This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2023)
|City of Medan |
|• Karo Batak||ᯔᯩᯑᯉ᯲ |
|• Tamil||மேடான் |
Bekerja sama dan sama-sama bekerja
(Working together and everybody work)
|Founded||1 July 1590|
|• Mayor||Bobby Nasution|
|• Vice Mayor||Aulia Rachman|
|• City and provincial capital||265.10 km2 (102.36 sq mi)|
|• Urban||478 km2 (185 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,831.97 km2 (1,093.43 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2.5–37.5 m (8–123 ft)|
(2023 estimate )
|• City and provincial capital||2,497,631|
|• Density||9,400/km2 (24,000/sq mi)|
|• Urban||3,632,000 (4th)|
|• Urban density||7,598/km2 (19,680/sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,744,323 (5th)|
|• Metro density||1,675/km2 (4,340/sq mi)|
|• Ethnic groups|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (IWST)|
|Area code||(+62) 61|
|- Total||Rp 241.5 trillion (4th)|
US$56.1 billion (PPP)
|- Per capita||Rp 105,908 thousand (13th)|
|HDI (2019)||0.809 (21st) – very high|
Medan (// meh-DAHN, Indonesian: [mɛˈdan] ⓘ) is the capital and largest city of the Indonesian province of North Sumatra. The nearby Strait of Malacca, Port of Belawan, and Kualanamu International Airport make Medan a regional hub and multicultural metropolis, acting as a financial centre for Sumatra and a gateway to the western part of Indonesia. About 60% of the economy in North Sumatra is backed by trading, agriculture, and processing industries, including exports from its 4 million acres of palm oil plantations. The National Development Planning Agency listed Medan as one of the four main central cities in Indonesia, alongside Jakarta, Surabaya, and Makassar.
As of the 2020 Census, Medan had a population of 2,435,252 within its city limits; the official population estimate as of mid-2022 was 2,494,512. When the surrounding urban area is included, the population is over 3.4 million, making it the fourth largest urban area in Indonesia. The Medan metropolitan area—which includes neighbouring Binjai, Deli Serdang Regency, and a part of Karo Regency—is the largest metropolitan area outside of Java, with 4,744,323 residents counted in the 2020 Census.
The city was founded at the confluence of the Deli River and the Babura river by a Karonese man named Guru Patimpus. Then called Kampung Medan Putri, it became part of the Deli Sultanate, established in 1632. In the late 19th century, colonial Dutch seeking new plantation areas chose Medan and Deli as plantation hubs to found the Deli Company. Within a few years, the Dutch tobacco trade transformed Medan into an economic hub, earning it the nickname Het Land Dollar ("the land of the money"). The Deli Railway, established to ship tobacco, rubber, tea, timber, palm oil, and sugar from Medan to the Port of Belawan for worldwide export, brought further rapid development to Medan. The city became first the capital of the State of East Sumatra, and then the provincial capital of North Sumatra.
The term medan might be derived from a Batak Karo word madan (ᯔᯑᯉ᯳), which literally means 'healed', 'blessed', or 'recovered'. The term is associated with the historical Karo Batak figure and founder of the city, Guru Patimpus, who was well-known as a "healer" or traditional doctor. The oldest evidence of this term used to refer to the city dates back to c. 13th-15th century era during the reign of Aru, the Karo monarch.
There is also a popular theory that medan is of Malay origin, literally meaning 'field'. The term medan (مدان) in Malay might be derived from Malayalam mythaan-am (മൈതാനം, 'field'), which is cognate to the Tamil word maitāṉ-am (மைதானம், 'ground').
Medan is located in what was once the Kingdom of Aru, founded by the Karo people and flourishing between the 13th and 16th centuries. A number of archaeological sites survive near Medan, including Kota Rentang, a port settlement in the Hamparan Perak area; Kota Cina, an ancient trading site in Medan Marelan; and Benteng Putri Hijau, a fort ruin in Deli Tua.
In the sixteenth century, Guru Patimpus Sembiring Pelawi, a Karonese man from the Karo Regency, converted from Pemena to Islam. While traveling to study under Datuk Kota Bangun, Guru Patimpus met and married the Princess of Pulo Brayan. Accompanied by their two sons, Kolok and Kecik, the couple founded Medan village between the Deli and Babura Rivers.
In 1632, the Aceh Sultanate under Gocah Pahlawan expanded to include Medan. Perunggit succeeded his father in 1669, and declared the Deli Sultanate, including Medan, independent of the Aceh Sultanate.
Starting in the 1860s, Dutch authorities began to release new land for tobacco plantations. Said Abdullah Bilsagih, brother-in-law of the Deli Sultan Mahmud Perkasa Alam, persuaded Dutch tobacco merchant Jacob Nienhuys to move his business from Java to Deli. Dutch merchants Van der Falk and Elliot, and Chinese brothers Tjong Yong Hian and Tjong A Fie, were also pioneers of Deli's tobacco industry. In 1867, Nienhuys, Jannsen, P.W. Clemen, and Cremer founded De Deli Maatschappij; in 1869, they moved its head office from Labuhan Deli to Medan. This made Medan a centre of the tobacco trade, which continued to grow with the 1869 opening of the Suez Canal.
Sultan Ma'mun Al Rashid Perkasa Alamyah, who ruled from 1873 to 1924, moved the kingdom's capital to Medan. He became known as the builder of early Medan, finishing the construction of the Maimun Palace in 1888 and building the Great Mosque of Medan in 1907. In 1898, a Dutch businessman named Aeint Herman de Boer built Hotel de Boer to accommodate the cruise ships of European tourists which had begun to visit Medan.
During the 1942 Dutch East Indies campaign, the Japanese entered Medan on bicycles and occupied the city. The transfer of power was chaotic, but through use of the Kempetai, the Japanese were able to hold the city until their surrender in 1945. Medan then came under the authority of the South East Asia Command headed by British Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten. With the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on 17 August, Medan became part of the newly-independent Republic of Indonesia, news announced in Medan on 30 September.
In October, Allied troops landed in Belawan and marched on Medan. The subsequent conflicts between the Allies and the Indonesian Army became known as the Battle of Medan. The Allies regained control of Medan in April 1946, and in December 1947 the Dutch established the State of East Sumatra with Medan as its capital. This became part of the United States of Indonesia in 1949, and was dissolved into the Republic of Indonesia in 1950.
Medan continued to grow as a centre of commerce during the reign of Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah. Developments of the 1970s, especially palm oil and rubber plantations, made Medan the busiest city outside Java, with the transmigration program bringing many Javanese and Batak migrants.
In May of 1998, months of student demonstrations in Medan over the 1997 Asian financial crisis turned into riots when a student was killed in a clash with security forces. The next day, the mobs became bigger, and many shops and vehicles in the business district (mostly owned by Chinese residents) were burned and looted. As a result, a curfew was imposed for more than two weeks until peace returned.
On 5 September 2005, Mandala Airlines Flight 091 stalled a minute after taking off from Medan's old Polonia International Airport for a flight to Jakarta. The aircraft crashed into a heavily populated residential area along Djamin Ginting road in Padang Bulan. Of the 117 passengers and crews on board, only 17 survived, and an additional 49 civilians on the ground were killed. As a result, Kualanamu International Airport was built in Deli Serdang to replace the old airport, with construction finished in 2012. After the move to the new airport, height restriction laws in Medan were relaxed.
Medan is in the northeastern part of Sumatra island, in the province of North Sumatra. The city is a semi-enclave within Deli Serdang Regency, bordered by Deli Serdang on three sides and the Strait of Malacca to the north. The natural harbor formed where the Deli and Babura rivers feed into the straits has contributed to Medan's growth as a trading port.
Medan's elevation varies between 2.5 and 37.5 m (8 ft 2 in and 123 ft 0 in) above sea level, with the Barisan Mountains to the south, and volcanoes such as Sibayak Mountain and Sinabung Mountain 50 to 70 km (31 to 43 mi) from the city.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Medan features a tropical rainforest climate (Af) with no real dry season. Its driest month (January) on average sees about one-third the precipitation of its wettest month (October), with a total annual precipitation of about 2,200 mm (87 in). Temperatures in the city average approximately 27 °C (81 °F) throughout the year.
|Climate data for Medan (Polonia), elevation: 27 m or 89 ft, 1961–1990|
|Record high °C (°F)||35
|Average high °C (°F)||31.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||25.5
|Average low °C (°F)||22.2
|Record low °C (°F)||18.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||92
|Average rainy days||14||19||13||18||22||15||13||17||24||22||20||19||216|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||129.6||141.0||153.1||131.2||134.8||157.9||153.9||143.9||123.1||116.3||104.8||98.1||1,587.7|
|Source 1: World Meteorological Organization and Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System (daily mean and record temperature)|
|Source 2: WeatherOnline (sun, 2010–2019)|
Medan was governed by Abdillah from 2000 until 2008, when he and his vice mayor were caught by the Corruption Eradication Commission. Syamsul Arifin, the governor of North Sumatra Province, appointed Affifudin Lubis as acting mayor, followed by Rahudman Harahap after Lubis's 2009 resignation. Harahap resigned in order to run for office in the 2010 mayoral election, leaving Arifin himself to become acting mayor. In 2013, Harahap was also arrested for corruption, and his deputy Dzulmi Eldin became acting mayor.
Medan is divided into 21 districts (Indonesian: kecamatan), tabulated below with their areas and populations at the 2010 Census, and the 2020 Census, together with the official estimates as of mid-2022. The table also includes the number of neighbourhoods (Indonesian: kelurahan) in each district, and their postal codes.
20219 & 20229
20524 & 20525
|12.71.08||Medan Kota Belawan||26.25||95,506||108,987||111,181||6||20411-20415|
The city centre consists of Medan Petisah, Medan Baru, Medan Polonia, Medan Maimun, Medan Kota, and Medan Barat (West Medan). Medan Labuhan is one of the largest districts by area (together with Medan Belawan and Medan Marelan) and lies in the northern part of the city. Medan Tuntungan serves as the gateway to Karo Regency, Medan Helvetia to Binjai City and Langkat, and Medan Amplas to Tebing Tinggi and Pematang Siantar.
Medan is Indonesia's largest city outside Java, and its fourth largest altogether (after Jakarta, Surabaya and Bandung). The population more than quadrupled in less than fifty years, growing from 568,000 in 1968 to 2.1 million in 2010. As of 2020, Medan had a population of 2,435,252 and the larger metropolitan area had a population of 4,756,863.
|Deli Serdang Regency||2,581.23||1,790,431||1,931,441||1,953,986||757|||
|Karo Regency (part)||234.96||86,244||98,328||100,378||427|||
Ethnicities and languages
The Bataks in Medan are of three subethnicities. The native Karo mostly live in the southern parts of Medan, including Padang Bulan, Medan Johor and Tuntungan. The Toba, whom the Dutch employed on their oil palm plantations, live in Marindal and Amplas, or in nearby city centres such as the Medan Perjuangan district. Finally, the Mandailing, who migrated to Medan after Indonesian independence in search of job opportunities, mainly live in Medan Tembung. The primary languages spoken by Bataks in Medan are Batak and Karo.
The large Javanese community in Medan is primarily composed of the descendants of people transported from Java in the 19th century to be employed as contract workers at various plantations in North Sumatra. For the most part, they speak the local dialect of Javanese.
The Malays are also natives of Medan, having lived as fishermen in the outskirts of the city since the Aru era. Starting in the 18th century, they began to spread throughout the city, with large numbers living in Medan Maimun, Kota Matsum, Labuhan and Belawan and speaking Malay.
Immigration from southern China to Deli began in the 16th century, and accelerated in the 19th and early 20th centuries as immigrants sought employment as planters and coolies. Medan is home to the largest Chinese population in Sumatra, mostly concentrated around the city centre. Most Chinese people in Medan speak Medan Hokkien, a local dialect, but many also speak Mandarin, Teochew, or Cantonese.
Minangkabau immigration to Medan surged from the 1960s to the 1980s, becoming 8.6% of the population and founding Padang restaurants throughout the city. Most Minangkabau people in Medan speak Minangkabau.
Many Acehnese sought sanctuary in Medan after the insurgency in Aceh in the late 1970s. They now own a number of Mie Aceh restaurants around the Setia Budi and Sunggal areas. Most speak Acehnese, and Gayonese is also common.
The different linguistic communities in Medan communicate in a slang called Bahasa Medan or Dialek Medan (Medanese slang). This dialect of Indonesian includes loanwords from the various local languages, especially Malay.
Most of Medan's inhabitants are Muslim, accounting for approximately 66 percent of the population. The substantial Christian demographic (about 25 percent of the total population) includes Catholics, Methodists, Lutherans, and the Batak Christian Protestant Church. Buddhists make up about 9 percent of the population, and there are smaller Hindu, Confucian, and Sikh communities. Some Bataknese follow traditional religions such as Pemena and Parmalim.
Gunung Timur Temple, on Jalan Hang Tuah, is Medan's oldest Taoist temple. Maha Vihara Maitreya, on Jalan Cemara Asri, is the largest Buddhist temple in southeast Asia. The city's oldest church, Medan Cathedral, on Jalan Pemuda, was originally built as Indische Kerk by the Dutch and Indian community. Sri Mariamman Temple, on Jalan Zainul Arifin in Kampung Madras, is the city's oldest Hindu temple, built around 1881; it is surrounded by over a hundred statues of various deities. Graha Maria Annai Velangkanni, a Catholic church in an Indo-Mogul style, was built on Jalan Sakura III in 2005, dedicated to a Marian apparition in 17th century Tamil Nadu.
Al-Osmani Mosque (Muslim)
Immanuel Church (Protestant)
Maha Vihara Maitreya (Buddhist)
Sri Mariamman Temple (Hindu)
Gunung Timur Temple (Taoist)
Graha Maria Annai Velangkanni (Catholic)
The Medan metropolitan area was recognized as an Indonesian National Strategic Region (Indonesian: Kawasan Strategis Nasional) by Government Regulation No 28/2008. As a major commercial and economic hub of Indonesia, Medan is a centre for the production and trade of commodities including cinnamon, tobacco, tea, coffee, rubber, and palm oil. It also has a growing manufacturing sector, producing goods such as cars, machinery, tile, and paper and pulp.
Medan's location makes it the main hub of international trade in western Indonesia, with exports going to Europe, North America, and the Middle East. Its trade and tourism businesses have also become essential to the Indonesia–Malaysia–Thailand Growth Triangle. Many multinational companies maintain offices in the city, such as Asian Agri, London Sumatra, Musim Mas, Philips Lighting, Toba Pulp Lestari, Marriott, Wilmar, ABB Group and DBS Bank. Rapid development in Medan has resulted in an upward trend in residential property prices.
- Cambridge City Square
- Centre Point
- DeliPark Mall
- Focal Point
- Lippo Plaza Mall
- Manhattan Times Square
- Medan Mall
- Plaza Medan Fair
- Ringroad City Walks
- Sun Plaza
- Thamrin Plaza
Medan is known as "the culinary heaven of Indonesia" for its variety of ethnic cuisines and prominent street hawkers. Prominent restaurants in Medan include Nelayan (halal-Chinese seafood and dim sum), Garuda and Uda Sayang (nasi padang and gulai), Sate Afrizal Amir (sate padang), Cahaya Baru (chapati and tandoori), OnDo Batak grill and Tesalonika (babi panggang (grilled pork) and saksang), Jalan Selat Panjang and Jalan Semarang (Chinese food), Jalan Pagaruyung (Indian and Malay food), and Jalan Padan Bulan (Batak food). Other major culinary destinations in Medan include Merdeka Walk, an outdoor area with a number of restaurants, and Pasar Rame, a daily outdoor market.
The local cuisine in Medan comes from a variety of culinary traditions. Soto Medan is a savoury stew of mixed meats and coconut milk, usually served with rice and perkedel. Bika ambon, a popular local cake, is traditionally flavoured with pandanus, but can also be found in banana, durian, cheese, and chocolate flavours. Babi Panggang Karo, grilled pork dipped in blood curd, may be served with sambal andaliman made from local peppers. Tau Kua He Ci (豆干虾炸) is a local Chinese variant of rojak, made with fried prawn, vegetables, tofu, and chili sauce. Medanese swiss rolls (Bolu Meranti) and dried anchovies are popular souvenirs.
Many examples of colonial Dutch architecture survive in Medan. Prominent instances include the old City Hall, the Medan Post Office, Inna Dharma Deli Hotel, Titi Gantung bridge, the Lonsum building, the Tjong A Fie Mansion, the A.V.R.O.S. building, the Warenhuis building, and the Tirtanadi Water Tower.
The Sultan of Deli (whose position is now purely ceremonial) still lives in Maimoon Palace, built 1887-1891. The Great Mosque of Medan, built in 1906, was designed in a Moroccan style by the Dutch architect A.J. Dingemans.
- HillPark GreenHill City
- A relatively new theme park an hour from Medan.
- Pantai Cermin Themepark
- A water theme park located in Cermin Beach, Serdang Bedagai.
- Wonder Water World
- A water park in Medan itself, located in Central Business District Polonia.
- Hairos Water Park
- A water park located near Medan in Deli Serdang.
The North Sumatra Museum, located south of the city's centre, was formally opened in April 1982 by Daoed Joesoef, Minister of Education and Culture. The museum's collection centres around artefacts of North Sumatran ethnic groups.
The Bukit Barisan Museum is a military museum opened by Brigade General Leo Lopulisa on 21 June 1971. Located at 8 Jalan H. Zainul Arifin, the museum houses a number of historic weapons used in the 1958 revolt in North Sumatra, and displays paintings of the rebellion against the Netherlands.
The Kualanamu International Airport (KNO) opened on 25 July 2013 as a replacement for the Polonia Airport. Located 39 km (24 mi) from downtown Medan, it is Indonesia's first airport with a direct rail link to the city. The airport has a 224,298 m2 (2,414,324 sq ft) passenger terminal, and serves as a hub for Garuda Indonesia, Indonesia AirAsia, Lion Air, Susi Air and Wings Air, with direct domestic flights to many major cities in Sumatra, as well as Java-international flights to locations abroad including Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, and Sri Lanka.
The Port of Belawan is on the northeast coast of Sumatra, 19 km (12 mi) north of Medan and accessible by a railway across the channel south of the island. Originally built in 1890 for European tobacco exports, the harbour was expanded in 1907 with a new section for Chinese and indigenous traders.
The growth of northern Sumatra's rubber and palm oil plantations in the early twentieth century brought new developments to the port. Several major berthing facilities were built in the 1920s, and by 1938 the port handled the greatest cargo value of any in the Dutch East Indies. Trade volumes dropped substantially after Indonesian independence, but reached pre-independence levels again in the mid-1960s. A major restructuring in 1985 saw the construction of a container terminal; it almost immediately captured about one-fifth of Indonesia's containerized exports. Major products exported include rubber, palm oil, tea, and coffee.
The current port has two terminals. The first, which handles passengers, offers ferry services to cities including Penang, Langkawi, Batam, Jakarta, and Surabaya. The second, Belawan International Container Terminal (BICT), is used for export and import services, and is one of the largest shipping industry ports in Indonesia.
The largest train station in Medan is Medan Station. The city also has a number of smaller stations, including Medan Pasar, Pulu Brayan, Titi Papan, Labuhan, and Belawan. Of these, Titi Papan and Pulu Brayan serve exclusively freight trains, while the others also serve passenger trains.
Express trains run between Medan and cities including Tebing Tinggi, Pematang Siantar, Tanjungbalai, and Rantau Prapat, and the Kualanamu Airport Railink Services express train runs between Medan Station and Kualanamu International Airport Station. Other rail lines connect Medan to cities such as Binjai and Belawan.
While taxis exist, most locals use sudako, Medan's share taxi system. These minibuses follow routes indicated by numbers displayed on the vehicle; route maps are not published, instead typically being spread by word-of-mouth.
Medan and its nearby urban areas have two bus rapid transit systems, Trans Mebidang and Trans Metro Deli, each with several active corridors.
|1||Medan – Binjai|
|2||Medan – Lubuk Pakam|
Trans Metro Deli
|1||Pinang Baris – Lapangan Merdeka|
|2||Amplas – Lapangan Merdeka|
|3||Belawan – Lapangan Merdeka|
|4||Medan Tuntungan – Lapangan Merdeka|
|5||Tembung – Lapangan Merdeka|
Medan's television stations include public and private national networks, as well as local channels. TVRI Sumatera Utara, a public station serving North Sumatra, is headquartered in the city. Channels currently available in Medan include:
- CNN Indonesia
- TVRI Sumatera Utara
- Trans TV
- Magna TV HD
- Metro TV
- NET. – 43 UHF
- iNews – 45 UHF
- DAAI TV – 49 UHF
- RTV 53 UHF
- MYTV – 55 UHF
- Kompas TV – 59 UHF
- CTV Network – 61 UHF
RRI Medan is the only public radio in Medan. Several local languages are also served on the radio, such as Kardopa Radio (in the Batak language), CityRadio FM and A-Radio FM (in the Chinese language) and Symphony FM (in the Malay language). Other popular stations in Medan include Prambors FM, MNC Trijaya FM, I-Radio, KISS FM, VISI FM, and Delta FM.
Mimbar Umum is Medan's oldest newspaper. Other major newspapers based in Medan include Waspada, Analisa, Jurnal Medan, Berita Sore, Harian Global, Harian Medan Bisnis, Sumut Pos, Posmetro Medan, Sinar Indonesia Baru, and Tribun Medan, as well as national Mandarin language newspapers such as Harian Indonesia (印尼星洲日报), Guo Ji Ri Bao (国际日报) and Shangbao (印尼商报) and English newspapers like The Jakarta Post.
From the 1930s through the 1960s, Medan was the source of a major body of Indonesian literature, known as "Roman Medan". These books usually depicted local life in Medan and surrounding areas of Deli.
Football is one of the most popular sports in Medan, with five local clubs: Persatuan Sepakbola Medan dan Sekitarnya (known as PSMS Medan), Medan Jaya, Medan Chiefs, Bintang PSMS and Medan United. Teladan Stadium, Medan's multi-purpose stadium, is used primarily for football matches.
Medan also has a Wushu training centre, Jalan Plaju, and a basketball club, Angsapura Sania.
Medan has more than 30 registered hospitals, three public and the rest private.
- Pirngadi General Hospital
- Adam Malik General Hospital
- Haji General Hospital
- St. Elisabeth Hospital
- Martha Friska Hospital
- Columbia Asia Hospital
- Permata Bunda Hospital
- Murni Teguh Hospital
- Advent Hospital
- Siloam-Dhirga Surya Hospital
- Imelda Hospital
- Vina Estetica Hospital
- Stella Maris Hospital
- Putri Hijau Military Hospital
- Mitra Sejati General Hospital
- Bunda Thamrin Hospital
- Royal Prima Hospital
- Methodist Hospital
- Sumatra Eye Center
Elementary, middle, and high schools
- Chandra Kumala School
- Cinta Budaya School (Chong Wen) (中文学校)
- Medan Independent School
- Methodist High School (2–3) Medan
- Nanyang Zhi Hui School (南洋之晖学校)
- Perguruan Santo Thomas Medan
- Prime One School
- Singapore Intercultural Schools Medan
- SMA Negeri 1 Medan (state-owned high school)
- SMA Negeri 2 Medan (state-owned high school)
- SMA Negeri 3 Medan (state-owned high school)
- SMA Negeri 4 Medan (state-owned high school)
- SMP Negeri 18 Medan (state-owned middle school)
- Sutomo School (1–2) (蘇東中學)
- Telkom Vocational School (Medan)
- Yayasan Pendidikan Shafiatul Amaliyah
- Yayasan Pendidikan Harapan
Universities and Colleges
Medan's 72 registered universities, academies, polytechnics, and colleges include:
- Dharmawangsa University
- HKBP Nommensen University
- IT&B Campus
- Medan State Polytechnic
- Medan Tourism Academy
- Mikroskil University
- Muhammadiyah University of North Sumatra
- Pelita Harapan University
- Prima University
- State University of Medan
- STBA-PIA (亚洲-国际友好学院)
- STIE Eka Prasetya
- Universitas Darma Agung (UDA)
- Universitas Methodist Indonesia
- University of North Sumatra
- University of Pembangunan Panca Budi
- Technology Institute of Medan
Medan hosts several consulates and general consulates from foreign countries, such as:
Twin towns – sister cities
- George Town, Penang Island, Malaysia (10 October 1984)
- Ichikawa, Chiba Prefecture, Japan (4 November 1989)
- Gwangju, South Jeolla Province, South Korea (24 September 1997)
- Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China (17 December 2002)
- Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States (30 October 2014)
- "Medan Het Parijs van Sumatra, Medan Paris di Sumatra". Teknomuda (in Indonesian). 2 September 2017. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
- "Medan, Sang Parijs van Sumatera". BatakPedia (in Indonesian). 7 January 2020. Archived from the original on 4 July 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
- Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2023, Kota Medan Dalam Angka 2023 (Katalog-BPS 1102001.1271)
- "Demographia World Urban Areas, 16th Annual Edition" (PDF). February 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
- "PU-net". perkotaan.bpiw.pu.go.id. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- Badan Pusat Statistik Sumatra Utara (2020). Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Kabupaten/kota di Sumatra Utara 2015–2019. Medan: Badan Pusat Statistik. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- "Badan Pusat Statistik". bps.go.id. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
- Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Binaya Kumar; Avtar, Ram; Chakraborty, Shamik (2021). "Quantifying future water environment using numerical simulations: a scenario-based approach for sustainable groundwater management plan in Medan, Indonesia". Global Groundwater. Elsevier. pp. 585–596. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-818172-0.00043-8. ISBN 9780128181720. S2CID 230551984.
Medan is the capital city of North Sumatra province.
- "Medan Business: Top Sectors, Economies, Business Setup". 23 July 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
- "26. Z. Irian Jaya". bappenas.go.id (Word DOC) (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
- Geografi. Grasindo. ISBN 9789797596194. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
- "Jumlah Penduduk menurut Jenis Kelamin dan Kabupaten/Kota Sumatra Utara 2011–2016". Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Sumatra Utara (in Indonesian). 3 October 2017. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
- "Demographia World Urban Areas, 14th Annual Edition" (PDF). April 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- "PU-net". Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- Joustra, M. (1907). Karo-Bataksch Woordenboek [Karo Batak dictionary] (in Dutch).
- Pelly, Usman; R., Ratna; Kardarmadja, M. Sunjata (1984). Sejarah sosial daerah Sumatra Utara, Kotamadya Medan [Sociohistory of North Sumatra, Medan Municipality] (in Indonesian). Indonesia: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
- Meuraxa, Dada (1973). Sejarah kebudayaan suku-suku di Sumatera Utara [Cultural history of tribes in North Sumatra] (in Indonesian). Indonesia: Sasterawan.
- Dominik Bonatz; John Miksic; J. David Neidel, eds. (2009). From Distant Tales: Archaeology and Ethnohistory in the Highlands of Sumatra. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-0784-5. Archived from the original on 28 December 2020. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
- Juraidi (23 August 2008). "Menelusuri Jejak Kerajaan Aru". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- "Museum Kota Cina, Situs Awal Perdagangan Penting di Pantai Timur Sumatera Abad XI". SeMedan.com (in Indonesian). 3 January 2016. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Repelita Wahyu Oetomo (8 June 2014). "Benteng Putri Hijau Berdasarkan Data Sejarah dan Arkeologi" (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Reid, Anthony (2014), The Blood of the People: Revolution & the End of Traditional Rule in Northern Sumatra, Singapore: NUS Press, ISBN 978-9971-69-637-5
- Said, H. Mohammed (April 1973). "What was the Social Revolution of 1946 in East Sumatra" (PDF). Indonesia. Cornell University: Indonesia Southeast Asia Program Publications. 15 (15): 153. doi:10.2307/3350795. hdl:1813/53556. JSTOR 3350795. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 October 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- Kahin, George McTurnan (1970). Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Cornell University Press. pp. 225, 461–463. ISBN 0-8014-9108-8. Archived from the original on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- Shenon, Philip (24 April 1994). "Rioters Attack Ethnic Chinese In Indonesia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
- Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 737–230 PK-RIM Medan-Polonia Airport (MES)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network.
- Usman Pelly, Sejarah Kota Madya Medan, 1950–1979; Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan R.I., Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Sejarah Nasional, Direktorat Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, 1985
- "Medan, Indonesia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "World Weather Information Service–Medan". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
- Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System. "INDONESIA – POLONIA". www.globalbioclimatics.org. Archived from the original on 15 January 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
- "Total Hours of Sunshine – Medan – Climate Robot Indonesia". www.weatheronline.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "KPK Arrests Mandailing Natal Mayor for Alleged Bribery". Archived from the original on 1 March 2014.
- "Eldin-Akhyar confirm their victory of Medan city election". Archived from the original on 28 June 2017.
- "Gubsu Lantik Wali Kota Medan dan Wakil Wali Kota Medan Periode 2021–2024". pemkomedan.go.id. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
- Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
- Ensiklopedi Umum, Penerbitan Jajasan Kanisius, 1973
- "Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Sumatera Utara". sumut.bps.go.id. Archived from the original on 9 December 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
- Leo Suryadinata, Evi Nurvidya Arifin, Aris Ananta, Indonesia's Population: ethnicity and religion in a changing political landscape, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2003.
- Usman Pelly, Urbanisasi dan Adaptasi: Peranan Misi Budaya Minangkabau dan Mandailing, LP3ES, 1994
- "Sensus Penduduk 2019: Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut – Kota Medan". Badan Pusat Statistik (in Indonesian). Badan Pusat Statistik. 2019. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- https://www.rdi.or.id/storage/files/publication/84.pdf Medan City: Development and Governance under the Decentralisation Era
- "Kantor Asian Agri". Asian Agri Official Website. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "London Sumatra: About Company". LONSUM Official Website. 18 February 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Hubungi Kami – Musim Mas". Musim Mas Official Website. 1 January 2022. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- Analysis (2015). "Transport infrastructure a key part of Medan's development plans". Archived from the original on 10 January 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
- "Medan: Entry Point to North Sumatra". Indonesia.travel. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Medan Urban development by planters and entrepreneurs" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- "HillPark Theme Park GreenHill Sibolangit Review". Medanku. 10 June 2008. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "North Sumatra Museum". Indonesia Tourism. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- Gunawan, Apriadi (30 March 2011). "A glimpse of wildlife in Medan museum". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- "All systems go for Medan". TTGmice. Archived from the original on 5 February 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Belawan". britannica. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- "Port of Medan/Belawan". seaport.homestad. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- Siregar, Wahyudi Aulia (13 July 2017). "Semester II-2019, Jalur Layang Kereta Api di Medan Beroperasi : Okezone Economy". Okezone (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- Koko Hendri Lubis, Roman Medan: Sebuah Kota Membangun Harapan, PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, 2018
- "3 Best High Schools for recommendation in Medan". Kabar Lampung. 10 February 2022. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Top Universities in North Sumatra". UniRank. 10 January 2022. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "State University of Medan". Top Universities. 16 July 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Universitas Sumatera Utara". Top Universities. 16 July 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Kedutaan Besar dan Konsulat Asing". Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Australian Consulate Medan". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Honorary Consulate of Belgium in Medan". Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Consulate-General of the People's Republic of China in Medan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "The Danish consulates in Indonesia (Medan)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark). Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Konsul Kehormatan Republik Federal Jerman di Medan/Sumatera-Utara". Ministry for Foreign Affairs (East Germany). Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Consulate General of India, Medan". Ministry of External Affairs (India). Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Konsulat Jenderal Jepang di Medan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan). Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Consulate General of Malaysia, Medan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Netherlands Honorary Consulate in Medan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Netherlands). Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Norwegian consulate in Medan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Norway). Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Poland Honorary Consulate in Medan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Poland). Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Consulate-General of the Republic of Singapore in Medan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Singapore). Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Royal Thai Honorary Consulate in Medan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Thailand). Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Turkish Honorary Consulate in Medan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Turkey). Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Konsulat AS di Medan". United States Department of State. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
- "Medan Menjalin Hubungan Kota Kembar Keempat". Archived from the original on 23 April 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- Hans Michelmann (28 January 2009). Foreign Relations in Federal Countries. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. pp. 198–. ISBN 978-0-7735-7618-6.
- "A Sight-seeing Guide to Ichikawa City's International Exchanges" (PDF). city.ichikawa.lg.jp. Ichikawa. November 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
- "Sister Cities". gwangju.go.kr. Gwangju. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
- "Chengdu Sister and partner cities". Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- "City will host Indonesian sister city signing ceremony Thursday" (online magazine, press release). onMilwaukee.com. 28 October 2014. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.