Mayamalavagowla

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Mayamalavagowla
ArohanamS R₁ G₃ M₁ P D₁ N₃ 
Avarohanam N₃ D₁ P M₁ G₃ R₁ S
EquivalentDouble harmonic scale
SimilarBhairav (Hindustani classical raga)

Mayamalavagowla (pronounced māyāmāḻavagauḻa), is a raga of Carnatic Music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is classified as 15th melakarta raga under Venkatamakhin's melakarta system. Originally known as malavagowla, "maya" was prefixed to it after the advent of the scheme of the 72 melas. The number 15 was assigned to it following the Katapayadi sankhya system. This is a morning raga.

Structure and Lakshana[edit]

Mayamalavagowla scale with shadjam at C

Venkatamakhin defines its lakshana thus:

पूर्णो माळवगोळाख्यः स ग्रहो गीयते सदा

pūrṇo māḻavagouḻākhyah sa graho gīyate sadā

Mayamalavagowla is the 3rd raga in the 3rd chakra, Agni. Its mnemonic name is Agni-Go. Its mnemonic phrase is sa ra gu ma pa dha nu.[1] Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

The notes in this raga are shadjam, shuddha rishabham, antara gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, panchamam, shuddha dhaivatam and kakali nishadam. As it is a melakarta rāgam, by definition it is a sampurna rāgam (has all seven notes in ascending and descending scale). It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Kamavardhini (also known as pantuvarali), which is the 51st in the melakarta scale.

The gamakas in the raga are unique in that conversely to the G-M relationship in Sankarabharanam, G is sung in oscillation (M,G M,G M,G) while M is held constant. There is no bold M-P gamaka as in Sankarabharanam as well. R and D are also usually sung in oscillation with S and P respectively, making the only constant notes S, M, and P. Of course, these rules are occasionally broken for effect (i.e. holding N flat before ascending to S).

Nature of Raga[edit]

This auspicious raga evokes śānta (peace) rasa and pathos. It creates a soothing effect. Suitable to sing at all times, particularly, the first prātaḥ-sandhyā-kālaṃ (dawn). It is commonly used for beginners lessons such as Sarali Varisais or Sarala Svarās (Kannada), etc. Since it eschews vivadi swaras (relatively discordant notes), has a uniform distance between svara sthānas (relative position of notes) and has symmetry, they are easier to learn. It is an ancient rāgam and has been around for a long time.

It is a Sampurna raga. Also, it is a sarva svara gamaka vārika rakti rāga. It has a large number of janya ragas (derived scales) assigned to it. This rāgam corresponds to Bhairav in Hindustani music. It is called as a "rakti" raga because of its high melodic content.

It is also defined as a mūrcana kāraka méLa since it can be used for Graha bhedam on madhyamam and rishabham to result in Simhendramadhyamam and Rasikapriya respectively. Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the Shruti (or drone) to another note in the rāgam. For further details and an illustration refer Graha bhedam on Māyamālavagowla.

Janya ragams[edit]

Mayamalavagowla has quite a few janya ragams associated with it, of which Bowli, Jaganmohini, Gowla, Gowlipantu, Janaranjini, Lalita, Nadanamakriya, Revagupti, Saveri and Malahari are quite well known. See List of janya Ragas for a full list of janyas.

Popular compositions[edit]

All the basic swara exercises (Sarali, Janta, Daattu, etc.) are set to the Mayamalavagowla raga. These are learnt by beginners in Carnatic Music. It is commonly used in the basics, credited to Purandara Dasa's work in his time, when he did much work towards standardizing the teaching of Carnatic Music into a fully graded system. Lambodara lakumikara by Purandaradasa is generally used for this raga. The first mini-songs (geetam) that are taught after the completion of basic exercises, are set to Malahari, a janya of Mayamalavagowla. Muthuswami Dikshitar's famous gouḻānta kritis (eight compositions with their raga names ending as gowla), on Goddess Nilothpalamba has māyāmāḻavagouḻa for one of them.

Some of the popular compositions in Mayamalavagowla are, Deva Deva composed by Swathi Thirunal and Adikkondar by Muthu Thandavar. A list of popular compositions in Mayamalalavagowla is as follows

  • Varṇaṃ- śrī rājarājēśvari - [Unknown Composer]
  • tulasī daḻamulacē saṃtōṣamuga - Tyagaraja in Telugu
  • Mēru-samāna-dhira - Tyagaraja in Telugu
  • Dēvī Śrī tulasammā - Tyagaraja in Telugu
  • Vidulaku Mrokkeda - Tyagaraja in Telugu
  • Dēva Dēva Kalayāmi - Swathi Thirunal
  • Kailāsa nilaya dayāsāgara - Mahesh Mahadev in Sanskrit
  • Māyātīta Svarūpiṇi - Ponnaiyya Pillai (Direct Disciple of Muthuswami Dikshitar) in Sanskrit
  • Śrīnāthādi Guruguho jayati - Muthuswami Dikshitar (The very first composition of Muthuswami Dikshitar) in Sanskrit
  • Śyāmalāmbikē pāhi māṃ - Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna
  • ādityaṃ dēvādi-dēvaṃ akhilāṇḍa-nāthaṃ āśrayē - Muthiah Bhagavatar
  • Dina-maṇi-vaṃśa dīna-janāvana - Muthiah Bhagavatar
  • Hara mṛtyuñjaya ambikā-nāyaka hari kamalāsana - Muthiah Bhagavatar
  • Popular Adithala Varnam- Sarasija-nābha - Swathi Thirunal
  • Ambā yuvati jaganmātē akhila-janani dayānidhē - Ashok R Madhav
  • Avadh sukhdāyi bājē badhāyī ratan simhāsan par - Swathi Thirunal
  • Bhaja rē mānasa vraja-bālaṃ - Swarajāti - H Yoganarasimhan
  • Caraṇaṃ śaraṇaṃ ayyappā - Ganapati Sacchidananda
  • Cintayāmi santataṃ - G Sampath
  • Cintaye'haṃ jānaki-kāntaṃ santataṃ cintitārtha - Mysore Vasudevacharya
  • Daśaratha-nandana - Mysore Vasudevacharya
  • Dēva-dēveśa - R K Suryanarayana
  • Dēva-dēvōttama - Govindacharya
  • Dēvi kāmākṣi para-śiva-dēhārtha - Ogirala Viraraghava Sharma
  • Durgā lakṣmi sarasvati - Lalita Venkataraman
  • Kāmākṣīṃ kamalākṣīṃ - R K Padmanabha
  • Jaya jagadisha hare - from eulogy composed by Jayadeva
  • Krpakari shankari karunakari kapalishvari - Rukmini Ramani
  • Mantra svarupam - Bangalore S Mukund
  • Kshira jaladhi niketana - Pallavur Mani Iyer
  • Kshira sagara shayana raksha shara nivasini - Jayachamaraja wodeyar
  • Maya mohini maheshvari - Mangalam Ganapati
  • Kaladevathe Saraswathi - V. Dakshinamoorthy

This raga has also been very popularly used in film music. Numerous well recognized songs have been set in this raga. Ilayaraja has composed many hit songs in this raga.[2]

Telugu Film Songs[edit]

Song Movie Year Author Composer Singer
Yamaho Nee Yama Yama Jagadeka Veerudu Athiloka Sundari 1990 Veturi Sundararama Murthy Ilaiyaraaja S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Chamaku Chamaku Cham Kondaveeti Donga 1990 Veturi Sundararama Murthy Ilaiyaraaja S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Nandikoda Vaagullona Geethanjali 1989 Veturi Sundararama Murthy Ilaiyaraaja S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra
Maa Paapaalu Tholaginchu Shri Shirdi Saibaba Mahatyam Aatreya Ilaiyaraaja K. J. Yesudas
Abba Dani Soku Vamsanikokkadu 1996 Bhuvana Chandra Raj-Koti S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K. S. Chithra


Tamil Film Songs[edit]

Song Movie Year Lyricist Composer Singer
Pannedum Naalaai Sakuntalai 1940 Papanasam Sivan Thuraiyur Rajagopala Sarma M. S. Subbulakshmi
Azhagaana Ponnu Naan Alibabavum 40 Thirudargalum 1956 A. Maruthakasi Susarla Dakshinamurthi Bhanumathi Ramakrishna
Kalellam Maanika Kalaguma Aalayamani 1962 Kannadasan M.S.Viswanathan T. M. Soundararajan
Solladi Abirami Aathi Parasakthi 1971 K. V. Mahadevan
Manjal Nilavuku Muthal Iravu Ilaiyaraaja P. Jayachandran, P. Susheela
Anthapuratthil Oru Dheepam 1977 Pulamaipithan T. M. Soundararajan, S Janaki
Ullukulla Chakaravarthy Panakkaran 1990 Ilaiyaraaja
En Thaayenum Koi Aranmanai Kili 1993 Ponnadiyaan
Uyire Uyire Oruvar Vaazhum Aalayam 1988 K.J. Yesudas, S Janaki
Enna Senjalum Azhagar Malai 2009 Tippu
Poongathavae Nizhalgal 1980 Gangai Amaran Deepan Chakravarthy, Uma Ramanan
Madhura Marikolunthu Enga Ooru Pattukaran 1987 Mano, Chitra
Mariyamma Karakattakkaran 1989 Malaysia Vasudevan, Chitra
Kottukali Chinnavar 1992 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Chitra
Poove Eduthu Amman Kovil Kizhakale 1986 P. Jayachandran, S. Janaki
Anthi Varum Neram Mundhanai Mudichu 1983 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Vaanam Idi Idikka Unna Nenachen Pattu Padichen 1992 Piraisoodan
Kadhal Maharani Kadhal Parisu 1987 Muthulingam
Sivakami Ninaipilae Kilipetchu Ketkava 1993 Vaali
Kuyila Pudichu Chinna Thambi 1991 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Raama Naamam Sri Raghavendrar 1985 K.J. Yesudas
Aaradi Chuvaru Thaan Idhu Namma Bhoomi 1992 K.J. Yesudas, Swarnalatha
Kottaiya Vittu Chinna Thayee 1992 Uma Ramanan, S. Janaki (Pathos), S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Masaru Ponnae Varuga Thevar Magan 1992 Minmini, Swarnalatha
Allah Un Anaipadi Chandralekha 1995 P. Unnikrishnan, Preethi Uttamsingh
Nandri Sollave unaku Udan Pirappu 1993 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Swarnalatha
Kadhal Kavithaigal Gopura Vasalile 1991 S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Chitra
Mookuthi Poo Melae Mouna Geethangal 1981 Gangai Amaran K. J. Yesudas, S. Janaki
Sollayo Solaikilli Alli Arjuna 2002 Vairamuthu AR Rahman S.P.Balasubramanyam, Swarnalatha
Kadhal Kavithai Paada Ganam Courtar Avargale 1988 Devendran S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K.S. Chitra
Vizhigalil Kodi Abinayam Kan Simittum Neram 1988 Kalaivanan Kannadasan V. S. Narasimman
Ilam Thendralo Vasantha Malargal Deva
Manasum Manasum Kalanthathadi Puthu vayal Aravindh Mano, Poornima Vijayan
Van Vanthu Engal Thaikulame Varuga Chandrabose K. J. Yesudas, S. Janaki
Therkupurama Oru Vasal Pasakanal S. A. Rajkumar K. J. Yesudas, K. S. Chitra
Vanna Kaviyam Pesuvathu Kiliya Shankar-Ganesh P. Jayachandran
Kadavul Vazhum Oru Thalai Ragam 1980 T. Rajendar
Unakena Unakena Vinnukum Mannukum 2001 P. Vijay Sirpi S. P. Balasubramanyam, Sujatha
Manasu Rendum Kaadhal Kondein 2003 Palani Bharathi Yuvan Shankar Raja Shankar Mahadevan

Malayalam Film Songs[edit]

Song Movie Year Author Composer Singer
Raajamathangi Parvathy Bharatham 1991 Kaithapram Damodaran Namboothiri Raveendran M. Balamuralikrishna, K. J. Yesudas, K. S. Chithra
Pavanarachezhuthunna Vietnam Colony 1992 Bichu Thirumala S. Balakrishnan Minmini
Oru Chiri Kandal Ponmudipuzhayorathu 2005 Gireesh Puthenchery Ilaiyaraaja Manjari
Agaathamam Aazhi Vithumbi Jalachhayam 2010 Sidharthan Puranattukara Unnikumar Baburaj Puthur

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S  G M P  N 
    • Western: C D E F G A B C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:  N  P M G  S
    • Western: C B A G F E D C

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  2. ^ "Learning about Indian Music : Raga Mayamalavagowla: Part-1". aboutindianmusic.blogspot.com. 15 October 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2020.