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Studio album by
Released30 August 2004
Björk chronology
Vespertine Live
Army of Me: Remixes and Covers
Singles from Medúlla
  1. "Who Is It"
    Released: 18 October 2004
  2. "Triumph of a Heart"
    Released: 28 February 2005

Medúlla is the fifth studio album by Icelandic recording artist Björk.[nb 1] It was released on 30 August 2004 in the United Kingdom by One Little Indian Records and in the United States by Elektra Entertainment. After her electronic–influenced previous album Vespertine (2001), Björk intended to make an album almost entirely a cappella constructed with human vocals. For the project, she collaborated with vocal artists such as Mike Patton of rock band Faith No More, beatboxers Rahzel and Dokaka, as well as Inuit throat singer Tanya Gillis. The album's title derives from the Latin word for "marrow".

Medúlla received generally positive reviews from critics, with many calling it "unique", although others deemed it "confusing". The album was also commercially successful, reaching number one in Belgium's Wallonia, Europe, and France, while also peaking within the top ten in the United Kingdom. Medúlla is estimated to have sold more than a million copies worldwide, and received two Grammy Award nominations at the 47th Grammy Awards.

Two singles were released from Medúlla: "Who Is It" and "Triumph of a Heart", both charting inside the top forty in the United Kingdom and the top ten in Spain. Björk further promoted the album by performing at the 2004 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, along with Friday Night with Jonathan Ross and other television and radio shows. Other than these few performances, no concerts or tours were arranged to promote Medúlla, as Björk thought it would be too difficult to play the songs live. In 2015, the album was adapted into an opera at the Brussels opera house La Monnaie by Sjaron Minailo and Anat Spiegel.[3]

Background and production[edit]

"It really felt great to work with people who sing. To watch them go through the usual vocalist things like battle dry vocal chords, be vary of a.C. and such, and how private it is to sing some of your first takes of songs. How sensitive it is what time of the day you sing and all sort of stuff I have usually secretly carried by myself. It felt totally different from anything I have ever done. More natural and effortless". "I liked all of us to make any special noises we could on the new album. Sometimes there's a kind of weave or blend where nobody is more important than anybody else; other times I wanted each singer to have a sort of solo".

—Björk on working with vocal collaborators.[4][5]

Björk began working on her fifth studio album in 2002, being known as The Lake Album at the time.[6] In an interview with The New Yorker magazine, she explained that she wanted to get away from instruments and electronics, which was the world of her previous album, Vespertine (2001). She then elaborated that it was "very introverted" and avoided eye contact.[7] When she was finishing Vespertine, Björk knew she wanted to make a vocal album, and since her teenager age she knew that one day she would. For her, the greater part of Medúlla is connected to the time when she was 17 and 18, focussing mainly on aspects of love, life, family and friends. "I was thinking about how I used to live my life. How carefree I was, and how others around me affected the way I thought, taking on different points of view in music, and I think this shows very clearly at the core of Medúlla", she commented.[8]

During the initial compositional period of Medúlla, whilst working on new songs and ideas, an eight-month pregnant Björk began adding her own live drumming to arrangements that were already laden with instruments.[9] She decided that piling instruments on top of instruments was not working, and she tried to figure out why. She wondered, "'Where are the songs in all this mess?' I sat down at the mixing-desk and started muting the instruments, and it was like, 'Oh! There they are!'".[4] She was inspired by paganism, and the idea of returning to a universe that is entirely human, without tools or religion or nationalities. "I wanted the record to be like muscle, blood, flesh. We could be in a cave somewhere and one person would start singing, and another person would sing a beat and then the next person sing a melody, and you could just kind of be really happy in your cave. It's quite rootsy", she added.[10]

Inuit throat singer, Tanya Gillis, who accompanied Björk on her Vespertine World Tour in 2001, was also invited. Björk was so impressed by her ability with her voice that she invited her to appear on Medúlla. By asking British singer Robert Wyatt to perform on the album, she was looking for something more "passionate" and "human". Whilst working on contorting the vocals she had recorded, using computers and mixing desks, in order to achieve the right sonic sounds, Bjork had "forgotten what voices traditionally do, which is be narrative and soulful, the folk part". Then she added Wyatt, who believes Björk "has a voice of such intensity that I think it's a match for Nina Simone's".[11] Additionally, the musician "wanted a bit of rock" on Medúlla, so she invited singer Mike Patton of rock group Faith No More.[8] To provide a classical grounding on the album, Björk employed the help of both the Icelandic and the London Choir.[11] Having used the London Choir on Vespertine three years earlier. However, the "musical fascist" in her decided using any MCs or vocal percussionists would be too "cheesy", but she later changed her mind when she saw beatboxer Rahzel from The Roots freestyle a whole Kraftwerk track without pausing for breath.[12] Björk found his voice "above and beyond any cliché" and exactly what she was looking for to boost the album's beat-based songs and also add beats of his own making. Another beatboxer, Dokaka, was invited after Björk got a link to his webpage, and liked his covers so much that she decided to work with him to appear on a few songs.[13]

Artwork and title[edit]

A mannequin wearing the hair mask and the Alexander McQueen–designed bell dress from the "Who Is It" music video, at Björk's exhibition at MoMA

The album cover for Medúlla was photographed by Inez and Vinoodh in London, on 28 June 2004, and designed by M/M Paris. It features Björk wearing a mask made of hair, which was made specifically for the shoot, a black dress and a necklace that is made of black "bones" that says "Medúlla".[14] The hair mask was created by Shoplifter, an Icelandic friend of Björk's. The artist stated that in 2004, she had a solo show at ATM Gallery, where she showed a wall mural made of brown braids. Björk appreciated it, and then invited her to work on creating a hair sculpture to support her idea for the Medúlla's character. She also explained that because the album was entirely recorded with voices, Björk did not want to wear clothes but more things that were made of something from the body.[15] Shoplifter complemented by saying,

For the album we tossed ideas back and forth, I sent her endless references of extreme hairstyles from the past. Björk wanted it to have a darkness about it, like a warrior or a Valkyrie, like somebody fierce. It felt like a roar or a rumble coming from the gut, it was coming from a dark place. It was a very strong character that she developed around the music, and a human hair wig was basket-woven into a helmet that I would install and add it together with her hair.[15]

Photographer Inez van Lamsweerde said that they "were all inspired by women's handicrafts and this idea of being in your own cocoon in your home, with your family, and this reclusive character that hand-makes the whole world around her". The hairpiece was part of her 2015 MoMA retrospective.[16] In an interview with Style magazine, Shoplifter said about her part at the exhibition, explaining it dedicated a room to each album of Björk's career, with the Medulla section having a mannequin in the likeness of Björk wearing the Alexander McQueen–designed bell dress she wore in the video for her song "Who Is It".[15]

Björk struggled to find a title for the album. She said, "Something in me wanted to leave out civilisation, to rewind to before it all happened and work out, 'Where is the human soul? What if we do without civilisation and religion and patriotism, without the stuff that has gone wrong?'", originally calling it Ink, as she wanted the title to represent the "5,000 year-old blood that's inside us all; an ancient spirit that's passionate and dark, a spirit that survives".[17] Her friend Gabriela then suggested "Medúlla", a medical term for bone marrow in Latin.[17] She complemented: "Not just your bone marrow, but marrow in the kidneys and marrow in your hair, too. It's about getting to the essence of something".[17] The title was announced in June 2004 through Björk's official website.[18]


Style and influences[edit]

"The album is about voices. See what can be done with the entire emotional range of the human voice—a single voice, a chorus, trained voices, pop voices, folk voices, strange voices. Not just melodies but everything else, every noise that a throat makes. The last album was very introverted. It was avoiding eye contact. This one is a little more earthy, but, you know, not exactly simple".

— Björk describing the sound of Medúlla.[7]

At the time of its construction, Björk considered Medúlla to be her most political album, saying that it countered outbreaks of racism and patriotism that followed the 11 September attacks.[19] "On 9/11, in the space of a half an hour, this became the most patriotic place on earth", she recalled. "I remember describing to my friends on my phone that [if] I turned 180 degrees anywhere I was in New York. I would count at least 37 American flags. So it was kind of scary for a foreigner to be here".[20] Regarding the album's composition, Björk also mentioned that she tried to find the common soul in everything, outside nationality and religion, whilst elaborating that she felt that "in that sense, it's a greatest hits of human spiritualism [laughs]. I think it's the first time I have done an album while I am reading the news. These are crazy times. It just seems that patriotism is a bad idea. I don't know how directly the album reflects that, but it is sort of anti-patriotic. Anti-Iceland as much as anti-anything".[21]

Medúlla is almost entirely a cappella,[22] also demonstrating avant-garde[23] and experimental music.[24] musicOMH's review stated that, "Despite its voice-only premise, Medúlla shows off a mile-wide scope of influences", noting elements of folk and medieval music,[25] despite Björk previously stating that Medúlla was "folk music, but without any folk attached" to the album.[7] She also considered the styles encompassing the album as "primitive and silly".[26] Wondering Sound wrote that despite "its comparative starkness, [Medúlla is] every bit as sensual as [Vespertine]".[27] The publication also added: "The electronic treatments range from industrial distortion to percussive glitches and dreamy layering, rarely descending into novelty".[27] The album combines beatboxing, classical choirs that suggest composers like Penderecki or Arvo Pärt, and "mews, moans, counterpoint and guttural grunts" provided by herself and guests like Mike Patton, Robert Wyatt and Tanya Tagaq.[28] Medúlla includes "vocal fantasias" that lean toward chamber music, alongside tracks that "are obviously but distantly connected to hip-hop."[28] Glimpses of Bulgarian women's choirs, the polyphony of central African pygmies, and the "primal vocalisms" of Meredith Monk were also noted.[28]


The album opens with "Pleasure Is All Mine", which begins with a subtle vocal harmony set atop a woman's metronomic panting; it carries on a short while before Björk starts singing her verses, as a choir joins her, filling the background with cathedral-resonant harmonies.[29] Björk sings "When in doubt: give / When in doubt: give / When in doubt: give", providing contrast to an "alarming" groove.[30] The "short confessional anthem" sung a cappella "Show Me Forgiveness" follows, having no other effect than a slight echo applied to her voice.[31] She sings: "Show me forgiveness / For having lost faith in myself / And let my own interior up / To inferior forces / The shame is endless".[29] During the third song "Where Is the Line", she lyrically attacks a younger relative for being greedy and unreliable, displaying some irritation: "I'm elastic for you, but enough is enough".[28][32] "Demonic vocals" are delivered by singer Mike Patton, and "angelically dissonant swaths of lush singing" from the Icelandic Choir; Rahzel's beatboxing is done by him as the choir emotes some "ahhhhs". Extremely minimal programming gurgles underneath, helping the entire song to coalesce into one. The song grows darker as it builds up as the male members of the choir deliver heavier sounds.[30][33] The "somber" song called "Vökuró", originally by Jórunn Viðar, is the fourth track on Medúlla.[28] Thanks to the accompaniment from a choir, the song delivers a "primally drenched ecclesiastical experience", with Björk rolling her tongue around certain words.[33]

During the fifth track "Öll Birtan", Bjork's voice is layered over itself sounding as if she has been multiplied, one voice repeating a drone like phrase in the left channel, while doot-doos melt into the right channel. At the same time, Bjork's various other voices can be heard "crooning, cajoling, shrieking, and rippling".[33] The following song and lead single "Who Is It" features collaborations by Inuit throat singer Tanya Tagaq and Rahzel.[34] Some lyrics of the song — "Who is it that never lets you down?" — may be understood to reflect a "mother's unconditional love" in a dialogue between mother and child. The echo effects in "Who Is It" may additionally reflect the scattered sense of self the mother may experience as she carries the burden of constant care for her child.[35] "Submarine", the seventh track on the album, was influenced by Björk's pregnancy with her daughter Ísadóra and how she felt somewhat lazy during that time.[17][19] It has a "hint of political consciousness", and features the "reedy" voice of singer Robert Wyatt multiplied into a chorus to share lines like "Shake us out of the heavy deep sleep, do it now".[28] The next track "Desired Constellation" was created from a sample of Björk singing the phrase "I'm not sure what to do with it" from "Hidden Place" on her previous album, Vespertine. She imagines herself "With a palm full of stars/ I throw them like dice on the table/ Until the desired constellation appears".[36]

The ninth song, "Oceania", calls listeners' attention to "Mother Oceania" from which she believes all life emerged, whilst she sings: "You have done well for yourselves / Since you left my wet embrace / And crawled ashore".[29] "Oceania" also features The London Choir.[37] Tenth song "Sonnets/Unrealities XI" was based on the poem It May Not Always Be So; And I Say by E. E. Cummings. Lyrically, she bids a farewell to a lover.[28] It features only Björk's singing, with slight inflections from the Icelandic Choir.[33] The following track "Ancestors" has no lyrics, featuring only Björk and Tagaq's voices with both voices working closely next to each other.[38] The twelfth song "Mouth's Cradle" is paced by a "glug, glug" sample of "what might as well be the emptying of a gallon bottle of water".[39] Lyrically she concludes, "I need a shelter to build an altar away from Osamas and Bushes".[28] "Miðvikudags", the thirteenth song, begins with what sounds like either "dolphin sonar speak" or the "sound of sneakers sliding across an indoor basketball court". Then Bjork's voice gradually gets layered over the rhythm, building and rolling between the left and right channel.[33] On the closing track and second single, "Triumph of a Heart", Björk lyrically "celebrates the workings of anatomy", whilst musically it is the album's closest thing to a dance track. The song also features orchestral arrangements by the Icelandic and London Choirs,[40] as well as hooks coming from a "human trombone", herself, Gregory Purnhagen, and Rahzel and Dokaka.[28][41]

Release and promotion[edit]

On 3 August 2004, BBC Radio 1's The Breezeblock show premiered the tracks "Pleasure Is All Mine" and "Mouth's Cradle",[42] whilst The New York Times newspaper has posted on their website short clips for four tracks "Mouth's Cradle", "Oceania", "Where Is the Line" and "Who Is It".[43] Medúlla was first released on 30 August 2004 worldwide through Polydor Records, whilst it was distributed in the United Kingdom by One Little Indian. In the United States, the album was released the day after, by Elektra Records.[1] Lead single "Who Is It" reached the top five in Spain,[44] also peaking within the top 30 in Italy and the United Kingdom.[45][46] Second single "Triumph of a Heart" peaked at the top ten in Spain,[47] and reached the top 40 in Italy and the United Kingdom.[48][49]

"Oceania" was commissioned by the International Olympic Committee and performed at the 2004 Summer Olympics opening ceremony. She wore a very large dress which unfolded during her performance to eventually occupy the entire stadium and showed a map of the world in sign of union.[50] On 8 October 2004, Björk performed at the BBC Studios for the show Friday Night with Jonathan Ross. She performed a bell choir mix of "Who Is It" with Rahzel and an English bell choir.[51] On 10 October 2004, Björk performed a set of five songs live in studio for Gilles Peterson's BBC Radio 1 program.[52] On 15 October 2004, Björk performed a set of six songs for the French television show Album de la Semaine at Canal+ studios in Paris, France.[53]

Other than these few performances, no concerts or tours were arranged to promote Medúlla. Björk said in an interview that "everybody involved seems to be up for it, so maybe they'll all come on the road. What I'd like to do is make another album like this and then tour for two of the at once".[54] She also spoke to Rolling Stone in June 2004 and told that she wished to immediately continue writing and recording yet another new album: "Every album I've done, the minute that it's done, I feel really lubricated and, like, 'Wow, now I can write an album in five minutes'... And I just want to find out if that's just a fantasy or if it's true." Also, Björk thought it would be too difficult to play the songs live.[55]

Critical reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Aggregate scores
Review scores
AllMusic4/5 stars[57]
Entertainment WeeklyA[58]
The Guardian5/5 stars[59]
Los Angeles Times3.5/4 stars[60]
Mojo4/5 stars[61]
Q3/5 stars[9]
Rolling Stone3.5/5 stars[63]

Medúlla received acclaim from music critics. The album holds a rating of 84 out of 100 at Metacritic.[56] The Guardian newspaper's David Peschek gave it five stars out of five and heralded it as "brave and unique".[59] Dominique Leone from Pitchfork commented that Medulla was "an interesting record", while saying Björk had "found a way to bathe her immediately distinctive melodies and vocal nuances in solutions that cause me to reevaluate her voice and her craft".[22] Barry Walters of Rolling Stone stated that "Medulla is both the most extreme record Bjork has ever released and the most immediately accessible."[63] Blender's Ann Powers was also positive, calling it "another playful step" in Björk's "unstoppable, wandering quest".[65] Matthew Gasteier from Prefix magazine called Medúlla her most joyful album since Post and also her strangest at the time.[66] Mark Daniell from Canadian website Jam! also gave it a positive review, saying "pairing gooey purrs with grooves provided by a human trombone might not seem like a good idea, but when Björk is the one making the arrangements the effect is spine tingling".[67] Andy Battaglia of The A.V. Club said that "Once perceptions and expectations settle out... the album proves arrestingly in thrall to its own twisted tongue".[37]

Heather Phares of AllMusic thought that Medúlla is "not an immediate album, but it is a fascinating one, especially for anyone interested in the world's oldest instrument being used in unexpected ways".[57] Jennifer Vineyard from MTV News called the album "an ambitious project — and not just because it's almost entirely a cappella. The songs are pretty unusual, as well. Some could be medieval hymns; others could be modern pop songs; others are almost indescribable. But throughout, Medúlla is a strange journey that can leave you feeling elated or unsettled, without quite understanding why".[68] E! Online commented that "Fans of the Icelandic wonder's more orchestral tunes might think there's something missing here. Well, unless they're too busy being totally blown away".[69] David Hooper from BBC Music gave Medúlla a mixed review, stating that it has some high points and it never gets boring, but the album left him "feeling rather confused", because "the end product feels disjointed and at times claustrophobic. Whereas previous albums like Vespertine were real growers, some people may lose patience with this one. The unquenchable desire to try out new ideas, which makes Björk such an exciting artist, may prove to be her downfall on Medúlla, as too much of the experimentation doesn't quite hit the mark".[70] Björk received two Grammy Award nominations for Medúlla, including Best Female Pop Vocal Performance for "Oceania", and Best Alternative Music Album.[71] This album was also featured in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.[72]

Commercial performance[edit]

In the United Kingdom, Medúlla debuted at its peak of number nine on the UK Albums Chart, for the issue dated 11 September 2004, and remained for three weeks on the chart.[73] The album was certified Silver on 10 December 2004, by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI), for shipments of at least 60,000 copies in the region.[74] In Austria, Medúlla debuted and peaked at number six, remaining on the albums chart for seven weeks.[75] In France, it peaked at number one on the albums chart, during the week dated 29 August 2004, remaining on the top for another week.[76] After spending 24 weeks on the chart, Medúlla was certified Gold by the Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique (SNEP), and has sold 108,000 copies in the country as of May 2010.[77][78] It peaked at number two in Italy, spending, nine weeks on the chart.[79]

In the United States, Medúlla debuted at number 14 on the Billboard 200 albums chart, on the issue dated 18 September 2004.[80] It became the highest-debuting album of her career, and remained for seven weeks inside the chart.[81] Additionally, Medúlla also topped the Dance/Electronic Albums chart.[82] As of May 2007 it has sold 235,000 copies in the region, according to Nielsen SoundScan.[83] In Australia, Medúlla debuted at number 17 on the ARIA Charts, on the issue dated 12 September 2004. It spent three weeks on the chart, falling off at number 40.[84] In New Zealand, the album peaked at number 35 and spent two weeks inside the New Zealand Albums Chart.[85] As of May 2014, Medúlla has sold more than a million copies worldwide.[86]

Track listing[edit]

All tracks written and produced by Björk except where noted.[87]

1."Pleasure Is All Mine"3:26
2."Show Me Forgiveness"1:23
3."Where Is the Line" (producers: Björk, Mark Bell)4:41
4."Vökuró" (writers: Jórunn Viðar, Jakobína Sigurðardóttir)3:14
5."Öll Birtan"1:52
6."Who Is It (Carry My Joy on the Left, Carry My Pain on the Right)"3:57
7."Submarine" (producers: Björk, Bell)3:13
8."Desired Constellation" (writers: Björk, Olivier Alary)4:55
9."Oceania" (writers: Björk, Sjón; producers: Björk, Bell)3:24
10."Sonnets / Unrealities XI" (writers: Björk, e e cummings)1:59
11."Ancestors" (writers: Björk, Tagaq)4:08
12."Mouth's Cradle"4:00
14."Triumph of a Heart"4:04


Credits adapted from Medúlla liner notes.[87]

  • Björk – lead vocals, arrangement, programming (tracks 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11–14), choir arrangement, bass line (track 1), bass synth (track 6), piano (track 11)
  • TagaqInuit throat singing (tracks 1, 6, 11, 12)
  • Mike Patton – vocals (tracks 1, 3)
  • Robert Wyatt – vocals (tracks 7, 9)
  • Rahzelbeatboxing (tracks 1, 3, 6, 12, 14)
  • Shlomo – beatboxing (track 9)
  • Dokaka – beatboxing (track 14)
  • Gregory Purnhagen – human trombone (tracks 3, 14)
  • The Icelandic Choir – choral vocals (tracks 1, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11)
  • The London Choir – choral vocals (track 9)
  • Nico Muhly – piano (track 9)
  • Mark Bell – bass synthesizer (track 12), programming (tracks 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 14)
  • Peter Van Hookegong (track 1)
  • Little Miss Spectra – programming (track 3)
  • Matmos – programming (track 6)
  • Olivier Alary – programming (track 8)
  • Valgeir Sigurdsson – programming (tracks 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 12, 14)
  • Mark "Spike" Stent – mixing
  • Nick Ingham – conductor (Olympic Studios choir session)
  • Karl Olgeirsson – copyist (Iceland sessions)
  • Nick Mera – copyist (London session)
  • Sturla Thorisson – engineer (assistant, Greenhouse Studios)
  • Christian Rutledge – engineer (assistant, Looking Glass)
  • Rob Haggett – engineer (assistant, Olympic Studios)
  • David Treahearn – engineer (assistant, Olympic Studios)
  • Juan Garcia – engineer (assistant, The Magic Shop)
  • Flavio de Souza – engineer (Ilha Dos Sapos Studios)
  • Ichiho Nishiki – engineer (Looking Glass)
  • Neil Dorfsman – additional recording
  • Jake Davies – additional recording
  • M/M Paris – art direction, design
  • Shoplifter / Hrafnhildur Arnardóttir – artwork (hair sculpture)
  • Andrea Helgadóttir – artwork (skin colours)
  • Inez van Lamsweerde and Vinoodh Matadin – photography


Charts and certifications[edit]


  1. ^ Medúlla is officially considered to be the fifth solo album,[2] although technically it can be viewed as sixth if to count her 1977 juvenilia work, or seventh, counting in her 1990 jazz output Gling-Gló.


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