||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (May 2015)|
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,096 kJ (262 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||0 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.|
Dog meat refers to the flesh and other edible parts derived from dogs. Historically, human consumption of dog meat has been recorded in many parts of the world, including East and Southeast Asia, West Africa, Europe, Oceania and America. Dog meat has been used as survival food in times of war and/or other hardships.
Today, a number of cultures view the consumption of dog meat to be a part of their cuisine, while others - such as Western culture - consider consumption of dog to be a taboo. It was estimated in 2014 that 25 million dogs are eaten worldwide by humans.
Each year since 2009, Yulin (China) celebrates the summer solstice in June by having a festival of eating dog meat and lychees, washed down by strong liquor. Estimates of the number of dogs eaten during the festival range between 10 and 15 thousand.
- 1 Nureongi dog
- 2 Consumption debate
- 3 By region
- 3.1 Africa
- 3.2 Americas
- 3.3 Australia
- 3.4 Arctic and Antarctic
- 3.5 Asia/Pacific
- 3.6 Europe
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
Although other kinds of dogs are also farmed and eaten, nureongi (yellow animal) is the dog most commonly used in this way. They are mid-sized with short yellow fur and melanistic masks. They are not normally kept as pets.
Some cultures, especially those from East and Southeast Asia, support the eating of dog meat.
Proponents of eating dog meat have argued that the acceptance of eating other common meats (e.g. beef or pork) whilst not accepting eating dog meat is hypocritical, and there is no moral difference between eating the meat of different animals.
Some cultures, especially from Western countries, oppose the eating of dog meat. Some people view dogs as man's best friend and therefore should not be eaten. Organizations such as World Animal Protection have been increasingly opposing dog meat consumption and the treatment of dogs caged and farmed for their meat.
There is also opposition to eating dog meat for animal welfare reasons. Under some circumstances, some dogs are burnt or boiled alive and there are reports that the dogs are sometimes clubbed or beaten to death in the belief that the increased adrenalin circulating in the dog's body adds to the flavour of the meat.
The Mandara mountains people like dog meat. The Mayo-Plata (Mayo Sava district) market is well known for its dog meat outlets. Among the Vame people, domestic dogs are only eaten for specific rituals.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Tallensi, the Akyim's, the Kokis, and the Yaakuma, one of many cultures of Ghana, consider dog meat a delicacy. While the Mamprusi generally avoid dog meat, it is eaten in a "courtship stew" provided by a king to his royal lineage. Two Tribes in Ghana, Frafra and Dagaaba are particularly known to be "tribal playmates" and consumption of dog meat is the common bond between the two tribes. Every year around September, games are organised between these two tribes and the Dog Head is the trophy at stake for the winning tribe
Liberians are said to lump the term dog meat and bushmeat together. A local animal welfare group Say No To Dog Meat claimed 75% of Liberians consume dog meat. 75% of Liberians rely on bush and pet meat as a staple diet.
In 2013, a man from Casablanca was arrested with 37 dog carcasses destined most likely to be made into sausages for restaurants. Earlier in 2009, a restaurant owner was arrested and sentenced to six years in jail for selling dog meat, but presenting it as beef to his customers.
Dogs are eaten by various groups in some states of Nigeria, including Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Plateau, Ondo, Kalaba, Taraba and Gombe of Nigeria. They are believed to have medicinal powers.
In late 2014, the fear of contracting the Ebola virus disease from bushmeat led at least one major Nigerian newspaper to imply that eating dog meat was a healthy alternative. That paper documented a thriving trade in dog meat and slow sales of even well smoked bushmeat.
It is legal to sell and serve dog meat, providing that it must be killed and gutted in front of federal inspectors. If a dog is killed out of the view of federal inspectors, the killing might involve cruelty, which would be a violation of the Criminal Code, and those convicted may be sentenced to up to 5 years in prison.
In the time of the Aztec Empire in what is now central Mexico, Mexican Hairless Dogs were bred, among other purposes, for their meat. Hernán Cortés reported when he arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1519, "small gelded dogs which they breed for eating" were among the goods sold in the city markets. These dogs, Xoloitzcuintles, were often depicted in pre-Columbian Mexican pottery. The breed was almost extinct in the 1940s, but the British Military Attaché in Mexico City, Norman Wright, developed a thriving breed from some of the dogs he found in remote villages.
United States of America
The term "dog" has been used as a synonym for sausage since 1884 and accusations that sausage makers used dog meat date to at least 1845. The belief that sausages contained dog meat was occasionally justified.
In 1846, a group of 87 American pioneers were stranded by snow while traveling in the Sierra Nevada. Some of the starving people from this group, known posthumously as the Donner Party, ate a pet dog for sustenance.
In the late 19th century, a cure for tuberculosis (then colloquially termed "consumption") using an exclusive diet of dog meat was tried. Reports of families eating dog meat out of choice, rather than necessity, were rare and newsworthy. Stories of families in Ohio and Newark, New Jersey who did so made it into editions of The New York Times in 1876 and 1885.
In the early 20th century, dog meat was consumed during times of meat shortage.
The traditional culture surrounding the consumption of dog meat varied from tribe to tribe among the original inhabitants of North America, with some tribes relishing it as a delicacy, and others (such as the Comanche) treating it as a forbidden food. Native peoples of the Great Plains, such as the Sioux and Cheyenne, consumed it, but there was a concurrent religious taboo against the meat of wild canines.
During their 1803–1806 expedition, Meriwether Lewis and the other members of the Corps of Discovery consumed dog meat, either from their own animals or supplied by Native American tribes, including the Paiutes and Wah-clel-lah Indians, a branch of the Watlatas, the Clatsop, the Teton Sioux (Lakota), the Nez Perce Indians, and the Hidatsas. Lewis and the members of the expedition ate dog meat, except William Clark, who reportedly could not bring himself to eat dogs.
The Kickapoo people include puppy meat in many of their traditional festivals. This practice has been well documented in the Works Progress Administration "Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma".
It is legal to eat dogs and cats in all States and Territories except South Australia. It is illegal to sell cat or dog meat in any Australian State or Territory.
Arctic and Antarctic
Dogs have historically been emergency food sources for various peoples in Siberia, northern Canada, and Greenland. Sled dogs are usually maintained for pulling sleds, but occasionally are eaten when no other food is available.
British explorer Ernest Shackleton and his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition became trapped, and ultimately killed their sled dogs for food. Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen was known to have eaten sled dogs during his expedition to the South Pole. By eating some of the sled dogs, he required less human or dog food, thus lightening his load. When comparing sled dogs to ponies as draught animals he also notes:
"...there is the obvious advantage that dog can be fed on dog. One can reduce one's pack little by little, slaughtering the feebler ones and feeding the chosen with them. In this way they get fresh meat. Our dogs lived on dog's flesh and pemmican the whole way, and this enabled them to do splendid work. And if we ourselves wanted a piece of fresh meat we could cut off a delicate little fillet; it tasted to us as good as the best beef. The dogs do not object at all; as long as they get their share they do not mind what part of their comrade's carcass it comes from. All that was left after one of these canine meals was the teeth of the victim – and if it had been a really hard day, these also disappeared."
Douglas Mawson and Xavier Mertz were part of the Far Eastern Party, a three-man sledging team with Lieutenant B.E.S. Ninnis, to survey King George V Land, Antarctica. On 14 December 1912 Ninnis fell through a snow-covered crevasse along with most of the party's rations, and was never seen again. Mawson and Mertz turned back immediately. They had one and a half weeks' food for themselves and nothing at all for the dogs. Their meagre provisions forced them to eat their remaining sled dogs on their 315-mile (507 km) return journey. Their meat was tough, stringy and without a vestige of fat. Each animal yielded very little, and the major part was fed to the surviving dogs, which ate the meat, skin and bones until nothing remained. The men also ate the dog's brains and livers. Unfortunately eating the liver of sled dogs produces the condition hypervitaminosis A because canines have a much higher tolerance for vitamin A than humans do. Mertz suffered a quick deterioration. He developed stomach pains and became incapacitated and incoherent. On 7 January 1913, Mertz died. Mawson continued alone, eventually making it back to camp alive.
Selling dog meat for consumption is legal in China and approximately 10 million dogs each year are slaughtered for consumption. The eating of dog meat in China dates back thousands of years. Dog meat (Chinese: 狗肉; pinyin: gǒu ròu) has been a source of food in some areas from around 500 B.C. and possibly even earlier. It has been suggested that wolves in southern China may have been domesticated as a source of meat. Mencius, the philosopher, talked about dog meat as being an edible, dietary meat. It is thought to have medicinal properties, and is especially popular in winter months in northern China, as it is believed to raise body temperature after consumption and promote warmth. Historical records have moreover shown how in times of food scarcities (as in war-time situations), dogs could also be eaten as an emergency food source.
Dog meat is sometimes called "fragrant meat" (香肉 xiāng ròu) or "mutton of the earth" (地羊 dì yáng) in Mandarin Chinese and "3–6 fragrant meat" (Chinese: 三六香肉; Cantonese Yale: sàam luhk hèung yuhk) in Cantonese (3 plus 6 is 9 and the words "nine" and "dog" have close pronunciation. In Mandarin, "nine" and "dog" are pronounced differently).
In modern times, the extent of dog consumption in China varies by region, most prevalent in Guangdong, Yunnan and Guangxi, as well as the northern provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning. It is still common to find dog meat served in restaurants in Southern China, where dogs are specially raised on farms. However, there are instances of finding stolen pet meat on menus. Chinese netizens and the Chinese police intercepted trucks transporting caged dogs to be slaughtered in localities such as Chongqing and Kunming. In 2014, 11 people in the Hunan province were sentenced to prison for allegedly poisoning over 1,000 dogs and selling the poisonous meat to restaurants.
Since 2009, Yulin, Guangxi has held an annual festival of eating dog meat. This purportedly celebrates the summer solstice, however, in 2014, the municipal government published a statement that the festival is not a cultural tradition, rather, a commercial event held by restaurants and the public. Various dog meat dishes (and more recently, cats) are eaten, washed down by lychees wine. The festival in 2011 spanned 10 days, during which 15,000 dogs were consumed. Estimates of the number of dogs eaten during the festival range between 10 and 15 thousand. Festival organisers say that only dogs bred specifically for consumption are used, however, there are claims that some of the dogs purchased for slaughter and consumption are strays or stolen pets, as evidenced by their wearing collars. Some of the dogs eaten at the festival are burnt or boiled alive and there are reports that the dogs are sometimes clubbed or beaten to death in the belief that the increased adrenalin circulating in the dog's body adds to the flavour of the meat. At the 2015 festival, there were long queues outside large (300-seat) eateries which sold the dog meat for around £4 (€5.60) per kilogram. Prior to the 2014 festival, eight dogs (and their two cages) sold for 1,150 yuan ($185) and six puppies for 1,200 yuan. Prior to the 2015 festival, a protester bought 100 dogs for 7,000 yuan ($1,100; £710). The animal rights NGO Best Volunteer Centre claims the city has more than 100 slaughterhouses, processing between 30 and 100 dogs a day. However, the Yulin Centre for Animal Disease Control and Prevention claims the city has only eight dog slaughterhouses selling approximately 200 dogs, although this increases to about 2,000 dogs during the Yulin festival. There are several campaigns to stop the festival; more than 3,000,000 people have signed petitions against it on Weibo (China’s version of Twitter) and a petition to stop the festival (addressed to the Chinese Minister of Agriculture, Chen Wu) reads "Do the humane thing by saying no to this festival and save the lives of countless dogs that will fall victim to this event - an event that will butcher, skin alive, beat to death etc. thousands of innocent dogs." Prior to the 2014 festival, doctors and nurses staff were ordered not to eat dog meat there, and local restaurants serving dog meat were ordered to cover the word "dog" on their signs and notices.
The movement against the consumption of cat and dog meat was given added impetus by the formation of the Chinese Companion Animal Protection Network (CCAPN). Expanded to more than 40 member societies, CCAPN in 2006 began organizing protests against eating dogs and cat, starting in Guangzhou and following up in more than ten other cities with a positive response from the public. Before the 2008 Beijing Olympics, officials ordered dog meat to be taken off the menu at its 112 official Olympic restaurants to avoid offending visitors from various nations who might have been concerned by the offering of dog meat.
In 2010, draft legislation was proposed to prohibit the consumption of dog meat. The legislation, however, was not expected to be enforced, making the consumption of dog meat illegal if it passed. In 2010, the first draft proposal of the legislation was introduced, with the rationale to protect animals from maltreatment. The legislation includes a measure to jail people for up to 15 days for eating dog meat. However, certain cultural food festivals continue to promote the meat. For example, in 2014, 10,000 dogs were killed for the Yulin dog eating festival.
As of the early 21st Century, dog meat consumption is declining or disappearing. In 2014, dog meat sales decreased by a third compared to 2013. It was reported that in 2015, one of the most popular restaurants in Guangzhou serving dog meat was closed after the local government tightened regulations; the restaurant had served dog meat dishes since 1963. Other restaurants that served dog and cat meat dishes in the Yuancun and Panyu districts also stopped serving these in 2015.
In Hong Kong, the Dogs and Cats Ordinance was introduced by the British Hong Kong Government on 6 January 1950. It prohibits the slaughter of any dog or cat for use as food, whether for mankind or otherwise, on pain of fine and imprisonment. Four local men were sentenced to 30 days imprisonment in December 2006 for having slaughtered two dogs. In an earlier case, in February 1998, a Hong Konger was sentenced to one month imprisonment and a fine of two thousand HK dollars for hunting street dogs for food.
In 2001, the Taiwanese government imposed a ban on the sale of dog meat, due to both pressure from domestic animal welfare groups and a desire to improve international perceptions, although there were some protests. In 2007, another law was passed, significantly increasing the fines to sellers of dog meat. However, animal rights campaigners have accused the Taiwanese government of not prosecuting those who continue to slaughter and serve dog meat at restaurants. Although the slaughter and consumption of dog meat is illegal in Taiwan, there are reports that suggest the practice continues as of 2011[update]. In Taiwan, dog meat is called "fragrant meat" (Chinese: 香肉; pinyin: xiāngròu). In 2007, legislators passed a law to fine sellers of dog meat NT$250,000 (US$7,730). Dog meat is believed to have health benefits, including improving circulation and raising body temperature.
In India, dog meat is eaten by certain communities in the Northeast Indian border states of Mizoram, Nagaland, and Manipur where it is considered to be a delicacy. These states border Burma and may have been influenced by Chinese culture and traditions.
Indonesia is predominantly Muslim, a faith which considers dog meat, along with pork to be "haraam" (ritually unclean) and therefore do not eat it. However, dog meat is eaten by several of Indonesia's non-Muslim minorities.
The consumption of dog meat is associated with the Minahasa culture of northern Sulawesi, Maluku culture, and the Bataks of northern Sumatra, where dog meat is considered a festive dish usually reserved for occasions such as weddings and Christmas.
Popular Indonesian dog-meat dishes are rica-rica, also called rintek wuuk or "RW", rica-rica waung, guk-guk, and "B1". On Java, there are several dishes made from dog meat, such as sengsu (tongseng asu), sate jamu, and kambing balap.
Dog consumption in Indonesia gained attention in United States where dog is a taboo food, during 2012 Presidential election when incumbent Barack Obama was pointed by his opponent to have eaten dog meat served by his Indonesian stepfather Lolo Soetoro during his stay in the country.
The consumption of dog meat is not a feature of modern Japanese culture because Japanese people believe that certain dogs have special powers in their religion of Shintoism and Buddhism. Dog meat was consumed in Japan until 675 A.D., when Emperor Temmu decreed a prohibition on its consumption during the 4th–9th months of the year, they say for battle normally a dog accompanies him for battle. So eating a dog gave Emperors bad luck. In Japanese shrines certain animals are worshipped like dogs who will give people a good luck charm. Animals are described as good luck in scrolls and Kakemono during the Kofun period, Asuka period and Nara period. According to Meisan Shojiki Ōrai (名産諸色往来) published in 1760, the meat of wild dog was sold along with boar, deer, fox, wolf, bear, raccoon dog, otter, weasel and cat in some regions of Edo. Ōta Nampo recorded witnessing puppies being eaten in Satsuma Province in a dish called Enokoro Meshi (えのころ飯). In 2008, Japan imported 5 tons of dog meat from China compared to 4,714 tons of beef, 14,340 tons of pork and 115,882 tons of poultry.
Gaegogi (개고기) literally means "dog meat" in Korean. The term itself, however, is often mistaken as the term for Korean soup made from dog meat, which is actually called bosintang (보신탕; 補身湯, Body nourishing soup) (sometimes spelled "bo-shintang").
The consumption of dog meat can be traced back to antiquity. Dog bones[further explanation needed] were excavated in a neolithic settlement in Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang Province. A wall painting in the Goguryeo Tombs complex in South Hwangghae Province, a World Heritage site which dates from the 4th century AD, depicts a slaughtered dog in a storehouse. The Balhae people also enjoyed dog meat, and the modern-day tradition of canine cuisine seems to have come from that era.
Although their Mohe ancestors did not respect dogs, the Jurchen people began to respect dogs around the time of the Ming dynasty and passed this tradition on to the Manchu, it was prohibited in Jurchen culture to use dog skin, and forbidden for Jurchens to harm, kill, and eat dogs, the Jurchens believed that the "utmost evil" was the usage of dog skin by Koreans.
Over 100,000 tons of dog meat, or 2.5 million dogs, are consumed annually in South Korea. Although a fair number of South Koreans (perhaps 42 to 60%) have eaten dog meat at least once in their lifetime, only a small percentage of the population is believed to eat it on a regular basis. There is a large and vocal group of Korean people that are against the practice of eating dog meat. There is also a large population of people in South Korea that do not eat or enjoy the meat, but do feel strongly that it is the right of others to do so. There is a smaller but still vocal group of pro-dog cuisine people in South Korea who want to popularize the consumption of dog in Korea and the rest of the world, considering it to be part of the traditional culture of Korea with a long history worth preserving.
The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety recognizes any edible product other than drugs as food. In the capital city of Seoul, the sale of dog meat was outlawed by regulation on February 21, 1984 by classifying dog meat as 'repugnant food' (혐오식품), but the regulation was not rigorously enforced except during the 1988 Seoul Olympics. In 2001, the Mayor of Seoul announced there would be no extra enforcement efforts to control the sale of dog meat during the 2002 FIFA World Cup, which was partially hosted in Seoul. In March 2008, the Seoul Metropolitan Government announced its plan to put forward a policy suggestion to the central government to legally classify slaughter dogs as livestock, reigniting debate on the issue.
South Korean Food Sanitary Law (식품위생법) does not include dog meat as a legal food ingredient. Also, dog meat has been categorized as 'repugnant food' (혐오식품) based on a regulation issued by Seoul Metropolitan Government, of which using as food ingredient is not permitted. However, the laws are not strictly enforced. The primary dog breed raised for meat, the Nureongi (누렁이), or Hwangu (황구); which is a specific breed, different from the breeds raised for pets in the country.
There is a large and vocal group of Koreans (consisting of a number of animal welfare groups) who are against the practice of eating dogs. Popular television shows like 'I Love Pet' have documented in 2011, for instance, the continued illegal selling of dog meat and slaughtering of dogs in suburban areas. The program also televised illegal dog farms and slaughterhouses, showing the unsanitary and horrific conditions of caged dogs, several of which were visibly sick with severe eye infections and malnutrition. However, despite this growing awareness, there remains some in Korea that do not eat or enjoy the meat, but do feel that it is the right of others to do so, along with a smaller but still vocal group of pro-dog cuisine people who want to popularize the consumption of dog in Korea and the rest of the world. A group of pro-dog meat individuals attempted to promote and publicize the consumption of dog meat worldwide during the run-up to the 2002 FIFA World Cup, co-hosted by Japan and South Korea, which prompted retaliation from animal rights campaigners and prominent figures such as Brigitte Bardot to denounce the practice. Opponents of dog meat consumption in South Korea are critical of the eating of dogmeat as some dogs are beaten, burnt or hanged to make their meat more tender.
The restaurants that sell dog meat do so, often exclusively, at the risk losing their restaurant licenses. A case of a dog meat wholesaler brought up on charges of selling dog meat in arose in 1997. However, an appeals court acquitted the dog meat wholesaler, ruling that dogs were socially accepted as food. According to the National Assembly of South Korea, more than 20,000 restaurants, including the 6484 registered restaurants, served soups made from dog meat in Korea in 1998. In 1999 the BBC reported that 8,500 tons of dog meat were consumed annually, with another 93,600 tons used to produce a medicinal tonic called gaesoju (개소주).
Dog meat is often consumed during the summer months and is either roasted or prepared in soups or stews. The most popular of these soups is bosintang and gaejang-guk, a spicy stew meant to balance the body's heat during the summer months. This is thought to ensure good health by balancing one's "ki" or vital energy of the body. A 19th-century version of gaejang-guk explains the preparation of the dish by boiling dog meat with vegetables such as green onions and chili pepper powder. Variations of the dish contain chicken and bamboo shoots.
Dog meat is rarely eaten in New Zealand but has been said to be becoming more popular as it is not illegal as long as the dog is humanely killed.
A Tongan man living in New Zealand caused public outrage when he was caught cooking his pet dog in his backyard; this led to calls for change in the law.
A sea-faring population scattered throughout Southeast Asia, called “Malays” introduced the practice of domesticating dogs for meat consumption to the people that originally inhabited the Philippines.
In the capital city of Manila, Metro Manila Commission Ordinance 82-05 specifically prohibits the killing and selling of dogs for food. More generally, the Philippine Animal Welfare Act 1998 prohibits the killing of any animal other than cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, poultry, rabbits, carabaos, horses, deer and crocodiles, with exemptions for religious, cultural, research, public safety or animal health reasons. Nevertheless, as is reported from time to time in Philippine newspapers, the eating of dog meat is not uncommon in the Philippines.
Asocena is a dish primarily consisting of dog meat originating from the Philippines.
In the early 1980s, there was an international outcry about dog meat consumption in the Phillipines after newspapers published photos of the then British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, with a dog carcass hanging besides her on a market stall. The British Government discussed withdrawing foreign aid and other countries, such as Australia, considered similar action. To avoid such action, the Filipino government banned the sale of dog meat (despite this being the third most popularly consumed meat after pork and goat). The ban eventually became totally disregarded, although it was reinstated by President Ramos in 1998 in the Animal Welfare Act (Republic Act 8485).
Dogs were historically eaten in Tahiti and other islands of Polynesia, including Hawaii at the time of first European contact. James Cook, when first visiting Tahiti in 1769, recorded in his journal, "few were there of us but what allow'd that a South Sea Dog was next to an English Lamb, one thing in their favour is that they live entirely upon Vegetables". Calwin Schwabe reported in 1979 that dog was widely eaten in Hawaii and considered to be of higher quality than pork or chicken. When Hawaiians first encountered early British and American explorers, they were at a loss to explain the visitors' attitudes about dog meat. The Hawaiians raised both dogs and pigs as pets and for food. They could not understand why their British and American visitors only found the pig suitable for consumption. This practice seems to have died out, along with the native Hawaiian breed of dog, the unique Hawaiian Poi Dog, which was primarily used for this purpose. The consumption of domestic dog meat is still commonplace in the Kingdom of Tonga, and has also been noted in expatriate Tongan communities in New Zealand, Australia, and the United States.
Unlike other countries where dog meat consumption has been shown to have historical precedents, Thailand does not have a mainstream culture of dog eating. However, in recent years, the consumption of dog meat in certain areas of the country, especially in certain northeastern provinces like Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom (specifically Sakon Nakhon province's Tha Rae sub-district, which has been identified as the main center for the country's illegal, albeit lucrative, dog meat trade), have attracted widespread attention from the Thai population and local news media. This has led a large group of Thai citizens to become increasingly vocal against the consumption of dog meat and the selling of dogs that are transported through Laos to neighbouring Mekong countries, including Vietnam and China. According to news reports, a considerable number of these dogs continue to be stolen from people's homes by illegal carriers. This was especially the case following the 2011 Thailand Floods. Dubbed as the country's 'Trade of Shame', Thai netizens, in particular, have now formed several (informal) animal welfare and rescue groups in an attempt to stop this illegal trade, with the collective attitude being that 'Dogs are not food'. Established not-for-profit animal charity organizations like the Soi Dog Foundation have also been active in raising awareness and working in conjunction with local Thai authorities to rehabilitate and relocate dogs rescued from trucks attempting to transport live dogs across the border to nearby countries. Significantly, this issue has strengthened the nation's animal rights movement, which continues to call on the Thai government to adopt a stricter and more comprehensive animal rights law to prevent the maltreatment of pets and cruelty against all animals.
Dog meat is a delicacy popular in East Timor.
Although not commonly eaten, dog meat is sometimes used in Uzbekistan in the belief that it has medicinal properties.
Dog meat is consumed more commonly in the northern part of Vietnam than in the south, and can be found in special restaurants which specifically serve this type of meat. Dog meat is believed to bring good fortune in Vietnam. It is seen as being comparable in consumption to chicken or pork. In any urban areas, there are always sections which house a lot of dog-meat restaurants. For example, on Nhat Tan Street, Tây Hồ District, Hanoi, many restaurants serve dog meat. Groups of customers, usually male, seated on mats, will spend their evenings sharing plates of dog meat and drinking alcohol. The consumption of dog meat can be part of a ritual usually occurring toward the end of the lunar month for reasons of astrology and luck. Restaurants which mainly exist to serve dog meat may only open for the last half of the lunar month. Dog meat is also believed to raise the libido in men. The Associated Press reported in October 2009 that a soaring economy has led to the booming of dog restaurants in Hanoi, and that this has led to a proliferation of dognappers. Reportedly, a 20 kilograms (44 lb) dog can sell for more than $100—roughly the monthly salary of an average Vietnamese worker. The Vietnamese Catholic Church is a major consumer of dog meat during the Christmas holiday. In Thailand there is a massive smuggling trade to export dogs to Vietnam for human consumption.
Prior to 2014, more than 5 million dogs were killed for meat every year in Vietnam according to the Asia Canine Protection Alliance, however, there are indications that the desire to eat dog meat in Vietnam is declining. Part of the decline is thought to be due to more Vietnamese starting to keep dogs as pets as their incomes have risen in the past few decades. “[People] used to raise dogs to guard the house, and when they needed the meat, they ate it. Now they keep dog as pets, imported from China, Japan, and other countries. One pet dog might cost hundreds of millions of dong [100 million dong is $4,677].”
Britain & Ireland
Eating dog meat, in common with most European societies, is considered entirely taboo and has been for many centuries outside of times of scarcity such as sieges or famines. However, early Brittonic and Irish texts which date from the early Christian period suggest that dog meat was sometimes consumed but possibly in ritual contexts such as Druidic ritual trance. Sacrificial dog bones are often recovered from archaeological sites however they were typically treated differently, as were horses, from other food animals. One of Irish hero Cuchulainn's two birth geasa was to avoid the meat of dogs, the breaking of which led to his inevitable downfall.
A few meat shops sold dog meat during the German occupation of Belgium in World War I, when food was extremely scarce. According to The New York Times, in the 19th century the Council of the Veterinary School of Belgium occasionally recommended dog meat for human consumption after being properly inspected.
Although consumption of dog meat is uncommon in France, and is now considered taboo, dog meat has been consumed in the past by the Gauls. The earliest evidence of dog consumption in France was found at Gaulish archaeological sites, where butchered dog bones were discovered. French news sources from the late 19th century carried stories reporting lines of people buying dog meat, which was described as being "beautiful and light." During the Siege of Paris (1870–1871), there were lines at butcher's shops of people waiting to purchase dog meat. Dog meat was also reported as being sold by some butchers in Paris, 1910.
Dog meat has been eaten in every major German crisis at least since the time of Frederick the Great, and is commonly referred to as "blockade mutton". In the early 20th century, high meat prices led to widespread consumption of horse and dog meat in Germany.
The consumption of dog meat continued in the 1920s. In 1937, a meat inspection law targeted against trichinella was introduced for pigs, dogs, boars, foxes, badgers, and other carnivores. Dog meat has been prohibited in Germany since 1986.
During severe meat shortages coinciding with the German occupation from 1940 to 1945, sausages found to have been made of dog meat were confiscated by authorities in the Netherlands.
While the meat is not eaten, in some rural areas of Poland in tunch, specially Lesser Poland dog fat can be made into lard, which by tradition is believed to have medicinal properties—being good for the lungs, for instance. Since the 16th century, fat from various animals, including dogs, was used as part of folk medicine, and since the 18th century, dog fat has had a reputation as being beneficial for the lungs. It is worth noting that the consumption of such meat is considered taboo in Polish culture, also making lard out of dogs' fat is illegal. In 2009, a scandal erupted when a farm near Częstochowa was discovered rearing dogs to be rendered down into lard. According to Grazyna Zawada, from Gazeta Wyborcza, there were farms in Czestochowa, Klobuck, and in the Radom area, and in the decade from 2000 to 2010 six people producing dog lard were found guilty of breaching animal welfare laws (found guilty of killing dogs and animal cruelty) and sentenced to jail.
In his 1979 book Unmentionable Cuisine, Calvin Schwabe described a Swiss dog meat recipe gedörrtes Hundefleisch served as paper-thin slices, as well as smoked dog ham, Hundeschinken, which is prepared by salting and drying raw dog meat.
- Ann Yong-Geun "Dog Meat Foods in Korea", Table 4. Composition of dog meat and Bosintang (in 100g, raw meat), Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition 12(4) 397 – 408 (1999).
- Schwabe, Calvin W. (1979). Unmentionable cuisine. University of Virginia Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-8139-1162-5.
- "Dachshunds Are Tenderer". Time Magazine. November 25, 1940. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Douglas Mawson. "The Home of the Blizzard".
- Rupert Wingfield-Hayes (29 June 2002). "China's taste for the exotic". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- Anthony L. Podberscek (2009). "Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South Korea" (PDF). Journal of Social Issues 65 (3): 615–632. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x.
Dog meat is eaten nationwide and all year round, although it is most commonly eaten during summer, especially on the (supposedly) three hottest days.
- "Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC News. 31 December 2001. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- Czajkowski, C. (2014). "Dog meat trade in South Korea: A report on the current state of the trade and efforts to eliminate it". Animal Law 21: 29–151.
- Podberscek, A.L. (2009). "Good to pet and eat: The keeping and consuming of dogs and cats in South Korea" (PDF). Journal of Social Issues 65 (3): 615–632. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x.
- William Saletan (January 16, 2002). "Wok the dog – what's wrong with eating man's best friend?". slate.com. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- Ahmed Zihni (2004). "Dog meat dilemma". sunysb.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- "‘Do Koreans eat dogs?‘ and Western hypocrisy".
- John Feffer (June 2, 2002). "The Politics of Dog – When globalization and culinary practice clash". Archived from the original on 2006-04-27. Retrieved 2007-05-11.
- "Salon editorial: An olympic disgrace".
- Bacon, H.J. "Dog management and the meat industry in China" (PDF). Jeanne Marchig International Centre for Animal Welfare Education, University of Edinburgh.
- "Celebrities join campaign to stop dog meat festival in China". AsiaOne (Singapore Press Holdings Ltd. Co.). June 18, 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Fullerton, J. (June 22, 2015). "Yulin dog meat festival: Chinese city retains its appetite despite months of protests". The Independent. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Fullerton, J. (June 17, 2015). "Yulin Dog Meat Festival: Netizens rally in defence of event that will see 10,000 cats and dogs slaughtered". The Independent. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Eric Thys & Olivier Nyssens Préparation et commercialisation de la viande canine chez les Vamé Mbrémé population animiste des monts Mandara. in "Tropical Animal Production for the Benefit of Man. Antwerp, 1982, pp. 511–517.
- Simoons, Frederick J. (1994). Eat not this flesh: food avoidances from prehistory to the present (2 ed.). Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-299-14254-4.
- Nair, D. (May 5, 2013). "Dog meat sausage scandal grips Morocco as owners fight law banning aggressive breeds". International Business Times. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
- Murray, Senan (2007-03-06). "Dog's dinners prove popular in Nigeria". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-03-06.
- Willy Volk (March 7, 2007). ""Man bites dog": Dining on dog meat in Nigeria". gadling.com.
- Isaac Shobayo. "EBOLA: Jos residents shun bush meat, stick to dog meat". tribune.com.ng.
- "Canine carcasses at Edmonton restaurant were coyotes". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 11, 2003. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
- LEGAL GUIDE: ANIMALS AND THE CRIMINAL LAW (CANADA) – Ch. 6 Penalties
- About THE XOLOITZCUINTLE (archived from the original on 2012-07-19), Xolo Rescue USA (archived from the original on 2012-07-14).
- Cortés, Hernan; trans. Anthony Pagden (1986). Letters from Mexico. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03799-6.
- Inc, Time (January 28, 1957). "Hairless Dogs Revived". Life Magazine: 93. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
- *Wilton, David (2004), Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517284-1
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com.
- "Donner Party Ate Family Dog, Maybe Not People : Discovery News". News.discovery.com. 2010-04-15. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "A new cure for consumption is being tried in Shelbyville, Ind. It is an exclusive diet of dog meat.". A Florence Bank in Trouble - Telegraphic Brevities (The New York Times). 1891.
- "Patrons of dog meat". The New York Times. 1885.
- "A family living on dog meat". The New York Times. March 12, 1876.
- "Miners eat horses and dogs". The New York Times. 1904.
- "The great Chiefs". Native Radio. 1911-02-23. Retrieved 2012-10-24. (archived from the original on 2012-03-18)
- Guts and Grease: The Diet of Native Americans (archived from the original on 2006-09-25)
- "Back Through the Gorge, 1806". Lewis-clark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "Ecola". Lewis-clark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "Change of Heart". Lewis-clark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "Lemhi Pass to Fort Clatsop". Lewis-clark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "September 17, "Sinque Hole Camp"". Lewis-clark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "Sex, Dog Meat, and the Lash: Odd Facts About Lewis and Clark". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- The Mexican Kickapoo Indians Felipe A. Latorre and Dolores L. Latorre (1976).
- WPA Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma Ed Cooley (July 29, 1937)
- WPA Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma Albert Couch (October 12, 1937)
- "Is eating cats or dogs legal?". Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Roald Amundsen. "The South Pole".
- Wade, Nicholas (7 September 2009). "In Taming Dogs, Humans May Have Sought a Meal". New York Times. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
- Liang Shih-chiu (2005). Ya she xiao pin xuan ji. Chinese University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-962-996-219-7. Translated by Ta-tsun Chen.
- Simoons, Frederick J. (1991). Food in China: a cultural and historical inquiry. CRC Press. pp. 24, 38, 149, 305, 309–315, 317, 332. ISBN 978-0-8493-8804-0.
- Jeffries, Stuart (2004-12-29). "Fang shui". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2006-09-04.
- "Dog meat row hits HK chain". BBC News. 4 August 2002.
- Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi (2007). The Nanking atrocity, 1937–38: complicating the picture (illustrated ed.). Berghahn Books. p. 235. ISBN 978-1-84545-180-6.
- "How many cats & dogs are eaten in Asia? AP 9.03". animalpeoplenews.org.
- "Inside the cat and dog meat market in China". cnn.com.
- "Pets snatched and butchered for food - Global Times". globaltimes.cn.
- "'Tech-savvy citizen rescues 69 dogs from becoming dinner'". Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Ge Gabriel, G. (2014). "Enlightened Chinese public condemns dog meat consumption". IFAW. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- O'Neil, L. (June 22, 2015). "Dog meat festival in China takes place despite massive online protest". CBC News. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
- "Southwest China hospital staff ordered to stay away from ‘dog meat festival’". South Morning China Post. June 13, 2014. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- "陝西榆林10天美食節 1萬5千隻狗慘遭下肚 | 大陸新聞 | NOWnews 今日新聞網". Nownews.com. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "China Yulin dog meat festival under way despite outrage". BBC. June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- Schipper, Nienke (22 June 2015). "Gemoederen lopen hoog op bij discussie over hondenvlees-festival". Trouw (in Dutch). Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- Keating F. (June 21, 2015). "China dog meat estival: Business is 'booming' say dog and cat meat traders". International Business Times. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- "Activists protest dog-eating tradition". china.org.cn. 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- Huifeng, H. (2014). "Dog-eating festival loses its bite as animal rights activists step in". South China Morning Post. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- "Guangzhou bans eating snakes—ban helps cats". Retrieved 2008-02-16.
- China bans dog from Olympic menu, BBC News, 11 July 2008.
- Li Xianzhi, 2010-01-27, Eating cats, dogs could be outlawed, Xinhua News Agency
- Trung Quốc sắp sửa cấm ăn thịt chó, mèo (Vietnamese)
- "China to jail people for up to 15 days who eat dog". China Daily. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- Kaiman, J. "Chinese dog-eating festival backlash grows". The Guardian. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- Rosen, E. (2014). "To eat dog, or not to eat dog". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- Sun, C. (2015). "Dog meat restaurant in Guangzhou closes amid ‘falling demand’". South China Morning Post. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Dogs and cats ordinance". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1950-01-06. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
- "Slaughter of dog or cat for food prohibited". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1997-06-30. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
- "Slaughter of dog or cat for food – Penalty". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1997-06-30. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
- Cheng, Jonathan (2006-12-23). "Dog-for-food butchers jailed (DUBIOUS first case)". The Standard – China's Business Newspaper. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- "First Case Imprisonment in HK for Dog Meal". 2006-05-29. Retrieved 2006-12-23.
- "Taiwan bans dog meat". BBC News. 2 January 2001. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- "Taiwan law takes bite out of dog meat sales". 17 December 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Activists expose dog meat trade". Taipei Times. 2011-06-23. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "Dog meat, a delicacy in Mizoram". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 20 December 2004. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Tribal Naga Dog meat delicacy". Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- "Manipur – a slice of Switzerland in India". Times of India (Chennai, India). 19 July 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Shepherd, Jack, All About Indonesian Dog Meat, BuzzFeed
- "Mercato shock in Indonesia, dai cani ai pitoni arrosto in vendita". adnkronos. 2014-03-31. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "Minahasa" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-12-20.
- Nihon Shoki Chapter 29 – Kanbun: 亦四月朔以後。九月三十日以前。莫置比満沙伎理梁。且莫食牛・馬・犬・猿・鶏之完。以外不在禁例。 English: Also, from the first day of the first[sic. it should read fourth] month until the 30th day of the ninth month, it is prohibited to use hinasakiri or fish traps. Also, cow, horse, dog, monkey, and chicken meat is not to be eaten. Meats outside of these are not prohibited.
- Hanley, Susan B. (1999). Everyday things in premodern Japan: the hidden legacy of material culture. University of California Press. p. 66. ISBN 0-520-21812-4.
- (Japanese) 平成20年動物検疫年報仕出地域別輸入検疫状況, Quarantine Statics, The Animal Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan).
- A Study of the favorite Foods of the Balhae People Yang Ouk-da
- Aisin Gioro & Jin, p. 18.
- "The South Korean Dog Meat Trade". Animal Welfare Institute.
- "Statistics on the Dog Meat Industry". Korea Animal Rights Advocates. Percentage of Population Eating Dog Meat.
- Do Koreans Really Eat Dog? about.com
- Kim 2008, p. 209
- Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge" (PDF). Animal Law Review 14 (2): 231.
- "Dog Meat to Be Subject to Livestock Rules". The Chosun Ilbo. Mar 24, 2008.
- 국민 절반 '개고기 축산물로 관리해야 한다' [Half of citizens [say] 'Dog Meat Should be Controlled as Livestock Product']. The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). Mar 28, 2008. (Translation)
- Hankyore (Korean)
- Podberscek, Anthony L. (2009). "Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South Korea" (PDF). Journal of Social Issues 65 (3): 615–632. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x.
- Dog Meat Foods in Korea, Ann, Yong-Geun, Korean Medical Database
- "South Korea promotes dog meat". BBC News. 2002-01-13.
- "Korean Group Creates Dogmeat Association". FOX News Network. Associated Press. January 11, 2002.
- Hopkins, Jerry; Bourdain, Anthony; Freeman, Michael (2004). Extreme Cuisine: The Weird & Wonderful Foods That People Eat. Tuttle Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 0-7946-0255-X.
- 보신탕 논란, 그 해법은? [Bosintang Controversy: What is the Solution?] (in Korean). National Assembly Tele Vision. Aug 9, 2006. (Translation)
- Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge" (PDF). Animal Law Review 14 (2): 202.
- South Korea's dog day, BBC News, 17 August 1999.
- Pettid, Michael J., Korean Cuisine: An Illustrated History, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2008, 84–85.
- "Dailynk.com". Dailynk.com. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- Fox, Michael (2009-08-19). "In defence of dog eating – national". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- Samson, M. "Do Filipino Americans eat dogs? Filipinos, Filipino Americans, and the dog eating stereotype.". sfsuyellowjournal.
- "Metro Manila Commission Ordinance 82-05". Archived from the original on 2005-12-05.
- "The Animal Welfare Act 1998". Retrieved 2006-08-30.
- Desiree Caluza (2006-01-17). "Dog meat eating doesn’t hound Cordillera natives". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2006-02-19. Retrieved 2006-10-27.
- "Resolution 05-392". Province of Benguet. 2006-01-17. Retrieved 2006-10-27. (archived from the original on 2007-09-30)
- Chase, A. (2002). "Strange foods". Gastronomica 2 (2): 94–96.
- Titcomb, M. (1969). Dog and Man in the Ancient Pacific. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 59. ISBN 0-910240-10-8.
- Ellis, W. (1839). Polynesian Researches 4. London: Fisher, Jackson. ISBN 1-4325-4966-9.
- Mumford, David (1971). The Explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-22766-9.
- "Auckland man Paea Taufa cooked his pet dog in a backyard barbecue | thetelegraph.com.au". Dailytelegraph.com.au. 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "'Vietnam Demand for Dog Meat Keeps Thai Dog Trade Alive'". Very Vietnam. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
- "'Thai authorities seize 800 dogs destined for Indochina meat trade'". Pattaya Daily News. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- "'Business booming for the dog smugglers of the Mekong'". CNN. 2012-01-25. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
- "'The rise of the dog snatchers'". The Bangkok Post. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
- "'You Can Help Stop the Slaughter...'". The Soi Dog Foundation. Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "Democratic Republic of East Timor" (PDF). worldconflictstoday.com. p. 3.
- "Uzbekistan news report on dog restaurants". Uznews.net. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC News. 2001-12-31.
- "Hanoi dog meat restaurants come under scrutiny after cholera outbreak". Vietnamnet. Archived from the original on 2009-04-27. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- "Cholera, bird flu present, but VN still A/H1N1-free". Vietnamnet. Retrieved 2009-05-15. Retrieved from Internet Archive 12 January 2014.
- "Museum of London Blog The curious case of the dog in the... » Museum of London Blog". Museum of London Blog.
- "We found the meat shops all closed, ... with three exceptions, namely; shops that have recently and openly sold dog meat.... The average price were 12 francs a kilo, bones and all, (about $1.30 a pound) and some meat that had been obtained by special exertions for the soup kitchens." "Meat Shops Closed As Belgians Go Hungry". The New York Times. July 23, 1916.
- "The Council of the Veterinary School of Belgium even recommended dog meat for human food after being properly inspected". Eating The Old Mare (The New York Times). October 8, 1888.
- Mallher, X.; B. Denis (1989). Le Chien, animal de boucherie. pp. 81–84.
- Romi (1993). Histoire des festins insolites et de la goinfrerie, Artulen, Paris.
- Romi (1993). Histoire des festins insolites et de la goinfrerie.
- Boitani, Luige; Monique Bourdin (1997). L'ABCdaire du chien.
- "Germany's dog meat market; Consumption of Canines and Horses Is on the Increase." (PDF). The New York Times. June 23, 1907. Retrieved 2008-01-20., Bureau Of Manufactures, United States; Bureau Of Foreign Commerce (1854–1903), United States; Bureau Of Statistics, United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor (1900). "Monthly consular and trade reports, Volume 64, Issues 240–243.". United States. Bureau of Manufactures, Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Dept. of Commerce. Retrieved 2009-09-29.
- "Use Horse and Dog Meat – Germans forced to that diet by high price of other meat". The New York Times. 1900.
- "...the German breeders... heightened the price to such an extent that horse, and even dog's meat, has become staple with the poorer classes in certain districts, and notably in the large cities". American Food In Germany. The New York Times. 1898.
- "DOGS AS MEAT IN MUNICH; Butcher's Shop Hangs Sign Offering Either to Buy or Sell". The New York Times. 1923.
- "GERMANS STILL EAT DOGS; Berlin Police Chief Issues Rules for Inspection of the Meat". The New York Times. 1925.
- RGBl "Fleischbeschaugesetz (Meat Inspection Law), § 1a" I. (Reich Law Gazette. 1937. p. 458. then becoming § 1 para. 3, RGBl. 1940 I p. 1463 (in German)
- Fleischhygienegesetz (Law on Meat Hygiene), § 1 para. 1 sent. 4, BGBl. (Federal Law Gazette) 1986 I p. 398 (in German).
- "FEAR OF FAMINE APPALS AUSTRIA; Charges of Cannibalism by Vienna Workmen Are Officially Hushed Up. PEOPLE JEER AT THE WAR. German Promises of Victory Flouted—Soldiers Beg for Bread and Long for Peace. Quaratine Against Bolshevism. Real Famine in the Country. Saxons Eat Camels and Dogs", New York Times, May 22, 1918
- "NETHERLANDERS SEEK SUNDAY MEAT IN VAIN; Food Situation Becomes Acute as Nazis Seize Dog Sausage". New York Times. 1940-12-08. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Day, Matthew (2009-08-07). ""Polish couple accused of making dog meat delicacy", ''Telegraph''". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- Schwabe 1979, p. 173
- FDHA Ordinance of 23 November 2005 on food of animal origin, Art.2.
- "Dogs and cats 'still eaten in Switzerland'". thelocal.ch.
- "Forget chocolate or cheese: Cat and dog meat is Swiss delicacy". scotsman.com.
- Aisin Gioro, Ulhicun; Jin, Shi. "Manchuria from the Fall of the Yuan to the rise of the Manchu State (1368-1636)" (PDF). Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge". Animal Law 14 (2): 201–236. SSRN 1325574.
- Colting, Fredrik; Carl-Johan Gadd (2005-07-10). Magnus Andersson Gadd, ed. The Pet Cookbook: Have your best Friend for dinner. Canada: Nicotext. ISBN 91-974883-4-8.
- Yong-Geun Ann, Ph.D. Dog Meat (in Korean and English). Hyoil Book Publishing Company. (contains some recipes)
- Dressler, Uwe; Alexander Neumeister (2003-05-01). Der Kalte Hund (in German). Dresden: IBIS-Ed. ISBN 3-8330-0650-1.
- Zawada, Grazyna (October 28, 2010). "Szesc psow w sloiku". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). Retrieved March 26, 2014.
||This section includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but the sources of this section remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (June 2015)|
- CNN: Inside the cat and dog meat market in China
- BBC News: China bans dog meat from Olympic menu
- BBC News: Chinese dogs rescued from dinner table
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dog meat.|
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|