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McCausland (Mac Ausaláin in Gaelic), meaning "Son of Absolom" is a surname of Irish and Scottish origin. The family claim descent from the Cenel Eoghain race in County Londonderry and Tyrone, a branch of the Ui Neil.
Alternatively, the surname may be an Anglicization from a Gaelic name, as was the case with many Irish surnames, changing to sound more English over the centuries. The surname "Mac Ausaláin" may have an underlying Gaelic personal name, possibly Caisealán, meaning ‘little one of the castle’.
Notable people with the surname include:
- Charles McCausland (1898-1965), Irish cricketer
- Richard Bolton McCausland (1810-1900) Attorney-General of Singapore, and his son of the same name (1864-1933), a notable surgeon.
- Chris McCausland (1977-), British stand-up comedian
- Edward McCausland (1865-1936), Australian rugby player and cricketer
- Ernesto McCausland (1961-), Colombian journalist and filmmaker
- Gary McCausland (1968-), Northern Irish television presenter and property developer
- John McCausland (1836–1927), Confederate general in the American Civil War
- John McCausland (politician) (1735–1804), Irish Member of Parliament for Donegal County
- Maurice McCausland (1872-1938), Irish landowner and political figure
- Nelson McCausland, minister in the Northern Ireland Assembly
- Maria McCausland, Colombian singer, songwriter and actress
- McCausland, Iowa, city in Scott County, Iowa
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