Mecillinam

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Mecillinam
Mecillinam.svg
Mecillinam-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
Trade names Coactin, Leo, Selexid, Selexidin
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Pregnancy
category
  • Appears safe in pregnancy[1]
Routes of
administration
Intravenous, intramuscular
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Negligible
Protein binding 5 to 10%
Metabolism Some hepatic metabolism
Elimination half-life 1 to 3 hours
Excretion Renal and biliary, mostly unchanged
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.046.601 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C15H23N3O3S
Molar mass 325.426 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
 ☒N☑Y (what is this?)  (verify)

Mecillinam (INN) or amdinocillin (USAN) is an extended-spectrum penicillin antibiotic of the amidinopenicillin class that binds specifically to penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP2),[2] and is only considered to be active against Gram-negative bacteria. It is used primarily in the treatment of urinary tract infections, and has also been used to treat typhoid and paratyphoid fever.[3][4] Because mecillinam has very low oral bioavailability, an orally active prodrug was developed: pivmecillinam. Neither drug is available in the United States.[5]

Medical uses[edit]

Mecillinam is used in the treatment of infections due to susceptible gram-negative bacteria, especially urinary tract infections which are most commonly caused by Escherichia coli.[6] Mecillinam is active against most pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some species of Proteus.[5] Several studies have also found it to be as effective as other antibiotics for treating Staphylococcus saprophyticus infection, though it is Gram-positive, possibly because mecillinam reaches very high concentrations in urine.[1]

Worldwide resistance to mecillinam in bacteria causing urinary tract infection has remained very low since its introduction; a 2003 study conducted in 16 European countries and Canada found resistance to range from 1.2% (Escherichia coli) to 5.2% (Proteus mirabilis).[7] Another large study conducted in Europe and Brazil obtained similar results — 95.9% of E. coli strains, for instance, were sensitive to mecillinam.[8]

Adverse effects[edit]

The adverse effect profile of mecillinam is similar to that of other penicillins.[2] Its most common side effects are rash and gastrointestinal upset, including nausea and vomiting.[1]

History[edit]

With the codename FL 1060, mecillinam was developed by the Danish pharmaceutical company Leo Pharmaceutical Products (now LEO Pharma). It was first described in the scientific literature in a 1972 paper.[9][10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Nicolle LE (August 2000). "Pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections". J Antimicrob Chemother. 46 (Suppl A): 35–39. doi:10.1093/jac/46.suppl_1.35. PMID 10969050. 
  2. ^ a b Neu HC (1985). "Amdinocillin: a novel penicillin. Antibacterial activity, pharmacology and clinical use". Pharmacotherapy. 5 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1002/j.1875-9114.1985.tb04448.x. PMID 3885172. 
  3. ^ Clarke PD, Geddes AM, McGhie D, Wall JC (July 1976). "Mecillinam: a new antibiotic for enteric fever". Br Med J. 2 (6026): 14–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6026.14. PMC 1687648Freely accessible. PMID 820402. 
  4. ^ Geddes AM, Clarke PD (July 1977). "The treatment of enteric fever with mecillinam". J Antimicrob Chemother. 3 Suppl B: 101–2. doi:10.1093/jac/3.suppl_b.101. PMID 408321. 
  5. ^ a b Pham P, Bartlett JG (August 28, 2008). "Amdinocillin (Mecillinam)". Point-of-Care Information Technology ABX Guide. Johns Hopkins University.  Retrieved on August 31, 2008. Freely available with registration.
  6. ^ Wagenlehner, FME; Schmiemann, G; Hoyme, U; Fünfstück, R; Hummers-Pradier, E; Kaase, M; Kniehl, E; Selbach, I; Sester, U; Vahlensieck, W; Watermann, D; Naber, KG (12 February 2011). "Nationale S3-Leitlinie "Unkomplizierte Harnwegsinfektionen"" [National S3 guideline on uncomplicated urinary tract infection: recommendations for treatment and management of uncomplicated community-acquired bacterial urinary tract infections in adult patients]. Der Urologe (in German). 50 (2): 153–169. doi:10.1007/s00120-011-2512-z. PMID 21312083. 
  7. ^ Kahlmeter G (January 2003). "An international survey of the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens from uncomplicated urinary tract infections: the ECO·SENS Project". J Antimicrob Chemother. 51 (1): 69–76. doi:10.1093/jac/dkg028. PMID 12493789. 
  8. ^ Naber KG, Schito G, Botto H, Palou J, Mazzei T (May 2008). "Surveillance Study in Europe and Brazil on Clinical Aspects and Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemiology in Females with Cystitis (ARESC): Implications for Empiric Therapy". Eur Urol. 54 (5): 1164–75. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2008.05.010. PMID 18511178. 
  9. ^ Lund F, Tybring L (April 1972). "6β-amidinopenicillanic acids—a new group of antibiotics". Nature New Biology. 236 (66): 135–7. doi:10.1038/236135c0. PMID 4402006. 
  10. ^ Tybring L, Melchior NH (September 1975). "Mecillinam (FL 1060), a 6β-Amidinopenicillanic Acid Derivative: Bactericidal Action and Synergy In Vitro". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 8 (3): 271–6. doi:10.1128/aac.8.3.271. PMC 429305Freely accessible. PMID 170856.