Coordinates: 44°36′N 40°05′E / 44.600°N 40.083°E / 44.600; 40.083
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Other transcription(s)
 • AdygheМыекъуапэ
 • UbykhГъакъыва
View of the Friendship Square and the Maykop Mosque
View of the Friendship Square and the Maykop Mosque
Flag of Maykop
Coat of arms of Maykop
Location of Maykop
Maykop is located in Republic of Adygea
Location of Maykop
Maykop is located in European Russia
Maykop (European Russia)
Maykop is located in Caucasus mountains
Maykop (Caucasus mountains)
Maykop is located in Black Sea
Maykop (Black Sea)
Coordinates: 44°36′N 40°05′E / 44.600°N 40.083°E / 44.600; 40.083
Federal subjectAdygea[1]
FoundedMay 1857
City status since1870
 • BodyCouncil of People's Deputies
 • HeadNikolay Pivovarov
 • Total58.62 km2 (22.63 sq mi)
220 m (720 ft)
 • Total144,249
 • Estimate 
141,970 (−1.6%)
 • Rank120th in 2010
 • Density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toMaykop Republican Urban Okrug[1]
 • Capital ofRepublic of Adygea
 • Capital ofMaykop Republican Urban Okrug[1]
 • Urban okrugMaykop Urban Okrug[5]
 • Capital ofMaykop Urban Okrug[5]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
Dialing code(s)+7 8772
OKTMO ID79701000001
City DayFirst Saturday of June

Maykop[a] is the capital city of Adygea, Russia, located on the right bank of the Belaya River (a tributary of the Kuban). It borders Maykopsky District, from which it is administratively and municipally separate, to the east and south; Giaginsky District to the north, and Belorechensky District of Krasnodar Krai to the west.

Population: 143,385 (2021 Census);[8] 144,249 (2010 Census);[3] 156,931 (2002 Census);[9] 148,608 (1989 Census).[10]


The city gave its name to the early Bronze Age Maykop culture after the discovery of a royal burial site there in 1897.[11]

Following the establishment of a military camp in 1825,[12] the Imperial Russian Army built a military fort at Maykop in 1857.[13]

In 1910 oil deposits were discovered in the vicinity of Maykop.[14] The city was the administrative center of the Maykopsky Otdel of the Kuban Oblast.

In 1936, Maykop and the surrounding region merged with Adyghe Autonomous Oblast and became the administrative centre of the autonomy. The Wehrmacht occupied Maykop on 10 August 1942 without a fight as a result of a Brandenburger commando operation. German attempts to re-start oil production in the scorched-earth area proved only minimally successful. On 29 January 1943, the Transcaucasian Front of the Red Army re-took the town.[15]

Since 1991 Maykop has served as the capital of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation.


Brewery (cultural heritage)

The discovery of extensive underground oil reserves has made Maykop a major centre for oil extraction for the Soviet Union and, subsequently, Russia. Other economically important sectors are food processing and the timber industry.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with eight rural localities, incorporated as Maykop Republican Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] It has the following rural localities under its jurisdiction:[16]

As a municipal division, Maykop Republican Urban Okrug is incorporated as Maykop Urban Okrug.[5]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Grand Mosque of Maykop
Holy Trinity Orthodox cathedral

Ethnic groups of Maykop (2010)[17]

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Russians 96,119 71.29%
Circassians[b] 26,584 19.71%
Armenians 4,085 3.03%
Ukrainians 2,537 1.88%
Tatars 895 0.66%
Belarusians 530 0.39%
Chechens 448 0.33%
Azerbaijanis 339 0.25%
Caucasus Greeks 312 0.23%
Georgians 241 0.18%
Germans 235 0.17%
Romani 201 0.15%
Ingush 155 0.11%
Ossetians 152 0.11%
Abkhaz 136 0.10%
Uzbeks 102 0.08%
Others 1,757 1.30%

There are ethnic tensions between the Muslim Adyghe and the Russians—with the two communities described as being "sharply divided".[18]


Maykop female grammar school

Maykop is home to the Adyghe State University and Maykop State Technological University. There are also several facilities of professional education in Maykop. There are a lot of schools. For example Adyghe Republican Gymnasium which is located near the mosque, the theatre and the park of friendship. It has 11 grades. There are a lot of rules: students must wear a uniform, girls must have pony tails or braids. The school has five buildings. There is a sports hall where students play basketball and volleyball. There is also a football pitch where boys play football. A canteen is a separate building.


Maykop Railway station

Maykop lies within the humid subtropical climate zone (Cfa), according to the Köppen climate classification, or just within the humid continental climate (Dfa) zone according to the 32 °F or 0 °C demarcation used by many United States climatologists.

Climate data for Maykop
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.9
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5
Average low °C (°F) −4.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 60
Average precipitation days 8 7 8 8 8 9 7 6 7 7 9 10 94

February 15, 2010 saw Maykop record the absolute maximum for any winter month in Russia: 23.4 °C or 74.1 °F.[citation needed]


On the south side of the city, alongside the Belaya River is the military complex housing the 131st Motor Rifle Brigade of the Southern Military District of the Russian Armed Forces which took part in the First Chechen War.

Notable people[edit]


  1. ^ Russian: Майкоп, IPA: [mɐj'kop]; Adyghe: Мыекъуапэ, romanized: Myiequape, IPA: [məjɜqʷaːpɜ]
  2. ^ Including 1,812 Cherkess and 246 Kabardians


  1. ^ a b c d Law #171
  2. ^ Администрация муниципального образования «Город Майкоп» (официальный сайт). Archived September 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Общие сведения о Майкопе.
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c Law #171 stipulates that the borders of the republican urban okrugs are identical to those of the municipal urban okrugs.
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 [2020 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1] (XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Ivanova, Mariya (2007). "The Chronology of the "Maikop Culture" in the North Caucasus: Changing Perspectives". Armenian Journal of Near Eastern Studies. II: 7–39.
  12. ^ Potto, Vasiliy Aleksandrovich (1887). Кавказская война въ отдѣльныхъ очеркахъ, эпизодахъ, легендахъ и біографіяхъ: Томъ 2-й: Ермоловское время (in Russian) (2 ed.). Saint Petersburg: Е. Евдокимов. pp. 527–528. Retrieved September 11, 2019. 23 июня [1825 года] отряд расположился лагерем на реке Сагауше (Белой), против горы Таглек, там, где теперь стоит город Майкоп…
  13. ^ James B. Minahan (May 30, 2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World A-Z. ABC-CLIO. p. 38. ISBN 9780313076961.
  14. ^ Garvin, James Louis, ed. (1926). "Petroleum". The Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (13 ed.). The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, ltd. Retrieved September 11, 2019. The Maikop field in the province of Kuban on the north flank of the Caucasus, northeast of the Black Sea, was discovered in 1910.
  15. ^ Освобождение городов
  16. ^ Law #223
  17. ^ Irina BABICH (2004). "THE REPUBLIC OF ADIGEY: ISLAM AND SOCIETY AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY". Central Asia and the Caucasus. 6 (30): 55.
  18. ^ Klimenko, Oxana; Bowers, Stephen R.; and Solovyeva, Lena, "North Caucasus Baseline Project: Adygea" (2009). Faculty Publications and Presentations. Paper 18. Page 3.
  19. ^ "". Archived from the original on October 25, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2012.


  • Государственный Совет — Хасэ Республики Адыгея. Закон №171 от 5 мая 2000 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Адыгея», в ред. Закона №97 от 6 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Законы Республики Адыгея в связи с принятием Закона Республики Адыгея "Об отнесении посёлка городского типа Тульского к категории посёлков — сельских населённых пунктов"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Советская Адыгея", №156-157, 7 августа 2004 г. (State Assembly of the Republic of Adygea. Law #171 of May 5, 2000 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Adygea, as amended by the Law #97 of June 6, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of the Republic of Adygea Due to the Adoption of the Law of the Republic of Adygea "On Transformation of the Urban-Type Settlement of Tulsky into a Settlement—a Rural Locality. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Совет Республики Адыгея. Закон №223 от 24 мая 2004 г. «О муниципальном образовании "город Майкоп", наделении его статусом городского округа и установлении его границ», в ред. Закона №347 от 27 ноября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Адыгея "О муниципальном образовании "город Майкоп", наделении его статусом городского округа и установлении его границ"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Советская Адыгея", №102–103, 27 мая 2004 г. (Council of the Republic of Adygea. Law #223 of May 24, 2004 On the Municipal Formation "the City of Maykop", Granting It the Status of an Urban Okrug, and on the Establishment of Its Borders, as amended by the Law #347 of November 27, 2014 On Amending the Law of the Republic of Adygea "On the Municipal Formation "the City of Maykop", Granting It the Status of an Urban Okrug, and on the Establishment of Its Borders". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).