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Mazagaon, also spelled Mazgaon and Mazagon (Portuguese rule Mazagão), and pronounced by the Catholics as 'Mazgon' or 'Maz-a-gon' and the Marathi-speakers as Mazhgav. It is one of the seven islands of Mumbai. It is part of South Mumbai and can be reached by Byculla Station on the Central railway line and Dockyard Road Station on the Harbour Railway line. Located in Mazagaon are maritime companies like the Bombay Port Trust and Mazagaon Dock Ltd., the Mazagaon Court and Anglo-Indian schools including Rosary High School, St. Peters School, Antonio D'Souza High School and St. Mary's School.
The word Mazagaon has been derived from the Sanskrit Matsya Gram, meaning fishing village. The original inhabitants were speculated to be tribals of Agari (salt-workers) and Koli (fishermen) tribes. However, folk etymology derives Mazagaon from the Marathi Maza Gaon, meaning my village. Another etymological claim suggests Portuguese origin, with the name borrowed from a city and fort of Mazagão in Morocco (now El Jadida) established by Portuguese in the beginning of the 16th century who totally evacuated to the Portuguese colony of Brazil in 1769. One of Mazagaon's oldest claims to fame was a variety of mango trees which fruited twice a year. Apparently a few such trees were extant well into the 20th century. The small island was rocky, with a hill rising at the north, and forming a cliff over the harbour. To see what Mazagaon might once have been, one has to visit any of the tiny rocky islands bearing mango trees and small villages further down the Konkan coast.
The first Portuguese settlers were the Jesuits, who established a church in the 16th century. Notwithstanding their claim, in 1572 King Sebastian of Portugal granted the island in perpetuity to the de Lima Souza family, from whom the D'Souzas of Mumbai trace their descent. When the Portuguese ceded the island to the English in 1661, there was a well established population of Roman Catholics, mainly fishermen. Although Eurasians were not uncommon. Some black African slaves brought by the Portuguese, known as Kaffirs, had also entered the ethnic mix. Some of their traditional wooden houses can still be seen, and are now protected heritage structures.
The original Gloria church, Nossa Senhora da Glória, was built in 1632 from a donation by the de Souza family. It was destroyed in 1911, being replaced two years later by a new Gothic church of the same name built a kilometer .
In 1690 Mazagaon was occupied by the Sidi of Janjira, an admiral in the Mughal navy. It is said that he was driven away a year later by the Rustomji Dorabji, who organised the fishermen in Dongri into a fleet. Rustomji was given the title Patel after this feat, and his descendants have remained the only Parsi family of Patels.
With the reclamation of Umarkhadi, at the end of the 17th century, Mazagaon became an outlying suburb of Mumbai and a fashionable place of residence. One of the famous houses was the neo-classical Tarala, built by a member of the Wadia family in the late 18th century. Sold to the Jeejeebhoy family about a century later, it became the Sadar Adalat in 1925, when they moved out to Malabar Hill. Later still it was taken over by the army, and then donated to the J.J. Hospital in 1943 after a fire. It was used as a staff hostel for a few years before it was demolished.
Other bungalows and plantations also grew up in Mazagaon as the British and the more affluent Indians moved out of the crowded fort. When the Esplanade was cleared in the Fort area, the armoury moved from Bombay Castle to Mazagaon in 1760 and gave its name to Gunpowder Lane. In 1790 the docks at Mazagaon were completed. In 1793, after the construction of the Hornby Vellard, the Bellasis Road was built to join Mazagaon and Malabar Hill.
The next century saw a slow decline in Mazagaon's fortunes, as the neighbouring Byculla became the fashionable suburb, and people began moving out. The process accelerated after the docks were reclaimed in the last thirty years of the century on the eastern shore of Mazagaon. Mazagaon was left landlocked, and the fumes from the developing mills drove the last money out of this area.
Among others, Tipu Sultan, the Mysore warrior's relative Nawab Ayaz Ali, migrated here after the British defeated the ruler in 1799 and was buried here. Birthplace of Elvisto Savio Euphermiano Rodrigues.
The surrounding area of Mazgaon is known as:
- to south side is Wadibunder, Dongri or Noorbaug, J.J. Hospital,
- to east side Darukhana area which is especially known for its shoreline,
- to north side Reay Road, Ghodapdeo, Jijamata Udyan (previously known as Ranicha Baug or Municipal Zoo or Victoria Gardens - which is one and only place in proper Mumbai) and to West side Byculla again J.J. Hospital.
Once very fashionable, Mazgaon lost much of its charm after the more affluent British and Parsi residents relocated to Malabar Hill. Since independence, the area is generally considered to be a Catholic enclave.
However, even though Mazagaon is still home to a large population of Catholics, with Catholics, Hindus, Parsis, Jews and other communities also dwell here in Mazagaon. Muslims (particularly Dawoodi Bohras) are taking their place with most Catholics migrating abroad. Bohras are developing many places in Mazagoan. Huge skyscrapers are being constructed. It has virtually become a Bohra-Muslim neighbourhood. A Catholic East Indian village can be found in the Mathar Pakadi area. The migrants from Goa also set up residences. The Goan Clubs are an integral part of this part of town. Nearby lie the Mazagaon Docks, famed as a site of ship building since the 18th century. It still builds warships for the Indian Navy and nearby is the Mazagaon Dock Colony which houses Angre house, Sarine house, Curry house and P & O Terrace. The Harbour Line station of Dockyard Road is the nearest railhead.
Mazagaon is famous for its churches. Among the more prominent are:
- St. Anne's Church (Roman Catholic) (next to St. Mary's School),
- Our Lady of the Rosary Church (Roman Catholic) in the East (opposite Dockyard Road Station),
- Our Lady of Glory Church (Roman Catholic) up north (in Byculla, opposite Byculla station),
- St. Joseph's Church (Roman Catholic) down south (in Umerkhadi, Dongri),
- St. Peter's Church (Protestant) (functional for school only) (near Mazagaon Hill)
- Holy Cross Church of Church of North India on Ramchandra Bhat Marg.
- Christ Church (Protestant) in the north.
- Methodist Churches near Victoria Gardens.
- Taylor Memorial Methodist Church next to St. Agnes' School, Clare Road.
- Robinson Memorial Methodist Central Church opposite B-Ward Municipal office.
- Matharpacady Village Holy Cross Oratory (Matharpacady Village)
- Eymard House—Blessed Sacrament Chapel (SSS Order) -- Mass celebrated 8.00 am daily Mon - Saturday
Among the more prominent places are:
- Matharpacady Village (or Oart, and also spelled Matharpakhadi; ) one of the prettiest and best preserved Portuguese styled enclaves with well preserved bungalows dating back to the time Mumbai was a Portuguese colony. Originally Matharpacady was a colony of East Indian Catholics but over time came to include many Goan and other families. With passage of time it's become fairly multicultural with different faiths and cultures living peacefully and working to preserve the quiet, the beauty and the cleanliness of the precinct. Preserves an almost 150-year-old tradition of the Cross Feast (1 May) preceded by a Novena commemorating Divine protection from the Plague that ravaged Mumbai approximately 148 years ago. It is believed that through prayer (notably recitation of the Rosary and faith in St Roque, the patron saint for protection against pestilence) residents of Matharpacady were spared and not a single life was lost. Through the generosity of a certain Mrs Buthello and other residents the famous Matharpacady Village Cross was built. This generosity has extended through the decades. The concrete roads themselves are kept in good repair through local initiative and with local funds. And this is not to mention the initiative of the three late Baptista sisters Lily, Daisy and Violet to encourage education especially among women through founding the St Isabel's High School, on whose board residents of Matharpacady continue to selflessly serve. A Heritage precinct which actually boasts of its own village well. Birthplace of famous freedom fighter Kaka Joseph Baptista (close associate of Bal Gangadhar Tilak) and Dr Ubaldo Mascarenhas, Mumbai (Bombay's) very first Indian mayor. It's a unique place where traditional culture is preserved along with the architecture. Was the setting for a scene from Merchant Ivory's The Perfect Murder. Keating, the creator of "Inspector Ghote" himself visited Matharpacady for the filming of the sequence. Matharpacady is frequently used as a study by architecture and fine art students of the Sir JJ School of Art and other art and architecture institutes. Village walks are being increasingly arranged for foreign and other visitors.
- Mahapurush Temple - Surykund CHS (only Hindus allowed in this society). One of the oldest and famous temple of Mazgaon.
- Seth Motisha Jain Temple, Love Lane
- Bombay Port Trust or BPT.
- Chinese temple (the only one in the city)
- Framji Patel Parsi Agiary at Dockyard Road and the second Agiary at Gunpowder Road Opposite to Meenakshi Apartments.
- Joseph Baptista Garden and Reservoir now named Bhandar Wada Water Reservoir (built in 1880)
- Sales Tax Office (Government Offices)
- M.D.L. (Mazagon Dock Limited ) - shipbuilders
- Angre House (named after the Maratha Navy Kanhoji Angre)
- Shah Hasan Ali's Maqbara or Mausoleum (Hasanabad)
- Islamic International School, operated by the Islamic Research Foundation under the direction of Zakir Naik.
- Ganpati Mandir at Anjirwadi, which area is also known for its industrial estates and small and medium scale industries.
- Ghodyacha Tabela-Horses Place-where horses used to be kept. Now most of the area is occupied by garages and small industries.
- Bhaucha Dhakka or Ferry Wharf which used to be a harbour and the big and medium size boats were leaving to Konkan, Goa area. Now small boats, dinghies, barges, ferries are operated and plying to Uran and its nearby area. Not only this but Ganapati-deity of Hindus are also immersed here. This is now especially known for its wholesale fish market.
- Mazgaon Telephone Exchange is situated in Love-lane area.
- Sir Elly Kadoorie School, the only Marathi school in India which is run by a Jewish Trust. Second one only in the Nagpada area.
- Central Railway Colony is also situated in between Dockyard Road Station and Reay Road Station and adjoining to Gunpowder Road in south and Mathar Pakhady Road in north.
- Second Big Colony is of Mumbai Police Wing which is situated at Dockyard Road Station.
- Retail Fish Market near Mazgaon Dock Ltd.
- Mazgaon Hill or Joseph Baptista Garden or Bhandarwada Water Reservoire from where we can see over up to CST area in South and up to Mumbai Central are in West.
- CSD – Central Government’s Canteen Store Department is situated at Gunpowder Road.
- Mazgaon Court at Tadwadi area. Here in Tadwadi a B.I.T. Chawl's big Colony is also situated. This Tadwadi area is also famous for its Dahi-handis. From this area only the world’s most famous second manual tower forming Mandals are operating in Mumbai.
- Mankeshwar Mandir – A well known century old Hindu temple is situated on Barrister Nath Pai Marg and near Darukhana Bus Stop or Mankeshwar Mandir Bus Stop.
- Then there are Big Towers Like – Infinity Towers at the turning of Tadwadi, Sai Niketan at Mazgaon Naka, Mazgaon Tower at Mathar Pakhady Road next to Central Railway Colony, at Mazgaon Hill two towers have been built.
- Maharana Pratap Chowk from where various bus routes are starting to ply to other parts of Mumbai. This place is just opposite Sales Tax Office.
- Sales Tax Office : Sales tax office is also located in Mazgaon,which runs the administration of entire sales tax collections.
Up to the 1960s Mumbai had a small Chinatown in Mazagaon. After the 1962 Sino-Indian War, most Chinese were viewed as traitors, and left the town. Mumbai now has a small ethnic Chinese population of 400 families. The Chinese temple and cemetery are both located at Mazagaon.
Tucked away behind Dockyard Road Railway Station, Kwan Kung is a small Chinese temple on 12, Nawab Tank Road. It’s not easy to find, nestled between short buildings now used as godowns and residential homes, Mumbai’s only temple is painted red and is a peaceful place that plays meditative Chinese music.
Adorned with all the requisite paraphernalia of a typical Chinese temple, including fortune scrolls, paper money and incense sticks, the temple pays homage to the Chinese God of protection, justice and courage Guan Gong. Temple caretaker Albert Tham, whose mother also looked after the temple, is building another temple on the ground floor of the building dedicated to Guan Yin, a female deity revered for mercy, peace and wisdom.
The temple built in winter months (Oct - Dec) 1953, was then in the center of Mumbai’s See Yip Koon community. Originally from Canton in Southern China, the community settled in Mumbai as merchants, traders and sailors. As a result of which buildings adjacent to the temple all have See Yup Koon written on them. While the lane wares a deserted look now, with all its 50-60 Chinese residents gone, it sees a swarm of people only during Chinese New Year. Rotated by the lunar calendar, the Chinese new year generally falls at the end of January or beginning of February.
Like Nawab Tank Road, Mumbai also had another China town located close to what is today Kamathipura. Prior to the 1962 Sino-Indian war, the street boasted a Chinese restaurant, traditional Chinese medicine store and a grocery store today its bereft of any residents from the middle kingdom. China’s craftsmen, barbers, chefs and cobblers also earlier sent their kids to the Chinese school which was located in Agripada, behind Maratha Mandir Cinema, however naught remains of the school and there is little chance for revival.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mazagaon.|
- D'Cunha, Jose Gerson (1900). "IV The Portuguese Period". The Origins of Bombay (3 ed.). Bombay: Asian Educational Services. p. 265. ISBN 81-206-0815-1. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
- Abidi, S.N.M (28 February 2008). "Say sorry to the Indian Chinese". Khaleej Times.
- Someshwar, Savera R (23 January 2007). "Happy Indian Chinese New Year". Rediff.com. Retrieved 8 October 2008.
- "Melting pot: Mumbai's Chinese temple glows red for year of the monkey". The Indian Express. 8 February 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.