Location of McAlester, Oklahoma
|• Total||15.8 sq mi (41.0 km2)|
|• Land||15.7 sq mi (40.6 km2)|
|• Water||0.1 sq mi (0.4 km2)|
|Elevation||735 ft (224 m)|
|• Density||1,133.1/sq mi (437.5/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||1095202|
McAlester is a city in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 17,783 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Pittsburg County. It is currently the largest city in the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, followed by Durant.
The town gets its name from J. J. McAlester, who later became Lieutenant Governor of Oklahoma and was immortalized as a character in the 1968 novel True Grit, which was made into feature films in 1969 and 2010.
McAlester is the home of the Oklahoma State Penitentiary, site of an "inside the walls" prison rodeo from which ESPN's SportsCenter once broadcast. Sometimes Oklahomans refer to the state prison simply as "Big Mac" or "McAlester," and the town is referenced in that manner in the opening pages of The Grapes of Wrath when Tom Joad is released from there. The prison was also the site of a 1973 riot that lasted for days and is generally regarded as one of the worst in American history.
McAlester is also the home of many of the employees of the nearby McAlester Army Ammunition Plant. This facility makes essentially all of the bombs used by the United States military. In 1998 McAlester became the home of the Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) which moved from Savanna, Illinois and relocated as a tenant on McAlester Army Ammunition Plant.
McAlester is known in political circles for having been the home base of several noted American politicians - U.S. Speaker of the House Carl Albert, who was once a heartbeat from the presidency, and longtime Oklahoma State Senator Gene Stipe, whose career ended in a series of legal problems. Former Oklahoma Governor George Nigh and Oklahoma Supreme Court Chief Justice Steven W. Taylor also hail from McAlester. McAlester is still known in Oklahoma as the "Capital of Little Dixie," for its old-time Democratic politics.
The crossing of the east-west California Road with the north-south Texas Road formed a natural point of settlement in Tobucksy County of the Choctaw Nation. Alyssia Young, who emigrated from Mississippi to the Indian Territory, first established a settlement at the intersection of the two roads in 1838. The town there was named after Perry, being called Perryville. At one time Perryville was the capital of the Choctaw Nation and County Seat of Tobucksy County. During the American Civil War the Choctaw allied with the Confederate States of America (CSA) as the war reached Indian Territory . A depot providing supplies to Confederate Forces in Indian Territory was set up at Perryville. On August 26, 1863 a force of 4,500 Union soldiers crossed the Canadian River and destroyed the Confederate munitions depot at Perryville. This became known as the Battle of Perryville Indian Territory. Union Major General James G. Blunt, finding the Confederate supplies and realizing that Perryville was a major supply depot for Confederate forces ordered the town burned. The town was rebuilt, but never reached its prewar glory or population.
After the end of the war and the surrender of General Stand Watie, Captain James Jackson McAlester obtained a job with the trading company of Reynolds and Hannaford. McAlester, an employee of licensed traders Reynolds and Hannaford convinced the firm to locate a general store at Tupelo in the Choctaw Nation. McAlester had learned of coal deposits in Indian Territory during the War Between the States while serving as a Captain with the 22nd Arkansas Volunteer Infantry (Confederate). At Fort Smith, Arkansas before going to work with Reynolds and Hannaford, McAlester had received maps of the coal deposits from engineer Oliver Weldon, who had served with McAlester during the war.
Weldon had worked for the U.S. surveying Indian Territory before the war and knew of the rich coal deposits. Hearing of the railroad plans to extend through Indian Territory and knowing that rich deposits of coal were in an area north of the town of Perryville, McAlester convinced Reynolds and Hannaford that Bucklucksy would be a more suitable and profitable location for the trading post. McAlester constructed a trading post/general store at that location in late 1869 (Presley 1978, p. 72). The general store was an immediate success, but J. J. McAlester recognized an even greater opportunity in the abundance of coal deposits in the area, and he began obtaining rights to the coal deposits from the Choctaws anticipating the impending construction of a rail line through Indian Territory.
By virtue of having been the first to extend its line to the northern border of Indian Territory, the Union Pacific Railway Southern Branch earned right of way and a liberal bonus of land to extend the line to Texas. A number of New York businessmen, including Levi P. Morton, Levi Parsons, August Belmont, J. Pierpont Morgan, George Denison and John D. Rockefeller were interested in extending rail line through Indian Territory, and the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad, familiarly called the Katy Railroad, began its corporate existence in 1865 toward that end. Morton and Parsons selected a site near the Kansas border with Indian Territory at which a town operated by the railroad could be located, with the settlement incorporated under the name of Parsons, Kansas, in 1871.
That same year, J.J. McAlester, after buying out Reynolds’ share of the trading post, journeyed with a sample of coal to the railroad town in hopes of persuading officials to locate the line near his store at Bucklucksy. The location of the trading post on the Texas Road weighed in its favor, given that the Katy Railroad line construction roughly followed the Shawnee Trail – Texas Road route southward to the Red River. The line reached Bucklucksy in 1872, and Katy Railroad officials named the railway stop McAlester (Nesbitt 1933, pp. 760–61). With the coming of the railroad, businesses in nearby Perryville began relocating to be near the McAlester Rail Depot, marking the end of Perryville and the beginning of McAlester. On August 22, 1872, J.J. McAlester married Rebecca Burney (born 1841 in Mississippi - died May 4, 1919, in Oklahoma). Rebecca was a member of the Chickasaw Nation and this made it possible for McAlester to gain citizenship and the right to own property in both the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations. This allowed McAlester to legally obtain his own mineral rights to the coal deposits. McAlester being a savvy businessman quickly obtained land near the intersection of the north-south and east-west rail line intersection. McAlester opened a second general store on this corner and was able to continue doing business selling coal to the railroads.
Fritz Sittle (Sittel), a Choctaw citizen by marriage and one of the first settlers in the area, urged visiting newspaperman Edwin D. Chadick in 1885 to pursue the possibility of establishing an east-west rail line to run through the coal mining district at Krebs that would connect with the north-south line at McAlester. Chadick eventually found financing and established the Choctaw Coal and Railway in 1888, but was unable to come to terms with J.J. McAlester over the issue of right of way.
Chadick and his investors purchased land to the south of McAlester's General Store, and where the two rail lines crossed formed a natural trading crossroads, and quickly became a bustling community designated as South McAlester. The original town location became known familiarly as North McAlester or North Town although early U.S. Census records simply identified it as McAlester.
The two towns operated as somewhat separate communities until 1907, when the United States Congress passed an act joining the two communities as a single municipality, the action being required since the towns were under federal jurisdiction in Indian Territory. The separate entities of McAlester and South McAlester were combined under the single name McAlester, with office-holders of South McAlester as officials of the single town. Designation as a single community by the United States Post Office came on July 1, 1907, nearly five months before Oklahoma Statehood, which caused a redrawing of county lines and designations, causing the majority of Tobucksy County to fall within the new lines of Pittsburg County.
The city had 8,144 inhabitants upon statehood, more than a fourth of which were foreign-born.
McAlester was the site of the 2004 trial of Terry Nichols on Oklahoma state charges related to the Oklahoma City bombing (1995). On December 25, 2000 an ice storm hit the area leaving residents without electrical service and water for more than two weeks; in January 2007 another devastating ice storm crippled the city, leaving residents without power and water for more than a week.
McAlester is located at the intersection of U.S. Route 69 and Oklahoma State Highway 270, in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41 square miles (110 km2), of which 40.6 square miles (105 km2) is land.
As of the 2000 census, there were 17,783 people, 6,584 households, and 4,187 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,133.1 people per square mile (437.6/km²). There were 7,374 housing units at an average density of 469.9 per square mile (181.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 74.72% White, 8.68% African American, 10.48% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.29% from other races, and 4.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.04% of the population.
There were 6,584 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.4% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the city the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, and 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 107.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,631, and the median income for a family was $36,480. Males had a median income of $29,502 versus $19,455 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,694. About 16.1% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 11.6% of those age 65 or over.
Government and infrastructure
Pride in McAlester is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that works with the McAlester community to clean, beautify, and enhance the community. The organization was established in April 2008. In addition to providing assistance and opportunity for recycling, the organization provides educational services. Pride in McAlester also operates a Flea Market allowing community members to recycle and reuse most materials. The organization participates in scholarship opportunities, community functions, and helps in revitalizing areas of the city. Pride in McAlester organizes and operates city wide cleanup events, mainly in the Spring and Fall.
McAlester Public Schools operates public schools.
The McAlester Public Library is located in McAlester. The current library was built in 1970. As of 2010 the city has plans to build a new library. The Friends of the McAlester Public Library is financing the new branch.
McAlester includes Kiamichi Technology Center which has enrollment of over 300 students per school year. There is also an extension of Eastern Oklahoma State College which partners with Southeastern Oklahoma State University and East Central University.
Points of interest
- Carl Albert, Former Speaker of the U.S. House
- Melva Blancett, Actress
- John Berryman, Poet
- Mary Blair, Artist, Disney animator
- Ridge Bond, Musical Theater Actor/Singer, Broadway star
- Riley Brett, Race Car Driver
- Quentin Brooks, Olympian
- Edwin H. Burba, Jr., U.S. Army four-star general
- Lynn Cartwright, Character Actress
- Wilburn Cartwright, Former U.S. Representative from Oklahoma
- W.H.H. Clayton, U.S. District Court Judge
- Bennie L. Davis, U.S. Air Force four-star general
- Bob Dickson, Professional Golfer
- Levi Parham, Singer/Songwriter
- Clonie Gowen, Professional Poker Player
- Steve King, NFL football player
- Steven T. Kuykendall, Former U.S. Representative from California
- Pepper Martin, Major League Baseball player
- J. J. McAlester, pioneer, for whom McAlester was named
- Pake McEntire, Country Singer
- Reba McEntire, Country Singer
- Susie McEntire-Eaton, Sister of Pake & Reba McEntire, Country/Gospel Singer
- Beverlee McKinsey, Actress
- Gene Stipe, longest-serving member of the Oklahoma Senate, represented McAlester (1957–2003)
- Steven W. Taylor, Oklahoma Supreme Court Chief Justice
- Edward Lloyd Thomas, Confederate General
- Wade Watts, Baptist Minister and Civil Rights Activist, Uncle of J.C. Watts
- Walter L. Weaver, Former U.S. Representative from Ohio
- Michael Wilson, Screenwriter
The following sites in McAlester are listed on the National Register of Historic Places:
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- Brooks, Les. "McAlester Prison Riot," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society, Accessed September 2, 2015.
- Stanley Clark, "Immigrants in the Choctaw Coal Industry," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 33 (Winter 1955-56).
- Oklahoma Municipal Government, Oklahoma Almanac, 2005, p. 535. (accessed October 1, 2013)
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Population-Oklahoma" (PDF). U.S. Census 1910. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Population-Oklahoma" (PDF). 15th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Number of Inhabitants: Oklahoma" (PDF). 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Oklahoma: Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Shapiro, Dean M. "Kirksey." Crime Library. Retrieved on July 24, 2010.
- "Oklahoma State Penitentiary." Oklahoma Department of Corrections. Retrieved on November 22, 2010.
- "Jackie Brannon Correctional Center." Oklahoma Department of Corrections. Retrieved on November 22, 2010.
- "Pride in McAlester.
- "Friends of the Library." McAlester Public Library. Retrieved on November 22, 2010.
- "fol_brochure_thumb.jpg." McAlester Public Library. Retrieved on November 22, 2010.
- "Melva Blancett obituary". McAlester News-Capital. 2010-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-30.
- "Quentin Brooks". Sports Reference. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
- Nesbitt, Paul (1933), "J.J. McAlester", Chronicles of Oklahoma (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, published June 1933) 11 (2), pp. 758–64, ISSN 0009-6024, OCLC 1554537, retrieved 2007-08-16.
- Presley, Mrs. Leister E., ed. (1978), "Biography of J. T. Hannaford - Conway Co, AR", The Goodspeed biographical and historical memoirs of western Arkansas ; Yell, Pope, Johnson, Logan, Scott, Polk, Montgomery, and Conway counties, Easley, SC: Southern Historical Press (published June 1978), p. 72, ISBN 978-0-89308-084-6, OCLC 5729534, LCC: F411 .B67 1978 Reprint of the 1891 ed. of Biographical and historical memoirs of western Arkansas, published by the Southern Pub. Co., Chicago, and the 1890 ed. of Historical reminiscences and biographical memoirs of Conway County, Arkansas, published by Arkansas Historical Pub. Co., Little Rock. Includes new indexes.
- McAlester Chamber of Commerce (2007-09-01), Living In McAlester: Location/ Transportation, retrieved 2007-09-01
- Dunbar, Trevor (January 14, 2007). "Ice storm". McAlester News-Capital. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to McAlester, Oklahoma.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article McAlester.|
- McAlester Chamber of Commerce
- Community Profile
- McAlester Photos
- City of McAlester
- Map from Center for Spatial Analysis