Mazda L engine

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Mazda L engine
Also called
Production 2001–present
Combustion chamber
Configuration Straight-4
  • 1,798 cc (109.7 cu in)
  • 1,999 cc (122.0 cu in)
  • 2,260 cc (138 cu in)
  • 2,488 cc (151.8 cu in)
Cylinder bore
  • 83.0 mm (3.27 in)
  • 87.5 mm (3.44 in)
  • 89.0 mm (3.50 in)
Piston stroke
  • 83.1 mm (3.27 in)
  • 94.0 mm (3.70 in)
  • 100.0 mm (3.94 in)
Cylinder block alloy Aluminum
Cylinder head alloy Aluminum
Valvetrain DOHC
Compression ratio
  • 9.7:1
  • 10.0:1
Fuel system
Fuel type Gasoline
Oil system Wet sump
Cooling system Water-cooled
Successor Mazda SkyActiv-G engine

The Mazda L-series is a mid-sized inline 4-cylinder gasoline engine designed by Mazda, ranging in displacement from 1.8L to 2.5L. Introduced in 2001, it is the evolution of the cast-iron block F-engine. The L-series is used by Ford as their 1.8L to 2.5L 'Duratec' world engine.

The L-engine uses a chain-driven DOHC, 16-valve valvetrain with an all-aluminum block construction and cast-iron cylinder liners. Other features include fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and a one-piece cast crankshaft.

Other features are intake cam-phasing VVT, VTCS, VICS, a stainless steel 4:1 exhaust header and a lower main bearing cage for increased block rigidity. Direct-injection is available on the 2.0 L LF-VD and the award-winning (DISI) turbocharged L3-VDT engine introduced in 2006 for the Mazdaspeed lineup of vehicles.

As of 2010, Ford is introducing a GDI turbo variant of the Mazda LF engine design as the EcoBoost 2.0L, using Ford's own manifold and engine control systems. Ford plans to use the L-engine well into the future for their EcoBoost and Duratec 4-cylinder generations. As of 2011, Mazda will cease to develop the L-engine, to be replaced by the SKYACTIV P-engine. At this time, Ford will be the only manufacturer still using the Mazda L-engine design.

1.8 L (L8-DE, L8-VE)[edit]

The 1.8 L (1,798 cc (109.7 cu in)) version has an nearly-square 83.0 mm (3.3 in) bore and a 83.1 mm (3.3 in) stroke. Output is 125 hp (93 kW) at 6000 rpm with 122 lb·ft (165 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm.

In 2001, Ford introduced its first European Ford engine to use gasoline direct injection technology, badged SCi (Smart Charge injection) for Direct-Injection-Spark-Ignition (DISI).[1] The range will include some turbocharged derivatives, including the 1.1-litre, three-cylinder turbocharged unit showcased at the 2002 Geneva Show.[1] The 1.8 L was the first European Ford engine to use direct injection technology, badged SCi for Smart Charge Injection. This appeared in the Mondeo in 2003 and is today available on the 2.0 L engine as well.

The SCi engines were designed at Ford's Cologne, Germany facility and are assembled in Valencia, Spain. The SCi engine is paired with a specially designed six-speed manual transmission.

European 1.8 L and 2.0 L Duratec HE engines are built at the Valencia Engine Plant in Spain. Duratec FFV is a flex fuel version of the 1.8 L Duratec-HE modified to run on E85 fuel. 1.8L Focus C-Max and Focus Mk II versions use a drive-by-wire throttle to improve responsiveness.

Ford's versions are rated at 92 kW (123 hp) at 6000 rpm and 165 N·m (122 lb·ft) of torque at 4500 rpm with a 10.8:1 compression ratio.


2.0 L (LF-DE, LF-VE, LF-VD)[edit]

Mazda LF-DE
Duratec 20 under the hood of a 2009 Focus

The 2.0 L (1,999 cc (122.0 cu in)) version has 10.0:1 compression ratio, an 87.5 mm (3.44 in) bore and it shares the 83.1 mm (3.27 in) stroke of the 1.8 L. Changes to the engine include switching from a cast aluminum to a reinforced plastic intake manifold and from sequential multi-point fuel injection to gasoline direct injection.

Ford's version is rated at 107 kW (143 hp) of power at 6000 rpm and 185 N·m (136 lb·ft) of torque at 4500 rpm with a 10.8:1 compression ratio.

On the 2007 Focus, output is 136 hp (101 kW) at 6000 rpm with 136 lb·ft (184 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The 2007 Focus with the PZEV emissions package produces 130 hp (97 kW) at 6000 rpm with 129 lb·ft (175 N·m) of torque at 4000 rpm. On the 2008 Focus, output is 140 hp (100 kW) at 6000 ;rpm with 136 lb·ft (184 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. The 2009 Focus had 143 hp (107 kW) when equipped with manual transmission due to a higher flowing exhaust system. The 2008 Focus with the PZEV emissions package produces 132 hp (98 kW) at 6000 rpm and 133 lb·ft (180 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm.[2]

Mazda's LF-VD version was equipped with DISI direct injection and a higher compression ratio for improved efficiency in the JDM and EDM markets. It produces 148 hp (110 kW) at 6500 rpm and 138 lb·ft (187 N·m) of torque at 4000 rpm.

In 2011 Ford started selling the 2012 Focus in North America. It comes with a 160 hp (119 kW) version that utilizes direct injection and Ti-VCT. This version is referred to as the "Duratec 20."

The Ford Duratec 20 engines are built in Dearborn, Michigan, United States, Chihuahua, Mexico with some being built by Mazda in Hiroshima, Japan.

The plastic intake manifold on early versions of the 1.8 and 2.0 has a major fault due to poor-quality materials. The manifold has swirlplates mounted on a square shaft at the aperture where it mounts to the cylinder head. Early 4-cylinder Duratec engines can be ruined when the swirlplates break off and enter a cylinder. Most cases are of single swirlplates but also the shaft can wear and break. Early signs of this fault are evidenced by a ticking noise emanating from the front of the engine. This can occur as early as 25K miles, with failure typically occurring after about 90K miles. (more details)


A turbocharged EcoBoost version was introduced in 2010.

2.3L (L3-VE,L3-N5,L3-DE) [edit]

Mazda L3-VE
Duratec 23NS in a 2002 Ranger

The 2.3 L (2,261 cc (138.0 cu in))[3] version uses the same 87.5 mm (3.44 in) bore as the 2.0 L but with a long 94.0 mm (3.70 in) stroke.[3] It produces around 122 kW (164 hp) at 6000 rpm and 195 N·m (144 lb·ft) between 4000–4500 rpm

The 23EW was built in Chihuahua, Mexico for transverse installation in several front-drive Ford/Mercury/Mazda vehicles through the 2009 model year. "EW" in the Ford designation code denotes East-West configuration, or transverse mounting. 3 versions of the 23EW have been produced. A standard DOHC 16V version was used in the North American Focus producing 151 hp (113 kW) at 5750 rpm with 154 lb·ft (209 N·m) of torque at 4250 rpm. An iVCT (intake variable cam timing)-equipped DOHC 16V version was used in the 2006–2009 Ford Fusion/Mercury Milan, and several generations of CD2-based crossovers.

The 23NS was built in Dearborn, Michigan for the Ford Ranger and North American market Mazda B-Series from the 2001 model year to the 2011 model year. "NS" denotes North-South configuration, or longitudinal mounting. These engines are tuned for torque-bias making them suitable for light-truck use and are not equipped with iVCT or VICS. Output is 143 hp (107 kW)) at 5250 rpm with 154 lb·ft (209 N·m) of torque at 3750 rpm.

The Duratec 23E is a version of the Duratec 23 with California PZEV emissions.

A high-efficiency Atkinson cycle version was used in the Ford Escape Hybrid, Mercury Mariner Hybrid, and Mazda Tribute Hybrid.

A Cosworth tuned version of this engine is found in the BAC Mono producing 285 bhp (213 kW; 289 PS)and 206 lb·ft (279 N·m)of torque making it the most powerful version of this engine.


2.3L DISI Turbo (L3-VDT)[edit]

Mazda L3-VDT direct injected turbo

An award-winning turbocharged version of the 2.3 with direct injection spark ignition, or "DISI" is also produced. It develops 263 hp (196 kW) @5,500 rpms and 280 lb·ft (380 N·m) @3,000 rpms and is capable of propelling the Mazdaspeed3 from 0–60 mph in 5.6 seconds.[4]


2.5 L (L5-VE) [edit]

Introduced in non-North American markets for the MY2008 and North American markets for MY2009, the 2.5L L5-VE is an updated, bored and stroked version of the L3-VE 2.3L. The 2.5L (2,488 cc (151.8 cu in)) L5 engine has an 89.0 mm (3.50 in) bore and a 100.0 mm (3.94 in) stroke, with a compression ratio of 9.7:1. The standard crankshaft is forged-steel with eight counterweights like the turbocharged DISI 2.3L L3-VDT. To increase durability of the bore, Mazda uses a 4340 steel-molybdenum alloy material for the cylinder liners. This offers enhanced high-heat tolerance as well as reduced friction. The increased stroke of 100 mm (3.9 in), up from 94 mm (3.7 in) of the L3, allows a taller (numerically lower) final-drive ratio resulting in lower-rpm while cruising to increase fuel economy. It also uses iVCT. It produces 170 bhp (130 kW) at its 6000 rpm redline (168 hp (125 kW) in PZEV trim) and 167 lb·ft (226 N·m) of torque at 4000 rpm (166 lb·ft (225 N·m) in PZEV trim). Certain versions are rated at 175 hp (130 kW) at 6000 rpm with 172 lb·ft (233 N·m) of torque at 4500 rpm.

Ford has developed an Atkinson cycle variant of the Mazda L5 engine for use in the Ford Fusion Hybrid vehicle. The Atkinson cycle engine was named one of Ward's 10 Best Engines for 2010. Fuel saving features include adaptive knock control and aggressive deceleration fuel cutoff.[5] This and the 2.3 L competed with Toyota's 2.4 L 2AZ-FE engine, sharing similar technology.

This engine is built in Chihuahua, Mexico.



In late 2006, Mazda announced an agreement with Advanced Engine Research (AER) to develop the MZR-R motor for sports car racing. The engine is a 2.0 L turbocharged I4 based on the production MZR block [1]. The engine will initially be used by the Mazda factory team in the American Le Mans Series as a replacement for their R20B rotary, then later sold to customer teams.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]