The Mazarinettes were the seven nieces of Cardinal Jules Mazarin, the Chief Minister of France during the youth of King Louis XIV. He brought them, together with three of his nephews, from Italy to France in the years 1647 and 1653. Afterwards, he arranged advantageous marriages for them to powerful and influential French and Italian princes. To overcome aristocratic resistance to the matches, the cardinal generously granted huge dowries to the fiancés.
- Laura Martinozzi (1635–1687), Duchess of Modena and Reggio from 1658 by marriage to Alfonso IV d'Este
- Laura Mancini (1636–1657), Duchess of Mercœur from 1651 by marriage to Louis de Bourbon
- Anne Marie Martinozzi (1637–1672), Princess of Conti from 1654 by marriage to Armand de Bourbon
- Olympia Mancini (1638–1708), Countess of Soissons from 1657 by marriage to Eugène Maurice of Savoy
- Marie Mancini (1639–1715), Princess Colonna from 1661 by marriage to Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna
- Hortense Mancini (1646–1699), Duchess Mazarin from 1661 by marriage to Armand Charles de La Porte de La Meilleraye
- Marie Anne Mancini (1649–1717), Duchess of Bouillon from 1662 by marriage to Godefroy Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne
Arriving in France at different times, the girls were aged between seven and thirteen years old at the time of their arrival. Their uncle, Cardinal Mazarin, had requested their presence at the French court for several reasons. First, he was tired of being surrounded by French nobles and courtiers he could not trust. He wanted to be able to relax around and confide in members of his own family. Second, he wished to use his nieces and nephews to consolidate his legacy in French society and history. As a cleric, he had no legitimate children with which to do that.
Upon their arrival in Paris, Anne of Austria, the mother of the young king, Louis XIV, took the children under her wing. She even allowed the younger ones to be educated together with the king and his younger brother, Philippe, in the Palais-Royal. With this mark of favour, she placed the young ladies on the same level as the princesses of the blood.
"Voilà des petites demoiselles qui présentement ne sont point riches, mais qui bientôt auront de beaux châteaux, de bonnes rentes, de belles pierreries, de bonne vaisselle d'argent, et peut-être de grandes dignités […]"
("Here are young ladies who just at present are not rich at all, but who soon shall have beautiful castles, good incomes, precious stones, substantial silver plate, and per chance great rank […]").
In Paris, the Mazarinettes caused quite a stir because of their appearance. In a milieu where pale skin and a full figure were regarded as the established ideal of beauty, the girls' darker Italian complexions and slight builds were much remarked upon.
One of the so-called Mazarinades, satires and pamphlets against Mazarin that were very numerously published in France between 1648 and 1653, described the cardinal's nieces as follows:
|French original||English translation|
Elles ont les yeux d'un hibou,
They possess the eyes of an owl,
Other Mazarinades called them "dirt princesses" and "stinking snakes".
As protegées of their uncle, the girls' lives often reflected the cardinal's variable fortunes. During the Fronde, they twice were forced to leave Paris and go into exile. After the revolt was crushed, though, Cardinal Mazarin secured for them all a life of carefree prosperity by finding them suitable husbands and showering lavish wedding gifts upon them.
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- Savoie-Carignan, Guy Jean Raoul Eugène Charles Emmanuel de (1911). The seven richest heiresses of France. London: J. Long. Retrieved October 15, 2009.