Mayor of London
|Mayor of London|
|Style||No courtesy or style ascribed|
|Appointer||Electorate of Greater London|
|Term length||Four years|
|Inaugural holder||Ken Livingstone|
|Formation||Greater London Authority Act 1999|
The Mayor of London is an elected politician who, along with the London Assembly of 25 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Greater London. The current mayor is Sadiq Khan, who took up office on 9 May 2016. The position had been held by Ken Livingstone from the creation of the role on 4 May 2000 until he was defeated in 2008 by Boris Johnson, who served two terms before being succeeded by Khan.
The Mayor of London is the mayor of the entirety of Greater London, including the City of London, for which there is also the ceremonial Lord Mayor of the City of London. Each London Borough also has a ceremonial mayor or, in Hackney, Lewisham, Newham or Tower Hamlets, an elected mayor.
The Greater London Council, the elected governance for Greater London, was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. Strategic functions were split off to various joint arrangements. Londoners voted in a referendum in 1998 to create new governance structures for Greater London. The directly elected Mayor of London was created by the Greater London Authority Act 1999 in 2000 as part of the reforms.
The Mayor is elected by the supplementary vote method for a fixed term of four years, with elections taking place in May. As with most elected posts in the UK, there is a deposit, in this case of £10,000 which is returnable on the candidate's winning at least 5% of the first-choice votes cast.
Most recent election
The most recent London mayoral election was held on 5 May 2016. The results were announced on 7 May at 00:30 despite British TV news channel Sky News announcing Sadiq Khan as the winner hours earlier.
Incumbent Mayor Boris Johnson did not run for re-election for a third term in office, as he was elected the Member of Parliament for the Conservative Party in Uxbridge and South Ruislip in the 2015 general election.
|Mayor of London election 5 May 2016 |
|Party||Candidate||1st Round||%||2nd Round||Total|| First Round Votes Transfer Votes
|Liberal Democrat||Caroline Pidgeon||120,005||4.6%||
|Women's Equality||Sophie Walker||53,055||2.0%||
|Britain First||Paul Golding||31,372||1.2%||
|One Love||Ankit Love||4,941||0.2%||
|Labour gain from Conservative|
List of Mayors
(for political parties)
|Name||Portrait||Term of office||Elected||Political party||Previous and concurrent occupations|
|Ken Livingstone||4 May 2000||4 May 2008||2000||Independent||Technician at the Chester Beatty cancer research laboratory
Leader of the Greater London Council (1981–1986)
MP for Brent East (1987–2001)
|Boris Johnson||4 May 2008||9 May 2016||2008||Conservative||Journalist (editor of The Spectator, 1999–2005)
MP for Henley (2001–2008)
MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip (2015–present)
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (2016-present)
|Sadiq Khan||9 May 2016||Incumbent||2016||Labour||Human rights lawyer (1997–2005)
MP for Tooting (2005–2016)
Minister of State for Transport (2009–2010)
Shadow Secretary of State for Justice (2010–2015)
Powers and functions
Most powers are derived from the Greater London Authority Act 1999 with additional functions coming from the Greater London Authority Act 2007, the Localism Act 2011 and Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011.
- Strategic planning, including housing, waste management, the environment and production of the London Plan
- Refuse or permit planning permission on strategic grounds
- Transport policy, delivered by functional body Transport for London
- Fire and emergency planning, delivered by functional body London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority
- Policing and crime policy, delivered by functional body Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (before 2012 by functional body Metropolitan Police Authority)
- Economic development, delivered directly by the Greater London Authority through subsidiary company GLA Land and Property (before 2012 by functional body London Development Agency)
- Power to create development corporations, such as the London Legacy Development Corporation
The remaining local government functions are performed by the London borough councils. There is some overlap, for example the borough councils are responsible for waste management, but the mayor is required to produce a waste management strategy. In 2010 the Mayor launched an initiative in partnership with the Multi-academy Trust AET to transform schools across London. This led to the establishment of London Academies Enterprise Trust (LAET) which was intended to be a group of 10 Academies, but it only reached a group of 4 before the Mayor withdrew in 2013.
|Service||Greater London Authority||London borough councils|
|Leisure and recreation|
Initiatives taken by Ken Livingstone as Mayor of London included the London congestion charge on private vehicles using city centre London on weekdays, the creation of the London Climate Change Agency, the London Energy Partnership and the founding of the international Large Cities Climate Leadership Group, now known as C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. The congestion charge led to many new buses being introduced across London. In 2003 Livingstone oversaw the introduction of the Oyster card electronic ticketing system for Transport for London services.
They have also included the London Partnerships Register which was a voluntary scheme without legal force for same-sex couples to register their partnership, and paved the way for the introduction by the United Kingdom Parliament of civil partnerships. Unlike civil partnerships, the London Partnerships Register was open to heterosexual couples who favour a public commitment other than marriage.
As Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone was also a supporter of the London Olympics in 2012, and is known to encourage sport in London; especially when sport can be combined with helping UK charities-like The London Marathon and British 10K charity races. However, Livingstone, in a Mayoral election debate on the BBC's Question Time in April 2008 did state that the primary reason he supported the Olympic bid was to secure funding for the redevelopment of the East End of London. In the summer of 2007 he brought the Tour de France cycle race to London.
In May 2008, Boris Johnson introduced a new transport safety initiative to put 440 high-visibility police officers on bus hubs and the immediate vicinity. A ban on alcohol on underground, bus, Docklands Light Railway, and tram services and stations across the capital was announced.
Also in 2010 Boris Johnson opened a cycle hire scheme (originally sponsored by Barclays, now Santander) with 5,000 bicycles available for hire across London. The scheme gained the nickname of "Boris Bikes" by both Londoners and members of the various media.
In 2011 Boris Johnson set up the Outer London Fund, a money pot of up to £50 million designed to help facilitate better, more effective local high streets. Areas in London were given the chance to submit proposals for two separate pots of money, which would be granted to them if their bid was successful. Successful bids for Phase 1 included Enfield, Muswell Hill and Bexley Town Centre. The recipients of Phase 2 funding are still to be announced.
In March 2013 Boris Johnson announced £1 billion of investment in infrastructure to make cycling safer in London, including a 15-mile (24 km) East-West segregated 'Crossrail for bikes'.
At the General Election of 7 May 2015, Boris Johnson was elected as MP for Uxbridge and Ruislip South with 50.2% of the vote on a turnout of 63.4%, and he continued to serve until the mayoral election in May 2016, when Sadiq Khan was elected as his successor.
- "Mayor of London". debretts.com. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "About London Elects". londonelects.org.uk. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "Official election result declaration, London Elects" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-01.
- "Sadiq Khan Vows To Be 'Mayor For All Londoners'". Sky News. 7 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
But because of the processes involved, he won't be technically in office until just after midnight on Monday.
- Playing a strategic role in planning | Greater London Authority. London.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
- What can the Mayor of London actually do?. Full Fact (2012-04-03). Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
- The Mayor's Waste Management Strategies | Greater London Authority. London.gov.uk (2011-11-18). Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
- James Rogers (19 August 2003). "London fare freeze to boost smartcard use". Computer Weekly. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- GLA Press Release - New action on transport safety Archived 28 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- GLA Press Release - Plan to ban alcohol on the transport network Archived 13 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- GLA Press Release - Closure of The Londoner newspaper Archived 17 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Oyster Oyster pay as you go on National Rail Archived 27 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Outer London Fund". www.london.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 24 December 2011.
- "Successful Outer London Bids". www.london.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012.
- "Will Muswell Hill have a Town Square?". My Muswell. 23 December 2011.
- James Cleverly (5 August 2011). "Bexley Outer London Fund". www.jamescleverly.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2011.
- Andrew Gilligan appointed 'Cycling Czar' by mayor Johnson. BikeRadar (2013-01-28). Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
- "'Crossrail for bikes' set for London". BBC News. 7 March 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
- "Uxbridge & Ruislip South". BBC website.
- Greater London Authority - Annual Budget Archived 11 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine.