Mayor of Chicago

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Mayor of Chicago
Seal of Chicago, Illinois.svg
Seal of the City of Chicago
Lori Ligfhtfoot at signing of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (FEQycLjWYAITszv).jpg
Lori Lightfoot

since May 20, 2019
  • Her Honor
  • The Honorable
Term length4 years
Inaugural holderWilliam Butler Ogden
SuccessionVice mayor of Chicago
WebsiteOffice of the Mayor

The mayor of Chicago is the chief executive of city government in Chicago, Illinois, the third-largest city in the United States. The mayor is responsible for the administration and management of various city departments, submits proposals and recommendations to the Chicago City Council, is active in the enforcement of the city's ordinances, submits the city's annual budget and appoints city officers, department commissioners or directors, and members of city boards and commissions.

During sessions of the city council, the mayor serves as the presiding officer. The mayor is not allowed to vote on issues except in certain instances, most notably where the vote taken on a matter before the body results in a tie.

The office of mayor was created when Chicago became a city in 1837.


William B. Ogden was the first mayor of Chicago.
Secretary of State John Kerry leaving "The Fifth Floor" office of the mayor (2016)

The first mayor was William Butler Ogden (1837–1838). Forty-five men and two women (Jane Byrne, 1979–1983, Lori Lightfoot, 2019–), have held the office. Two sets of father and son have been elected Mayor of Chicago: Carter Harrison, Sr. (1893) and Carter Harrison, Jr. (1897–1905, 1911–1915), as well as Richard J. Daley (1955–1976) and Richard M. Daley (1989–2011). Carter Harrison, Jr. was the first mayor to have been born in the city.

As an interim mayor, David Duvall Orr had the shortest mayoral term. Richard M. Daley was elected six times becoming Chicago's longest-serving mayor, surpassing his father's record.[1]

The first Irish Catholic mayor was John Patrick Hopkins (1893–1895), and Rahm Emanuel (2011–2019) is the only Jewish American to have served as mayor.

Harold Washington (1983–1987) was the first African American mayor. Current Mayor Lightfoot (sworn in May 2019) is the city's first African American woman and first LGBT mayor.

Appointment powers[edit]

The mayor appoints the commissioner of the Chicago Fire Department, the superintendent of the Chicago Police Department and the heads of other departments,[2] the largest of which are the Water Management Department (formed by the consolidation of the former Water Department and Sewer Department under Richard M. Daley), and the Streets & Sanitation Department. The mayor also appoints members to the boards of several special-purpose governmental bodies including City Colleges of Chicago, Chicago Park District, Chicago Public Library, Chicago Housing Authority, Chicago Transit Authority, and the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority. Under Richard M. Daley, the Illinois legislature granted the mayor power to appoint the governing board and chief executive officer of the Chicago Public Schools and subordinated the district to the mayor; the district had long been an independent unit of government.

The Chicago City Clerk and City Treasurer of Chicago are elected separately, as are the 50 aldermen who form the city council. The mayor is empowered, however, to fill vacancies in any of these 52 elected offices by appointment. In turn, the city council elects one of its own to fill a mayoral vacancy.

By charter, Chicago has a "weak-mayor" system, in which most of the power is vested in the city council. In practice, however, the mayor of Chicago has long been one of the most powerful municipal chief executives in the nation. Unlike in most other weak-mayor systems, the mayor has the power to draw up the budget. For most of the 20th century, before the decline of patronage and the mayor's office becoming officially nonpartisan in 1999, the mayor was the de facto leader of the city's Democratic Party, and had great influence over the ward organizations.[3] Located in City Hall, "the fifth floor" is sometimes used as a metonym for the office and power of the mayor.[4]

Election and succession[edit]

The mayor of Chicago is elected by popular vote every four years, on the last Tuesday in February. A run-off election, in case no candidate garners more than fifty percent of the vote, is held on the first Tuesday in April. The election is held on a non-partisan basis. Chicago is the largest city in the United States not to limit the term of service for its mayor.

In accordance with Illinois law,[5][6] the city council elects a vice mayor who serves as interim mayor in the event of a vacancy in the office of the mayor or the inability of the mayor to serve due to illness or injury, until the city council elects one of its members acting mayor or until the mayoral term expires.[6] As of May 2019, the current vice mayor is Tom Tunney.[7] However, if a vacancy occurs in the office of mayor with more than 28 months remaining in the mayoral term and at least 130 days before the next general municipal election, then a special election must be held to choose a new mayor to serve out the remainder of the term at that general municipal election; if a vacancy occurs with fewer than 28 months remaining in the mayoral term or fewer than 130 days before the next general municipal election, then the acting mayor serves as mayor until the mayoral term expires.

The order-of succession involving the vice mayor was made concrete following disputes that arose in the aftermath of the death in office of Richard J. Daley, and was subsequently implemented following the death in office of Harold Washington, which saw Vice Mayor David Orr become acting mayor.[8] Prior to this, the city had vague succession laws which indicated that the president pro tempore of the City Council would succeed as mayor. This was not followed after the death of Daley, and the city council appointed Michael Bilandic acting mayor instead of having pro tempore Wilson Frost become mayor,[9] due to City Corporation Counsel William R. Quinlan ruling that, since the city did not have a statute specifically outlining succession, the City Council would need to elect the interim mayor.[10]

Six instances have seen the City Council appoint either an acting mayor, acting mayor pro tempore, or interim mayor.

In the absence of the mayor during meetings of the city council, the president pro tempore of the city council, who is a member of and elected by the city council, acts as presiding officer. Unlike the mayor, the president pro tempore can vote on all legislative matters. If neither the mayor nor pro tempore can preside, the vice mayor presides.[11]

List of mayors[edit]

Joseph Medill (#26) was the first foreign-born mayor.
John Patrick Hopkins (#35) was the youngest and the first Catholic mayor.
William Hale Thompson (#41) was the last Republican mayor of Chicago.
Jane Byrne (#50) was the first female mayor.
Harold Washington (#51) was the first African American mayor.
Richard M. Daley (#54) was the longest-serving mayor (22 years).
Lori Lightfoot (#56) is the first African American woman, and first LGBT mayor of Chicago.

Between 1833 and 1837, Chicago was incorporated as a town and headed by town presidents. Since 1837, it has been incorporated as a city and headed by mayors.

The mayoral term in Chicago was one year from 1837 through 1863, when it was changed to two years. In 1907, it was changed again, this time to four years. Until 1861, municipal elections were held in March. In that year, legislation moved them to April. In 1869, however, election day was changed to November, and terms expiring in April of that year were changed. In 1875, election day was moved back to April by the city's vote to operate under the Cities and Villages Act of 1872.

#No.[12] Image Name Term start Term end Terms Years   Party
Town presidents
1 Thomas Jefferson Vance Owen August 12, 1833 1834 1 1 None
John H Kinzie c1850s.png
John H. Kinzie 1834 March 4, 1837 3 3 Whig
William B Ogden by GPA Healy, 1855.jpg
William B. Ogden 1837 1838 1 1 Democratic
Buckner Morris (1).jpg
Buckner S. Morris 1838 1839 1 1 Whig
Benjamin W. Raymond 1839 1840 1 1 Whig
Alexander Loyd 1840 1841 1 1 Democratic
Francis C. Sherman 1841 1842 1 1 Democratic
Benjamin W. Raymond 1842 1843 1 1 Whig
Augustus Garrett 1843 1844 1 1 Democratic
Alson Sherman 1844 1845 1 1 Independent Democratic
Augustus Garrett 1845 1846 1 1 Democratic
John P. Chapin 1846 1847 1 1 Whig
James Curtiss 1847 1848 1 1 Democratic
James H. Woodworth 1848 1850 2 2 Independent Democratic
James Curtiss 1850 1851 1 1 Democratic
WalterSGurneeSenorAnderson (a).png
Walter S. Gurnee 1851 1853 2 2 Democratic
Charles McNeill Gray 1853 1854 1 1 Democratic
Isaac-milliken (1).jpg
Isaac L. Milliken 1854 1855 1 1 Democratic
Levi Boone 1855 1856 1 1 American
(Know Nothing)
Thomas-dyer (1).jpg
Thomas Dyer 1856 1857 1 1 Democratic
John Wentworth of Chicago.jpeg
John Wentworth 1857 1858 1 1 Republican
John C. Haines 1858 1860 2 2 Democratic
John Wentworth of Chicago.jpeg
John Wentworth 1860 1861 1 1 Republican
Julian S. Rumsey 1861 1862 1 1 Republican
Francis C. Sherman 1862 1865 2 2 Democratic
John B. Rice 1865 1869 2 4 Republican
Roswell B. Mason 1869 1871 1 2 Citizens
Joseph Medill.jpg
Joseph Medill 1871 1873 1 2 Republican (Dry)
Lester Legrand Bond.jpg
Lester L. Bond
1873 1873 14 12 Republican
Harvey Doolittle Colvin 1873 1875 1 2 Republican (Wet)
Monroe Heath.jpg
Monroe Heath 1876 1879 2 4 Republican
Carter Harrison, Sr. - Brady-Handy.jpg
Carter Harrison Sr. 1879 1887 4 8 Democratic
John Roche.jpg
John A. Roche 1887 1889 1 2 Republican
DeWitt Cregier.jpg
DeWitt C. Cregier 1889 1891 1 2 Democratic
Hempstead Washburne.jpg
Hempstead Washburne 1891 1893 1 2 Republican
Carter Harrison, Sr. - Brady-Handy.jpg
Carter Harrison Sr. 1893 1893 14 12 Democratic
George Bell Swift, Mayor of Chicago.jpg
George Bell Swift
(interim mayor)
1893 1893 112 16 Republican
John Patrick Hopkins.jpg
John P. Hopkins 1893 1895 23 113 Democratic
George Bell Swift, Mayor of Chicago.jpg
George Bell Swift 1895 1897 1 2 Republican
Carter Henry Harrison cph.3c23214.jpg
Carter Harrison Jr. 1897 1905 4 8 Democratic
Portrait of Edward Fitzsimmons Dunne.jpg
Edward F. Dunne 1905 1907 1 2 Democratic
Fred A. Busse 1907 1911 1 4 Republican
Carter Henry Harrison cph.3c23214.jpg
Carter Harrison Jr. 1911 1915 1 4 Democratic
William Hale Thompson head shot.tif
William H. Thompson 1915 1923 2 8 Republican
William Emmett Dever 1923.jpg
William E. Dever 1923 1927 1 4 Democratic
William Hale Thompson head shot.tif
William H. Thompson 1927 1931 1 4 Republican
Anton Cermak cph.3b27410.jpg
Anton Cermak 1931 1933 12 2 Democratic
Frank J. Corr (Chicago Mayor).jpg
Frank J. Corr
(acting mayor)
1933 1933 241461 24365 Democratic
Edward J. Kelly 1933 1947 3 12 14 Democratic
Martin H. Kennelly (72-599).jpg
Martin H. Kennelly 1947 1955 2 8 Democratic
Richard J. Daley in 1962.jpg
Richard J. Daley 1955 1976 5 38 21 Democratic
49 Michael A. Bilandic 1976 1979 58 2 13 Democratic
JaneByrne1985 (a).jpg
Jane Byrne 1979 1983 1 4 Democratic
Washington h.jpg
Harold Washington 1983 1987 1 18 4 712 Democratic
David Orr on Live from the Heartland July 23 2012 (1).png
David Orr
(acting mayor)[13]
1987 1987 71461 7365 Democratic
Eugene Sawyer (2041465864 2bc2900d9a m).jpg
Eugene Sawyer 1987 1989 1748 1 12 Democratic
RMDaleyCropped (a).png
Richard M. Daley 1989 2011 5 12 22 Democratic1
Rahm Emanuel, official photo portrait color.jpg
Rahm Emanuel 2011 2019 2 8 Democratic1
Lori Lightfoot and Ivanka Trump D5 p2fKXoAArRkZ (cropped).jpg
Lori Lightfoot 2019 1 Democratic1

Died/murdered in office.
1 Since 1999, mayoral elections have officially been nonpartisan. A 1995 Illinois law stipulated that "candidates for mayor ... no longer would run under party labels in Chicago". However, Richard M. Daley, Rahm Emanuel and Lori Lightfoot are known to be Democrats.[14]

Living former mayors[edit]

As of 2018, three former mayors of Chicago are still living, the oldest of whom is Richard M. Daley.[15] The most recent former mayor to die was Jane Byrne (1979–1983), on November 14, 2014.

Name Mayoral term Date of birth
David Orr November 1987 – December 1987 (1944-10-04) October 4, 1944 (age 78)
Richard M. Daley 1989–2011 (1942-04-24) April 24, 1942 (age 80)
Rahm Emanuel 2011–2019 (1959-11-29) November 29, 1959 (age 63)

Vice mayor[edit]

Vice mayor of Chicago
Seal of Chicago, Illinois.png
Seal of the City of Chicago
Tom Tunney (143407).jpg
Tom Tunney

since May 20, 2019
Inaugural holderCasimir Laskowski

In accordance with Illinois law, the city council elects a vice mayor who serves as interim mayor in the event of a vacancy in the office of the mayor or the inability of the mayor to serve due to illness or injury, until the city council elects one of its members acting mayor or until the mayoral term expires. The current vice mayor is Tom Tunney.[7]

The position was created by state law after the power struggle following Richard J. Daley's death in office.[9][16][17]

The position is considered to be largely ceremonial.[18][19][20]

If neither the mayor nor president pro tempore can preside over a City Council meeting, then the vice mayor presides.[11]

List of vice mayors[edit]

Vice-Mayor Tenure Mayor(s) serve under Notes Citations
Casey Laskowski 1976–1979 Michael Bilandic Inaugural holder of office [21][22]
Richard Mell 1979–1987 Jane Byrne
Harold Washington
David Orr 1987–1988 Harold Washington
Eugene Sawyer
Served as "Acting Mayor" for 1 week [8][24][25]
Terry Gabinski 1988–1998 Eugene Sawyer
Richard M. Daley
Bernard Stone 1998–2011 Richard M. Daley [25][27][28]
Ray Suarez 2011–2015 Rahm Emanuel [18][19]
Brendan Reilly 2015–2019 Rahm Emanuel [29][30]
Tom Tunney 2019–present Lori Lightfoot [7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Daley now Chicago mayor 1 day longer than father" Archived 2011-01-01 at the Wayback Machine Associated Press December 26, 2010
  2. ^ Pratt, Gregory (May 22, 2018). "Chicago Mayor Lori Lightfoot announces key hires for her new administration, some Rahm Emanuel appointees will stay". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 22, 2019 – via MSN.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ "Government, City of Chicago". Archived from the original on August 15, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  4. ^ Shepard, Steven. "Black women make history in Chicago mayoral election". Politico. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  5. ^ "65 ILCS 20/21-5.1". Government of Illinois. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  6. ^ a b "About City Government & the Chicago City Council". City Clerk of Chicago. September 21, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  7. ^ a b c Spielman, Fran (May 17, 2019). "Lightfoot shakes up the City Council". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  8. ^ a b Pratt, Gregory (May 7, 2018). "Wilson Frost remembered: 'He should've been Chicago's first black mayor'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  9. ^ a b King, Seth S. (December 29, 1976). "Bilandic, Lawyer and Daley Friend, Named Acting Mayor of Chicago". The New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  10. ^ Harold, the People's Mayor: The Biography of Harold Washington by Dempsey Travis, Agate Publishing, Dec 12, 2017
  11. ^ a b Krebs, Timothy B. "MONEY AND MACHINE POLITICS An Analysis of Corporate and Labor Contributions in Chicago City Council Elections" (PDF). Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  12. ^ "Chicago Mayors | Chicago Public Library". Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  13. ^ "Chicago Mayors, 1837-2007". Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  14. ^ Hardy, Thomas (July 7, 1995). "Gov. Edgar To End City Partisan Votes". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on October 7, 2012. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
  15. ^ "Chicago Mayors". Chicago Public Library. Archived from the original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  16. ^ a b "Another City Council Stealth Budget – ChicagoTalks". Chicago Talks. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  17. ^ "65 ILCS 20/21-5.1". Illinois General Assembly. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  18. ^ a b Spielman, Fran (May 20, 2015). "City Council shuffle rewards Emanuel allies". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 7, 2015.
  19. ^ a b Dumke, Mick (May 18, 2011). "The first meeting of the new mayor and City Council is nothing if not efficient". Chicago Reader. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  20. ^ Dumke, Mick (January 5, 2006). "A Million Here, a Million There . . ". Chicago Reader. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  21. ^ "CASIMIR LASKOWSKI, 84". Chicago Tribune. August 18, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  22. ^ Colby, Peter W.; Peter W. Colby and Paul Michael Green, Paul Michael (February 1979). "The vote power of Chicago Democrats from Cermak to Bilandic The consolidation of clout". Illinois Issues: 20. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  23. ^ "Chicago City Council: Richard Mell". NBC Chicago. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  24. ^ a b Dold, R. Bruce (May 26, 1988). "COUNCIL REPLACES ORR AS VICE MAYOR". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  25. ^ a b Simpson, Dick (2018). Rogues, Rebels, And Rubber Stamps: The Politics Of The Chicago City Council, 1863 To The Present. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-97719-0. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  26. ^ Tribune, Chicago (May 5, 1988). "GABINSKI'S TOP AIDE LIKELY TO SUCCEED HIM". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  27. ^ "Chicago's Vice Mayor". Chicago Tonight. WTTW. April 10, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  28. ^ Geiger, Kim; Washburn, Gay (December 22, 2014). "Former Chicago Alderman Bernie Stone dead at 87". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  29. ^ Sullivan, Emmet. "What Would Actually Happen if Rahm Resigns". Chicago Magazine. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  30. ^ Pratt, John Byrne, Juan Perez Jr , Gregory. "Chicago Mayor Lori Lightfoot aces first test of her power: City Council overhaul approved". Retrieved May 29, 2019.

Further reading[edit]

  • Banfield, Edward C. Political Influence (1961), covers major public issues 1957 to 1958 in Chicago
  • Becker, Richard Edward. "Edward Dunn, Reform Mayor Of Chicago: 1905-1907" (PhD dissertation, The University of Chicago; ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 1971.T-22350).
  • Bennett, Larry. “The Mayor among His Peers: Interpreting Richard M. Daley.” in The City, Revisited: Urban Theory from Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York, ed. by Dennis R. Judd and Dick Simpson, (2011), pp. 242–72. online
  • Biles, Roger. Mayor Harold Washington: Champion of Race and Reform in Chicago (U of Illinois Press, 2018). online
  • Biles, Roger. Big City Boss in Depression and War: Mayor Edward J. Kelly of Chicago (1984).
    • Biles, William Roger. "Mayor Edward J. Kelly Of Chicago: Big City Boss in Depression and War" (Phd Dissertation, University Of Illinois at Chicago. Proquest Dissertations Publishing, 1981 .8120559).
  • Bradley, Donald S., and Mayer N. Zald. "From commercial elite to political administrator: The recruitment of the mayors of Chicago." American Journal of Sociology 71.2 (1965): 153-167. online
  • Bradley, Donald S. The historical trends of the political elites and metropolitan Central City: the Chicago mayors (1963)
  • Bukowski, Douglas. Big Bill Thompson, Chicago, and the Politics of Image (1998)
  • Bukowski, Douglas. "William Dever and Prohibition: The mayoral election of 1923 and 1927" Chicago History 7#2 (1978) pp. 109-118
  • Byrne, Jane. My Chicago (Northwestern University Press, 2004), a primary source.
  • Carl, Jim. " '‘Good Politics Is Good Government': The Troubling History of Mayoral Control of the Public Schools in Twentieth‐Century Chicago." American Journal of Education 115#2, 2009, pp. 305–36. online
  • Cohen, Adam, and Elizabeth Taylor. American pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley, his battle for Chicago and the nation (2001). online review; also see excerpt
  • Fehrenbacher, Don E. “Lincoln and the Mayor of Chicago.” Wisconsin Magazine of History 40#4 (1957), pp. 237–44. online, on Long John Wentworth
  • Gottfried, Alex. Boss Cermak of Chicago: A Study of Political Leadership (U of Washington Press, 1962).
  • Green, Paul M., and Holli, Melvin G. The Mayors: The Chicago Political Tradition (4th ed. 2013), scholarly biographies excerpt covers Medill, Harrison II, Dunne, Busse, Thompson, Dever, Cermak, Kelly, Kennelly, both Daleys, Bilandic, Byrne, Washington, and Emanuel.
  • Harrison, Carter Henry. Stormy Years: The Autobiography of Carter H. Harrison, Five Times Mayor of Chicago (1935), a primary source.
  • Johnson, Claudius O. Carter Henry Harrison I: Political Leader (1928) online
  • Jones, Gene Delon. "The Origin of the Alliance Between the New Deal and the Chicago Machine." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 67 (1974) pp 253-274.
  • Kleppner, Paul. Chicago Divided: The Making of a Black Mayor (1985)
  • Lydersen, Kari. Mayor 1%: Rahm Emanuel and the Rise of Chicago's 99% ( Haymarket Books, 2013).
  • Koeneman, Keith. First Son: The Biography of Richard M. Daley (University of Chicago Press, 2013).
  • McCarthy, Michael P. "Prelude to Armageddon: Charles E. Merriam and the Chicago Mayoral Election of 1911." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 67#5 (1974), pp. 505–18. online
  • Marshall, Jon, and Matthew Connor. "Divided Loyalties: The Chicago Defender and Harold Washington’s Campaign for Mayor of Chicago." American Journalism 36.4 (2019): 447-472.
  • Morton, Richard Allen. Justice and Humanity: Edward F. Dunne, Illinois Progressive. (SIU Press, 1997).
    • Morton, Richard Allen. "Justice and humanity: The politics of Edward F. Dunne' (PhD dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ProQuest Dissertations Publishing,  1988. 8823207). Mayor 1905 to 1907
  • O'Malley, Peter Joseph. "Mayor Martin H. Kennelly of Chicago: A Political Biography" (PhD dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 1980. 8023247).
  • Preston, Michael B. “The Election of Harold Washington: Black Voting Patterns in the 1983 Chicago Mayoral Race.” PS 16#3 1983, pp. 486–88. online
  • Rex, Frederick. The mayors of the city of Chicago from 1837 to 1933 (1947).
  • Schottenhamel, George. "How Big Bill Thompson Won Control of Chicago." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 45.1 (1952): 30-49. online
  • Schmidt, John R. The Mayor Who Cleaned up Chicago: A Political Biography of William E. Dever (1989)
  • Shipps, Dorothy. “Updating Tradition: The Institutional Underpinnings of Modern Mayoral Control in Chicago’s Public Schools.” in When Mayors Take Charge: School Governance in the City, edited by Joseph P. Viteritti, (Brookings Institution Press, 2009), pp. 117–47. online
  • Simpson, Dick. The Good Fight: Life Lessons from a Chicago Progressive (2017), a primary source. excerpt
  • Simpson, Dick. Rogues, Rebels, and Rubber Stamps: The Politics of the Chicago City Council, 1863 to the Present. (2018)
  • Simpson, Dick, Melissa Mouritsen, and Betty O’Shaughnessy. "Chicago: The Election of Rahm Emanuel." in Local Politics and Mayoral Elections in 21st Century America (Routledge, 2014) pp. 99-115.
  • Spirou, Costas. Building the City of Spectacle: Mayor Richard M. Daley and the Remaking of Chicago (Cornell UP, 2016) online
  • Tompkins, C. David. "John Peter Altgeld as a Candidate for Mayor of Chicago in 1899." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 56.4 (1963): 654-676. online
  • Wendt, Lloyd and Herman Kogan. Big Bill of Chicago (1953) Popular biography of Big Bill Thompson online
  • Zald, Mayer N., and Thomas A. Anderson. "Secular Trends and Historical Contingencies in the Recruitment of Mayors: Nashville as Compared to New Haven and Chicago." Urban Affairs Quarterly 3#4 (1968): 53-68.

External links[edit]