasmuch as no rocks older than ~1.4 Ga have been found on them,' rather suggesting that the latter were 'most likely' sourced from the Rio Negro‍–‍Juruena province of the Western Amazonian craton of Gondwana. Zhao et al. 2020, p. 140 further note that 'inherited zircon ages of 1210 Ma from the Maya mountain and 1100 Ma from the Chicxulub granitoids imply that the northern Maya block may [...] have Grenville-aged materials.' Ross et al. 2021, p. 243, fig. 1 further suggest the 0.6‍–‍0.5 Ga zircons may have a Pan-African orogeny affinity.
  13. ^ Age as per Martens 2009, pp. 123, 135, Ross et al. 2021, p. 244, and Guzman-Hidalgo et al. 2021, p. 2. Dated 422 – circa 406 Ma in Martens 2009, pp. 126–127. Pluton is mostly two-mica granite, granodiorite, and tonalite containing > 10 percent quartz, per Martens 2009, p. 125, and exhibits relatively high potassium content and large circa 10 millimetres (0.39 in) minerals, per Lewis & Valdez 2015, p. 143.
  14. ^ Age as per Martens 2009, pp. 119, 123 and Ross et al. 2021, p. 244. Lower and upper ages considered uncertain per Martens 2009, p. 123, fig. 4.2. Dated circa 415 – circa 406 Ma in Martens 2009, pp. 135, 136. This Formation is an east-west belt covering over 200 square kilometres (77 sq mi), and consists almost entirely of rhyolitic-dacitic lava flows and tuffs, with some original volcanic features partly preserved (eg autobrecciated lava flows and flow banding), per Martens 2009, p. 126.
  15. ^ Age as per Martens 2009, p. 123. Described as 'regionally equivalent to the Santa Rosa Group of Guatemala' and 'containing fossils similar to those in the Santa Rosa Group' in Martens 2009, pp. 122, 135. Sandstones immature, in contrast to Baldy Unit, per Martens 2009, pp. 124–125.
  16. ^ Age as per Martens 2009, p. 123. Pluton ranges from muscovite quartz-monzonite to biotite granodiorite, with rare garnet xenocrysts, per Martens 2009, p. 125, and exhibits relatively high muscovite-biotite ratio and small circa 5 millimetres (0.20 in) minerals, per Lewis & Valdez 2015, p. 143.
  17. ^ Age as per Martens 2009, p. 123. Dated 235‍–‍205 Ma in Martens 2009, p. 126. Dated 237‍–‍205 Ma in Ross et al. 2021, p. 244. Pluton is a biotite granodiorite with accessory white mica, per Martens 2009, p. 125, and exhibits relatively high biotite-muscovite ratio and small circa 5 millimetres (0.20 in) minerals, per Lewis & Valdez 2015, p. 143.
  18. ^ Age as per Martens 2009, p. 123. Lower and upper ages considered uncertain per Martens 2009, p. 123, fig. 4.2.
  19. ^ Age as per Martens 2009, p. 123.
  20. ^ Though Steel & Davidson 2020a, foldout map describe the Mountains as wedged between three basins, ie the Corozal, Belize, and Peten Basins, none of which is noted as a sub-basin of any other.
  21. ^ Though establishment of the Department of Archaeology dated 1953 by Vitelli 1983, p. 218 and 1957 by Nichols & Pool 2012, p. 71.
  22. ^ Hooper and Hummel Reports in Hooper 1887 and Hummel 1921.
  23. ^ For their work output, see Bateson & Hall 1977, Bellamy 1889, Dixon 1956, Fowler 1879, IGS 1975, Ower 1928a, Ower 1928b, Sapper 1896a, Sapper 1896b, Sapper 1898, and Sapper 1899, among other published works.

Short citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bellamy 1889, p. 542.
  2. ^ Sapper 1899, pp. 23–24.
  3. ^ Usher 1888, 'Southern District' of map.
  4. ^ USDI 1947, pp. 3, 7.
  5. ^ a b EB 2017, para. 1.
  6. ^ Andreani & Gloaguen 2016, p. 91, fig. 16.
  7. ^ Goldscheider et al. 2020, pp. 1666–1667.
  8. ^ Bundschuh & Alvarado 2012, pp. 160, 162–165.
  9. ^ Lewis & Valez 2015, p. 141.
  10. ^ Lewis & Valez 2015, p. 143.
  11. ^ Lewis & Valez 2015, pp. 145–146.
  12. ^ Andreani & Gloaguen 2016, pp. 81–82.
  13. ^ UNEP-WCMC 2022a, map.
  14. ^ UNEP-WCMC 2022b, map.
  15. ^ Briggs et al. 2013, pp. 318–319.
  16. ^ UNEP-WCMC 2022a, sec. 'Belize Protected Areas'.
  17. ^ UNEP-WCMC 2022b, sec. 'Guatemala Protected Areas'.
  18. ^ Briggs et al. 2013, pp. 320–321.
  19. ^ Briggs et al. 2013, pp. 320–321, 323, 326.
  20. ^ Briggs et al. 2013, p. 323.
  21. ^ Briggs et al. 2013, pp. 321–322.
  22. ^ Briggs et al. 2013, p. 322.
  23. ^ a b c d e f French & Schenk 2004.
  24. ^ French & Schenk 2006.
  25. ^ Andreani & Gloaguen 2016, pp. 76–77.
  26. ^ Andreani & Gloaguen 2016, pp. 73–74, figs. 2-3.
  27. ^ a b c Andreani & Gloaguen 2016, p. 77.
  28. ^ Bundschuh & Alvarado 2012, p. 80.
  29. ^ Martens 2009, p. 18.
  30. ^ a b Steel & Davidson 2020a, foldout map.
  31. ^ Andreani & Gloaguen 2016, p. 94.
  32. ^ a b Martens 2009, p. 23.
  33. ^ Andreani & Gloaguen 2016, pp. 92–94.
  34. ^ Martens 2009, pp. 120–122.
  35. ^ Martens 2009, p. 122.
  36. ^ Martens 2009, pp. 122, 124.
  37. ^ Martens 2009, pp. 126, 135.
  38. ^ Martens 2009, p. 121, fig. 4.1.
  39. ^ Martens 2009, p. 123, fig. 4.2.
  40. ^ Evenick 2021, p. 6, fig. 4.
  41. ^ a b Carter et al. 2019, p. 89.
  42. ^ Hogan 2007, ???.
  43. ^ Awe et al. 1990, p. ???.
  44. ^ Bolland & Shoman 1977, pp. 34–37.
  45. ^ a b c d Balboni & Palacio 2007, p. 124.
  46. ^ Bolland & Shoman 1977, pp. 47–48.
  47. ^ Wallace 2011, p. 25.
  48. ^ Hammond 1983, p. 22.
  49. ^ Nichols & Pool 2012, pp. 69–71.
  50. ^ Pendergast 1993, p. 4.
  51. ^ Nichols & Pool 2012, p. 71.
  52. ^ Pendergast 1993, p. 7.
  53. ^ Beardall 2021, p. 28.
  54. ^ Oliphant 1925, p. 40.
  55. ^ Pamberton 2012, pp. 187–189.
  56. ^ Francis 1924, pp. 532–557, pt. XV cap. 88.
  57. ^ Neiemer 2019, p. 33.
  58. ^ Smith 2021, pp. 584–585.
  59. ^ IUCN 1992, p. 124.
  60. ^ IUCN 1992, pp. 143, 150.
  61. ^ Burdon 1931, p. 165.
  62. ^ Calderon Quijano 1944, p. 322.
  63. ^ Finamore 1994, pp. 103, 105.
  64. ^ Conover Blancas 2016, pp. 111–115.
  65. ^ a b Martens 2009, p. 124.
  66. ^ a b Dixey 1957, sec. 'British Honduras' paras. 1-2.
  67. ^ Sapper 1899, pp. 24–25.

Full citations[edit]


  1. Balboni, Barbara S.; Palacio, Joseph O., eds. (2007). Taking stock : Belize at 25 years of independence. Belize collection. Benque Viejo: Cubola Productions. ISBN 9789768161185. OCLC 182632403.
  2. Bateson, J. H.; Hall, I. H. S. (1977). The geology of the Maya Mountains, Belize. Overseas Memoir no. 3. London: Institute of Geological Sciences; Natural Environment Research Council. ISBN 9780118807654. OCLC 3530491.
  3. Bolland, Orlando Nigel; Shoman, Assad (1977). Land in Belize, 1765-1871. Law and society in the Caribbean ; no. 6. Mona, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies. hdl:2027/txu.059173018664366. OCLC 3369638.
  4. Bundschuh, J.; Alvarado, G. E., eds. (2012) [First published 2007]. Central America: Geology, Resources and Hazards (Reprint of 1st ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. doi:10.1201/9780203947043. ISBN 9780429074370. OCLC 905983675.
  5. Burdon, J. A., ed. (1931). From the earliest date to A. D. 1800. Archives of British Honduras ... Being extracts and précis from records, with maps. Vol. 1. London: Sifton, Praed & Co. hdl:2027/mdp.39015028737008. OCLC 3046003.
  6. Calderon Quijano, J. A. (1944). Belice, 1663(?)-1821 : historia de los establecimientos británicos del Río Valis hasta la independencia de Hispano-américa. Publicaciones de la Escuela de Estudios Hispanoamericanos de la Universidad de Sevilla ; 5 (no. general) ; Serie 2a ; Monografías ; no. 1. Seville: Escuela de Estudios Hispanoamericanos. hdl:2027/txu.059173022907891. OCLC 2481064.
  7. Dengo, G.; Case, J. H., eds. (1990). The Caribbean Region. The Geology of North America ; v. H. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America. hdl:2027/mdp.39015018862931. ISBN 9780813752129. OCLC 21909394.
  8. Dixon, Cyril George (1956). Geology of southern British Honduras. Belize: Government of British Honduras. hdl:2027/txu.059173023862052. OCLC 975471.
  9. Fowler, Henry (1879). A narrative of a journey across the unexplored portion of British Honduras, with a short sketch of the history and resources of the colony. Belize: Government Press. OCLC 19351121.
  10. Francis, C. B., ed. (1924). Ordinances, Chapters 1–152. The New Edition of the Consolidated Laws of British Honduras 1924 containing the Ordinances of the colony in force on the 21st day of July, 1924. Vol. 1. London: Waterlow & Sons. hdl:2027/mdp.35112101939298. OCLC 4143433.
  11. Hermans, E., ed. (2020). A Companion to the Global Early Middle Ages. Leeds: Arc Humanities Press. doi:10.1515/9781942401766. ISBN 9781942401766. OCLC 1159724793. S2CID 241916138.
  12. Hoffmann, O. (2014). British Honduras: The invention of a colonial territory. Mapping and spatial knowledge in the 19th century. Benque Viejo, Belize, and Bondy, France: Cubola and Institut de recherche pour le développement. OCLC 914182564.
  13. Hooper, E. D. M. (1887). Report upon the forests of Honduras. Kurnool, India: Kurnool Collectorate Press. OCLC 39000844.
  14. Hummel, C. (1921). Report on the forests of British Honduras: with suggestions for a far reaching forest policy. London: Colonial Research Committee. OCLC 499880434.
  15. IUCN (1992). Nearctic and Neotropical. Protected Areas of the World: A review of national systems. Vol. 4. Gland, Switzerland; Cambridge, UK: IUCN. ISBN 2831700930. OCLC 27471629.
  16. Lewis, Brandon S.; Valdez, Fred, eds. (2015). Research reports from the Programme for Belize Archaeological Project. Occasional papers / Mesoamerican Archaeological Research Laboratory. Vol. 9. Austin TX: Center for Archaeological and Tropical Studies; University of Texas at Austin. hdl:2152/62448. OCLC 793922390.
  17. Mann, P., ed. (1999). Caribbean Basins. Sedimentary Basins of the World. Vol. 4. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0444826491. OCLC 43540498.
  18. Nairn, A. E. M.; Stehli, F. G., eds. (1975). The Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. The Ocean Basins and Margins. Vol. 3. New York and London: Plenum Press. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-8535-6. ISBN 978-1-4684-8537-0. OCLC 1255226320.
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External links[edit]

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