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The term mecha (メカ meka) may refer to both scientific ideas and science fiction genres that centers on robots or machines controlled by people. Mechas are typically depicted as "walker" types of Mobile robots.
These machines vary greatly in size and shape, but are distinguished from vehicles by their humanoid or biomorphic appearance. Different subgenres exist, with varying connotations of realism. The concept of Super Robot and Real Robot are two such examples found in Japanese anime. The term may also refer to real world piloted humanoid robots / non-humanoid robotic platforms, either currently in existence or still on the drawing board (i.e. at the planning or design stage). Alternatively, in the original Japanese context of the word (see Characteristics), 'mecha' may refer to mobile machinery/vehicles (including aircraft) in general, manned or otherwise.
The word "mecha" (メカ meka) is an abbreviation first used in Japanese of the word "mechanical". In Japanese, mecha encompasses all mechanical objects, including cars, guns, computers, and other devices, and the term "robot" (ロボット robotto) or "giant robot" to distinguish limbed vehicles from other mechanical devices. Outside of this usage, it has become associated with large robots with limbs or other biological characteristics.
While the distinction is often hazy, mecha typically does not refer to form-fitting powered armor such as Iron Man's suit. They are usually much larger than the wearer, like Iron Man's enemy the Iron Monger, and possess a cockpit from which they are operated.
In most fiction in which they appear, mecha are fighting machines, whose appeal comes from the combination of potent weaponry with a more stylish combat style than a mere vehicle. Often, they are the primary means of combat, with conflicts sometimes being decided through gladiatorial matches. Other works represent mecha as one component of an integrated military force, supported by and fighting alongside tanks, fighter aircraft, and infantry, functioning as a mechanical cavalry. The applications often highlight the theoretical usefulness of such a device, combining a tank's resilience and firepower with infantry's ability to cross unstable terrain and a high degree of customization. In some continuities, special scenarios are constructed to make mecha more viable than current-day status. For example, in Gundam the fictional Minovsky particle inhibits the use of radar, making long-range ballistic strikes impractical, thus favouring relatively close range warfare of Mobile Suits.
However, some stories, such as the manga/anime series Patlabor and the American wargame BattleTech universe, also encompass mecha used for civilian purposes such as heavy construction work, police functions or firefighting. Mecha also see roles as transporters, recreation, advanced hazmat suits and other R and D applications.
Mecha have been used in fantasy settings, for example in the anime series Aura Battler Dunbine, The Vision of Escaflowne, Panzer World Galient and Maze. In those cases, the mecha designs are usually based on some alternative or 'lost' science-fiction technology from ancient times. In case of anime series Zoids, the machines resemble dinosaurs and animals, and have been shown to evolve from native metallic organisms.
The 1880 Jules Verne novel La Maison à vapeur (The Steam House) featured a steam-powered, piloted, mechanical elephant. One of the first appearances of such machines in modern literature was the tripods of H. G. Wells' famous The War of the Worlds (1897). The novel does not contain a fully detailed description of the tripods' (or "fighting-machine", as they are known in the novel) mode of locomotion, however it is hinted at: "Can you imagine a milking stool tilted and bowled violently along the ground? That was the impression those instant flashes gave. But instead of a milking stool imagine it a great body of machinery on a tripod stand."
Two of the earliest uses of mecha in the United States were Kimball Kinnison's battle suit in E. E. "Doc" Smith's Lensman novel Galactic Patrol (1950), and the Mobile Infantry battle suits in Robert Heinlein's Starship Troopers (1958).
Mecha were popularized by Japanese anime and manga. The first humanoid giant robot is Tetsujin 28-Go, introduced in 1956. Tetsujin was controlled externally by an operator via remote control. The first occurrence of mecha being piloted by a user from within a cockpit was introduced in the manga and anime series Mazinger Z by Go Nagai, first published in 1972.
In manga and anime
In Japan, "robot anime" (known as "mecha anime" outside Japan) is one of the oldest genres in anime. Robot anime is often tied in with toy manufacturers. Large franchises such as Zoids and Gundam have hundreds of different model kits.
The size of mecha can vary according to the story and concepts involved. Some of them may not be considerably taller than a tank (Armored Trooper Votoms, Megazone 23, Code Geass), some may be a few stories tall (Gundam, Escaflowne, Bismark, Gurren Lagann), others can be as tall as a skyscraper (Space Runaway Ideon, Genesis of Aquarion, Neon Genesis Evangelion), some are big enough to contain an entire city (Macross), some the size of a planet (Diebuster), galaxies (Getter Robo, Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann), or even as large as universes (Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann: Lagann-hen, Demonbane).
The first giant robot seen was Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1956 manga Tetsujin 28-go. However, it wasn't until the advent of Go Nagai's Mazinger Z that the genre was established. Mazinger Z innovated by adding the inclusion of futuristic weapons, and the concept of being able to pilot from a cockpit (rather than via remote control, in the case of Tetsujin). According to Go Nagai:
I wanted to create something different, and I thought it would be interesting to have a robot that you could drive, like a car.
Mazinger Z featured giant robots which were "piloted by means of a small flying car and command center that docked inside the head." It was also a pioneer in die-cast metal toys such as the Chogokin series in Japan and the Shogun Warriors in the U.S., that were (and still are) very popular with children and collectors.
Robot/mecha anime and manga differ vastly in storytelling and animation quality from title to title, and content ranges all the way from children's shows to ones intended for an older teen or adult audience.
Some robot mecha are capable of transformation (Macross, Zeta Gundam, Transformers and Nintendo-Monolith'S XenoX from Doll/Skell as transforms) or combining to form even bigger ones (Beast King GoLion and Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann). Go Nagai is also often credited with inventing this in 1974 with the television series Getter Robo.
Not all mecha need be completely mechanical. Some have biological components with which to interface with their pilots, and some are partially biological themselves, such as Neon Genesis Evangelion, Eureka Seven, and Zoids.
Mecha based on anime have seen extreme cultural reception across the world. The personification of this popularity can be seen as 1:1 size Mazinger Z, Tetsujin, and Gundam statues built across the world.
- The Star Wars series of films contained the Walkers, such as the AT-AT and AT-ST.
- The film Robot Jox, is based around gladiatorial combat between giant mecha.
- Sentinel 2099, a 1995 film, features a 40 foot tall walking tank called a Sentinel unit. They are used to combat an alien race known as the Zisk.
- In The Matrix Revolutions, Captain Mifune leads the human defense of Zion, piloting open-cockpit mecha called APUs against invading Sentinels.
- In James Cameron's 2009 film Avatar, mecha are used as instruments of war called AMPs.
- In Shane Acker's 2009 animated film 9, giant walking war machines called Steel Behemoths were created by the Fabrication Machine to destroy all life on earth.
- A heavily weaponized powered exoskeleton that envelops the operator is featured in the 2009 film District 9, and aptly named the Exo-suit.
- Guillermo del Toro's 2013 film Pacific Rim focuses on a war between humans who pilot massive mechas known as Jaegers and Kaiju monsters that emerge from the Pacific Ocean.
- In The Amazing Spider-Man 2, the Rhino abandons the traditional skin tight rhino-like exoskeleton in favor of a powerful, one person mechsuit with some of the same physical traits, such as super strength and defense. The suit design is also kept roughly the same from the comic books.
- In the film Iron Man, the Iron Monger, a powered exoskeleton suit operated by Obadiah Stane, is another example of mecha.
- In the final scenes of The Lego Movie, the main protagonist Emmet creates a giant construction mech made of yellow Lego pieces which he pilots to fight in the final battle against Lord Business' forces.
- In Avengers: Age of Ultron Iron Man uses a mecha named the Hulkbuster to fight the Hulk.
In video games
Mecha are often featured in computer and console video games. Because of their size and fictional power, mecha are quite popular subjects for games, both tabletop and electronic. They have been featured in video games since the 1980s, particularly in vehicular combat and shooter games, including Sesame Japan's side-scrolling shooter game Vastar in 1983, various Gundam games such as Mobile Suit Gundam: Last Shooting in 1984 and Z-Gundam: Hot Scramble in 1986, the run and gun shooters Hover Attack in 1984 and Thexder in 1985, and Arsys Software's 3D role-playing shooters WiBArm in 1986 and Star Cruiser in 1988. Historically mecha-based games have been more popular in Japan than in other countries.
- A popular classic of mecha in games is the MechWarrior series of video games, which takes place in the Battletech universe. Another game, Heavy Gear 2 offers a complex yet semi-realistic control system for its mecha in both terrain and outer space warfare.
- Armored Core is a mecha series developed by FromSoftware, combining industrial customizable mecha designs with fast-paced action.
- Intelligent Systems-developed and Nintendo-Published games that feature mecha include Battle Clash and Metal Combat: Falcon's Revenge, a Single-player/Shooter series Mecha of games with real robot-style All battles are fought with mechs called Standing Tanks (ST).
- Squaresoft-developed games that feature mecha include Front Mission, a turn-based tactical series of games with real robot-style mecha utilized by near future military forces. Xenogears also used mecha, called Gears, as a main aspect of the story, and the series continues the use of mecha with the Monolith Soft-developed Xenoblade (in the form of the "Face Units") and Xenoblade Chronicles X.
- Older American Tabletop games, Battletech, uses hex-maps, miniatures & paper record sheets that allow players to use mecha in tactical situations and record realistic damage, while add RPG elements when desired. It is from Battletech that the term 'mech (a contraction of Battlemech) was popularized, but 'mech is not to be confused with the more general term of Mecha.
- The games of Hideo Kojima, including the Metal Gear series and Zone of the Enders, include mecha as part of their main premise. In the former, which takes place during the modern day and near future, prototype nuclear-capable bipedal tanks called Metal Gears are a recurring element. In the latter, real robots called LEVs exist alongside a more super robot-like mecha type known as the Orbital Frame.
- In the tabletop game Warhammer 40,000, the forces use mecha of a variety of sizes and shapes.
- The Monolith Productions game Shogo: Mobile Armor Division blended Mecha game-play with that of traditional first-person shooter games.
- Popular MOBA (Multiplayer online battle arena) PC game League of Legends, developed by Riot Games, include Mecha as part of champion skins, designed as super robots (Mecha Malphite, Mecha Kha Zix, Mecha Aatrox etc.).
- In Titanfall and Titanfall 2 from Respawn Entertainment, mechas are heavily involved within gameplay and the story.
Real walking vehicles
A "walking vehicle" is a vehicle that moves on legs rather than wheels or tracks. Walking vehicles have been constructed with anywhere from one to more than eight legs. They are classified according to the number of legs with common configurations being one leg (pogo stick or "hopper"), two legs (biped), four legs (quadruped), and six legs (hexapod).
While the mobility of walking vehicles is arguably higher than that of wheeled or tracked vehicles, their inherent complexity has limited their use mainly to experimental vehicles. Examples of manned walking vehicles include General Electric's Walking truck, the University of Duisburg-Essen's ALDURO. Timberjack, a subsidiary of John Deere, built a practical hexapod Walking Forest Machine (harvester). One of the most sophisticated real-world walking vehicles is the Martin Montensano-built 'Walking Beast', a 7-ton quadrapod experimental vehicle suspended by four hydraulic binary-configuration limbs with much greater dexterity.
Some walking machines such as the BigDog, an autonomous robot, have been designed for the potential military applications. The largest walking machine ever made is the Big Muskie dragline excavator, used primarily in mining operations.
The Dragon of Furth im Wald, a quadrupedal animatronic dragon created for a German festival, was recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the "World's biggest walking robot". It is operated by remote control rather than a pilot.
At the end of 2016, Korea Future Technology built a prototype of a robot called METHOD-1, that could qualify as a Mecha. The robot could walk, and its driver could control the robot's arms individually.
In 2015, MegaBots Inc. created the MegaBots Mk. II which is a 15-foot tall bipedal mecha and Suidobashi heavy industry built the Kuratas which is a quad-pedal mecha in 2012; both are scheduled to compete against each other, however the competition was delayed and will now pit the MegaBots Mk. III versus the Kuratas. Chinese inventors created the "Monkey King" and have challenged MegaBots Inc.'s mecha.  
- Category:Mechanical designers (mecha)
- Chicken walker
- Klann linkage
- Land Walker (a machine developed in Japan that imitates a bipedal mecha)
- List of fictional mecha
- Mobile robot
- Model robot
- Powered exoskeleton
- Sentry gun
Notes and references
- "Anime glossary". Archived from the original on 2007-05-19.[not in citation given]
- Mark Gilson, "A Brief History of Japanese Robophilia", Leonardo 31 (5), p. 367–369 .
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2004-05-29. Retrieved 2004-05-29.
- Vastar at the Killer List of Videogames
- Carlo Savorelli, Z Gundam, Hardcore Gaming 101
- "Iron Rain". Next Generation. No. 17. Imagine Media. May 1996. p. 86.
- Sabbagh, Michel (December 17, 2015). "Effort Upon Effort: Japanese Influences in Western First-Person Shooters" (PDF). Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Arts, Electronic (2017-03-22). "Titanfall 2". ea.com. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
- on YouTube
- Further Drache (2010). "Further Drache". The Dragon of Furth im Wald. Municipality of Furth im Wald. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "A mech for modern times: Method-1 is your sci-fi fantasy come to life". Digital Trends. 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- "Chinese inventors show off the gladiator robot they want to use to challenge the US' 'Megabot'". Business Insider. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
- "America takes on Japan in terrifying giant mech battle this August". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
- "MegaBots". MegaBots. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
- "Update: Japan-U.S. Giant Robot Duel Still On, But Delayed". New Equipment Digest. 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
- Gears Online
- Mecha Anime HQ: Extensive coverage on Gundams and other mecha.
- Mecha Co.
- Entry in the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
- Giant RoboWar
- Walking Beast built by Martin Montesano: A short 2009 YouTube video taken at that year's Burning Man event.
- Japanese Animation Guide: The History of Robot Anime