Medea (play)

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Medea
Alfons Mucha - Medea.jpg
Poster by Alfons Mucha for performance by Sarah Bernhardt at the Théâtre de la Renaissance, Paris (1898)
Written by Euripides
Chorus Corinthian Women
Characters Medea
Nurse
Tutor
Aegeus
Creon
Jason
Messenger
Mute Medea's two children
Date premiered 431 BC
Place premiered Athens
Original language Ancient Greek
Genre Tragedy
Setting Before Medea's house in Corinth

Medea (Ancient Greek: Μήδεια, Mēdeia) is an ancient Greek tragedy written by Euripides, based upon the myth of Jason and Medea and first produced in 431 BC. The plot centers on the actions of Medea, a former princess of the "barbarian" kingdom of Colchis, and the wife of Jason; she finds her position in the Greek world threatened as Jason leaves her for a Greek princess of Corinth. Medea takes vengeance on Jason by murdering Jason's new wife as well as her own children, after which she escapes to Athens to start a new life.

Medea and the suite of plays that it accompanied in the City Dionysia was not well received at its original performance.[1][further explanation needed] The play was re-discovered in Augustan drama, and again in 16th-century Europe, from which time it remained part of the tragedic repertoire, and became a classic of the Western canon and has remained the most frequently performed Greek tragedy through the 20th century. It experienced renewed interest in the feminist movement of the late 20th century,[2] being interpreted as a nuanced and sympathetic portrayal of Medea's struggle to take charge of her own life in a male-dominated world.[3] The play holds the American Tony award record for most wins for the same female lead character, with Judith Anderson winning in 1948, Zoe Caldwell in 1982, and Diana Rigg in 1994.

History[edit]

Medea was first performed in 431 BC at the City Dionysia festival. Here every year three playwrights competed against each other, each writing a tetralogy of three tragedies and a satyr play (alongside Medea were Philoctetes, Dictys and the satyr play Theristai). In 431 the competition was among Euphorion (the son of famed playwright Aeschylus), Sophocles (Euripides' main rival) and Euripides. Euphorion won, and Euripides placed last.

While Medea is considered one of the great plays of the Western canon, the Athenian audience did not react so favorably, and it placed third out of the three competing plays at the Dionysia festival of 431 BC. A possible explanation is found in a scholium to line 264 of the play, which asserts that Medea's children were traditionally killed by the Corinthians after her escape;[4] Euripides' apparent invention of Medea's filicide might have offended its audience just as his first treatment of the Hippolytus myth did.[5] That Euripides and others took liberties with Medea's story may be inferred from the 1st century BC historian Diodorus Siculus: "Speaking generally, it is because of the desire of the tragic poets for the marvellous that so varied and inconsistent an account of Medea has been given out."[6] A common urban legend claimed that Euripides put the blame on Medea because the Corinthians have bribed him with a sum of five talents.[7]

In the 4th century BC, South-Italian vase painting offers a number of Medea-representations that are connected to Euripides' play — the most famous is a krater in Munich. However, these representations always differ considerably from the plots of the play or are too general to support any direct link to the play of Euripides – this might reflect the judgement on the play. However, the violent and powerful character of princess Medea, and her double nature — both loving and destructive — became a standard for the later periods of antiquity and seems to have inspired numerous adaptations.

With the rediscovery of the text in 1st-century Rome (the play was adapted by the tragedians Ennius, Lucius Accius, Ovid, Seneca the Younger and Hosidius Geta, among others), again in 16th-century Europe.

In 20th-century modern literary criticism, Medea and its "universal themes of revenge and justice in an unjust society" have provoked differing reactions from differing critics and writers.[clarification needed]

Form and themes[edit]

The form of the play differs from many other Greek tragedies by its simplicity: All scenes involve only two actors, Medea and someone else. The Chorus (A staple in Greek theater) would also usually be involved along with those two, representing the women of Corinth. These encounters serve to highlight Medea's skill and determination in manipulating powerful male figures to achieve her own ends. The play is also the only Greek tragedy in which a kin-killer makes it unpunished to the end of the play, and the only one about child-killing in which the deed is performed in cold blood as opposed to in a state of temporary madness.[8]

Euripides' characterization of Medea exhibits the inner emotions of passion, love, and vengeance. The character of Medea has variously been interpreted as either fulfilling her role of "mother and wife" and as acting as a "proto-feminist".[9] Feminist readings have interpreted the play as either a "sympathetic exploration" of the "disadvantages of being a woman in a patriarchal society",[2] or as an expression of misogynist attitudes.[10] In conflict with this sympathetic undertone (or reinforcing a more negative reading) is Medea's barbarian identity, which would antagonize[need quotation to verify] a 5th-century Greek audience.[11]

Plot[edit]

Medea is centered on a wife’s calculated desire for revenge against her unfaithful husband. The play is set in Corinth some time after Jason's quest for the Golden Fleece, where he met Medea. The play begins with Medea in a blind rage towards Jason for arranging to marry Glauce, the daughter of Creon (king of Corinth). The nurse, overhearing Medea’s grief, fears what she might do to herself or her children.

Creon, in anticipation of Medea’s wrath, arrives and reveals his plans to send her into exile. Medea pleads for one day’s delay and eventually Creon acquiesces. In the next scene Jason arrives to explain his rationale for his apparent betrayal. He explains that he couldn’t pass up the opportunity to marry a royal princess, as Medea is only a barbarian woman, but hopes to someday join the two families and keep Medea as his mistress. Medea, and the chorus of Corinthian women, do not believe him. She reminds him that she left her own people for him ("I am the mother of your children. Whither can I fly, since all Greece hates the barbarian?"), and that she saved him and slew the dragon. Jason promises to support her after his new marriage, but Medea spurns him: "Marry the maid if thou wilt; perchance full soon thou mayst rue thy nuptials."

In the following scene Medea encounters Aegeus, King of Athens. He reveals to her that despite his marriage he is still without children. He visited the oracle who merely told him that he was instructed “not to unstop the wineskin’s neck.” Medea relays her current situation to him and begs for Aegeus to let her stay in Athens if she gives him drugs to end his infertility. Aegeus, unaware of Medea’s plans for revenge, agrees.

Medea then returns to plotting the murders of Glauce and Creon. She decides to poison some golden robes (a family heirloom and gift from the sun god Helios) and a coronet, in hopes that the bride will not be able to resist wearing them, and consequently be poisoned. Medea resolves to kill her own children as well, not because the children have done anything wrong, but because she feels it is the best way to hurt Jason. She calls for Jason once more and, in an elaborate ruse, apologizes to him for overreacting to his decision to marry Glauce. When Jason appears fully convinced that she regrets her actions, Medea begins to cry in mourning of her exile. She convinces Jason to allow her to give the robes to Glauce in hopes that Glauce might get Creon to lift the exile. Eventually Jason agrees and allows their children to deliver the poisoned robes as the gift-bearers.

Forgive what I said in anger! I will yield to the decree, and only beg one favor, that my children may stay. They shall take to the princess a costly robe and a golden crown, and pray for her protection.

Medea kills her son, Campanian red-figure amphora, c. 330 BC, Louvre (K 300).

In the next scene a messenger recounts Glauce and Creon’s deaths. When the children arrived with the robes and coronet, Glauce gleefully put them on and went to find her father. Soon the poisons overtook Glauce and she fell to the floor, dying horribly and painfully. Creon clutched her tightly as he tried to save her and, by coming in contact with the robes and coronet, got poisoned and died as well.

Alas! The bride had died in horrible agony; for no sooner had she put on Medea's gifts than a devouring poison consumed her limbs as with fire, and in his endeavor to save his daughter the old father died too.

While Medea is pleased with her current success she decides to take it one step forward. Since Jason brought shame upon her for trying to start a new family, Medea resolves to destroy the family he was willing to give up by killing their sons. Medea does have a moment of hesitation when she considers the pain that her children’s deaths will put her through. However, she steels her resolve to cause Jason the most pain possible and rushes offstage with a knife to kill her children. As the chorus laments her decision, the children are heard screaming. Jason then rushes onto the scene to confront Medea about murdering Creon and Glauce and he quickly discovers that his children have been killed as well. Medea then appears above the stage with the bodies of her children in the chariot of the sun god Helios. When this play was put on, this scene was accomplished using the mechane device usually reserved for the appearance of a god or goddess. She confronts Jason, reveling in his pain at being unable to ever hold his children again:

I do not leave my children's bodies with thee; I take them with me that I may bury them in Hera's precinct. And for thee, who didst me all that evil, I prophesy an evil doom.

She escapes to Athens with the bodies. The chorus is left contemplating the will of Zeus in Medea's actions:

Manifold are thy shapings, Providence! / Many a hopeless matter gods arrange / What we expected never came to pass / What we did not expect the gods brought to bear / So have things gone, this whole experience through!

Modern productions and adaptations[edit]

Theatre[edit]

Front cover of the programme of the 1993 production starring Diana Rigg at the Wyndham's Theatre.
Angelique Rockas,Medea,Theatro Technis
Olivia Sutherland stars in MacMillan Films' Medea
  • Jean Anouilh adapted the Medea story in his French drama Médée in 1946
  • Robinson Jeffers adapted Medea into a hit Broadway play in 1947, in a famous production starring Judith Anderson, the first of three actresses to win a Tony Award for the role.
  • Ben Bagley's Shoestring Revue performed a musical parody off-Broadway in the 1950s which was later issued on an LP and a CD, and was revived in 1995. The same plot points take place, but Medea in Disneyland is a parody, in that it takes place in a Walt Disney animated cartoon
  • Canada's Stratford Festival staged an adaptation of Medea by Larry Fineberg in 1978, which starred Patricia Idlette in the title role.[12]
  • In 1982, George Eugeniou directed Medea in a Philip Vellacott Penguin translation at Theatro Technis with Angelique Rockas in the title role. Ned Chaillet of The Times is struck by the eruption of the wrath of Medea spurned in "the dangerous passions of Angelique Rockas", [13]and Rosemary Say of The Sunday Telegraph lauds Rockas' performance as 'fiercely agile'[14][15][Link to Live performance of Angelique Rockas as Medea ].[16] As for the production itself, Tom Vaughan of The Morning Star describes it as "sensitive and eloquent .... fit to stand beside the National's "Oresteia".[17]
  • Yukio Ninagawa staged a production called Ohjo Media(王女メディア)in 1978, followed by a second version in 2005[18]
  • In 1983, kabuki Master Shozo Sato created Kabuki Medea uniting Euripides play and classical Kabuki storytelling and presentation.[19] It debuted at Wisdom Bridge Theater in Chicago.[20][21]
  • The 1990 play Pecong, by Steve Carter, is a retelling of Medea set on a fictional Caribbean island around the turn of the 20th century
  • The play was staged at the Wyndham's Theatre in London's West End, in a translation by Alistair Elliot.[22] The production was directed by Jonathan Kent and starred Diana Rigg.[22] The Evening Standard described Rigg's performance as "the performance she was born to give" while the Mail on Sunday described it as "unquestionably the performance of her life."[22] Peter J. Davison provided the scenic design and Jonathan Dove the music.[22] The production opened on 19 October 1993.[22]
  • Chrysanthos Mentis Bostantzoglou makes a parody of this tragedy in his comedy Medea (1993).[23][24]
  • A 1993 dance-theatre retelling of the Medea myth was produced by Edafos Dance Theatre, directed by avant-garde stage director and choreographer Dimitris Papaioannou
  • John Fisher wrote a camp musical version of Medea entitled Medea the Musical that re-interpreted the play in light of gay culture. The production was first staged in 1994 in Berkeley, California.[25]
  • On November 1997 National Theatre of Greece launched a worldwide tour of Medea, a critically acclaimed production directed by Nikaiti Kontouri, starring Karyofyllia Karambeti as Medea, Kostas Triantafyllopoulos as Creon and Lazaros Georgakopoulos as Jason. The tour included performances in France, Australia, Israel, Portugal, United States, Canada, Turkey, Bulgaria, China and Japan and lasted almost two years, until July 1999.[26][27] The play opened in the United States at Shubert Theatre in Boston (18 and 19 September 1998) and then continued at City Center Theatre in Manhattan, New York City (23 to 27 September 1998), receiving a very positive review from The New York Times.[28]
  • Neil Labute wrote Medea Redux, a modern retelling, first performed in 1999 starring Calista Flockhart as part of his one act trilogy entitled Bash: Latter-Day Plays. In this version, the main character is seduced by her middle school teacher. He abandons her, and she kills their child out of revenge.
  • Michael John LaChiusa created a Broadway musical adaptation work for Audra McDonald entitled Marie Christine in 1999 . McDonald portrayed the title role, and the show was set in New Orleans and Chicago respectively in 1999
  • Liz Lochhead's Medea previewed at the Old Fruitmarket, Glasgow as part of Theatre Babel's[29] Greeks in 2000 before the Edinburgh Fringe and national tour. 'What Lochhead does is to recast MEDEA as an episode-ancient but new, cosmic yet agonisingly familiar- in a sex war which is recognisable to every woman, and most of the men, in the theatre.' The Scotsman
  • In 2000 Wesley Enoch wrote and directed a modern adaptation titled Black Medea, which was first produced by Sydney Theatre Company’s Blueprint at the Wharf 2 Theatre, Sydney, on 19 August 2000. Nathan Ramsay played the part of Jason, Tessa Rose played Medea, and Justine Saunders played the Chorus. Medea is re-characterised as an indigenous woman transported from her homeland to the city and about to be abandoned by her abusive social-climbing husband.[30]
  • Tom Lanoye (2001) used the story of Medea to bring up modern problems (such as migration and man vs. woman), resulting in a modernized version of Medea. His version also aims to analyze ideas such as the love that develops from the initial passion, problems in the marriage, and the "final hour" of the love between Jason and Medea
  • Kristina Leach adapted the story for her play The Medea Project, which had its world premiere at the Hunger Artists Theatre Company in 2004 and placed the story in a modern-day setting.[31]
  • Peter Stein directed Medea in Epidaurus 2005
  • Irish playwright Marina Carr's By the Bog of Cats is a modern re-telling of Euripides' Medea
  • In November 2008, Theatre Arcadia, under the direction of Katerina Paliou, staged Medea at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (University of Alexandria, Egypt). The production was noted (by Nehad Selaiha of the weekly Al-Ahram) not only for its unexpected change of plot at the very end but also for its chorus of one hundred who alternated their speech between Arabic and English. The translation used was that of George Theodoridis
  • US Latina playwright Caridad Svich's 2009 play Wreckage, which premiered at Crowded Fire Theatre in San Francisco, tells the story of Medea from the sons' point of view, in the afterlife
  • Paperstrangers Performance Group[32] toured a critically acclaimed production of Medea directed by Michael Burke to U.S. Fringe Festivals in 2009 and 2010.
  • Luis Alfaro's re-imagining of Medea, Mojada, world premiered at Victory Gardens Theater in 2013.
  • Theatre Lab's production, by Greek director Anastasia Revi, opened at The Riverside Studios, London, on 5 March 2014.
  • The Hungry Woman: A Mexican Medea by Cherríe Moraga takes elements of Medea and of other works[33]
  • 14 July – 4 September 2014 London Royal National Theatre staging of Euripides in a new version by Ben Power, starring Helen McCrory as Medea, directed by Carrie Cracknell, music by Will Gregory and Alison Goldfrapp.
  • 25 September – 14 November 2015 London Almeida Theatre a new adaptation by Rachel Cusk, starring Kate Fleetwood as Medea, directed by Rupert Goold.
  • February 17 – March 6, 2016 in Austin at the Long Center for the Performing Arts starring Franchelle Stewart Dorn as Medea and directed by Ann Ciccolella.
  • May 2016 – MacMillan Films released a full staging of the original Medea which was staged for camera. The DVD release shows the entire play. complete with the Aegis scenes, choral odes and triumphant ending. Directed by James Thomas and starring Olivia Sutherland, the staging features Peter Arnott's critically acclaimed translation.
  • Chico Buarque and Paulo Pontes, Gota d'Água (musical play set in 1970s Rio de Janeiro, based on Euripides, 1975). Several times revived, including a 2016/2017 production starring Laila Garin (celebrated for her title role in the highly regarded musical biography of Elis Regina, staged in Brasil in 2015).
  • February 2017: the play was staged in South Korea, directed by Hungarian theatre director Róbert Alföldi, with Lee Hye-young in the titular role.[34]

Film[edit]

Television[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gregory (2005), p. 3
  2. ^ a b See (e.g.) Rabinowitz (1993), pp. 125–54; McDonald (1997), p. 307; Mastronarde (2002), pp. 26–8; Griffiths (2006), pp. 74–5; Mitchell-Boyask (2008), p. xx
  3. ^ Helene P. Foley. Reimagining Greek Tragedy on the American Stage. University of California Press, Sep 1, 2012, p. 190
  4. ^ Ewans (2007), p. 55
  5. ^ This theory of Euripides' invention has gained wide acceptance. See (e.g.) McDermott (1989), p. 12; Powell (1990), p. 35; Sommerstein (2002), p. 16; Griffiths (2006), p. 81; Ewans (2007), p. 55.
  6. ^ Diodorus Siculus 4.56
  7. ^ "Korinthian Women and the Plot Against Medea". Sententiaeantiquae.com. 26 March 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  8. ^ Hall, Edith. 1997. "Introduction" in Medea: Hippolytus ; Electra ; Helen Oxford University Press. pp. ix–xxxv.
  9. ^ Macintosh, Fiona (2007). "Oedipus and Medea on the Modern Stage". In Brown, Sarah Annes; Silverstone, Catherine. Tragedy in Transition. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-40-513546-7. [Medea] has successfully negotiated her path through very diverse cultural and political contexts: either by being radically recast as 'exemplary' mother and wife, or by being seen as proto-feminist wrongly abandoned by a treacherous husband. 
  10. ^ Williamson, Margaret (1990). "A Woman's Place in Euripides' Medea". In Powell, Anton. Euripides, Women, and Sexuality (1st ed.). London, UK: Routledge. pp. 16–31. ISBN 0-415-01025-X. 
  11. ^ DuBois (1991), pp. 115–24; Hall (1991), passim; Saïd (2002), pp. 62–100
  12. ^ "Electric Medea holds the stage". The Globe and Mail, July 3, 1978.
  13. ^ Ned Chaillet (Jan 1982). "Review of Medea". The Times retrieved from Gale – via Internet Archive. 
  14. ^ Rosemary Say (Jan 1982). "Womens` Worlds". The Sunday Telegraph retrieved from Gale – via Internet Archive. 
  15. ^ "Medea at Theatro Technis". The Camden Scanner. 28 Feb 1982 – via Internet Archive. 
  16. ^ "Live performance of Angelique Rockas as Medea". Medea. 1982 – via Internet Archive. 
  17. ^ Tom Vaughan (28 Jan 1982). "Medea's Revenge". The Morning Star – via Internet Archive. 
  18. ^ Dunning, Jennifer. "KABUKI AND NOH FLAVOR A 'MEDEA' IN CENTRAL PARK". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  19. ^ "Shozo Sato". theatre.illinois.edu. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  20. ^ "Chicago Tribune - Historical Newspapers". Archives.chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  21. ^ Brown, Joe (19 July 1985). "'Kabuki Medea': Furious Fusion". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  22. ^ a b c d e From the programme and publicity materials for this production.
  23. ^ Kaggelaris, N. (2016). ""Sophocles' Oedipus in Mentis Bostantzoglou's". Academia.edu. pp. 74– 81. Retrieved 1 June 2018. Medea" [in Greek] in Mastrapas, A. N. - Stergioulis, M. M. (eds.) Seminar 42: Sophocles the great classic of tragedy, Athens: Koralli 
  24. ^ Kaggelaris, N. (2017). ""Euripides in Mentis Bostantzoglou's Medea", [in Greek] Carpe Diem 2:". Academia.edu. pp. 379–417. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  25. ^ David Littlejohn (26 December 1996). "John Fisher: The Drama of Gender". Wall Street Journal. 
  26. ^ Archive of the National Theatre of Greece, Euripides' Medea – Worldwide tour dates and venues (in Greek).
  27. ^ Archive of the National Theatre of Greece, Photo of Kostas Triantafyllopoulos as Creon in Euripides' Medea at the State Theatre of Sydney, Australia on 22 – 24 May 1998"].
  28. ^ Medea: Anguish, Freeze-Dried and Served With Precision – New York Times review on Medea accompanied with a picture of Karyofyllia Karambeti (Medea) with Kostas Triantafyllopoulos (Creon) from the opening night at City Center Theatre, Manhattan, New York on 23 September 1998. Peter Marks (picture by Michael Quan), The New York Times, 25 September 1998. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  29. ^ "Theatre Loans - Logbook Loans Provider". Theatrebabel.co.uk. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  30. ^ Lahrissa Behrendt, Contemporary Indigenous Plays Currency Press (2007)
  31. ^ [1][dead link]
  32. ^ "paperStrangers Performance Group". Web.archive.org. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  33. ^ Eschen, Nicole (University of California, Los Angeles). "The Hungry Woman: A Mexican Medea (review)." Theatre Journal. Volume 58, Number 1, March 2006 pp. 103–106 | 10.1353/tj.2006.0070 – At: Project Muse, p. 103
  34. ^ "이혜영 "'메디아'는 일생일대의 도전…신화 아닌 오늘날 이야기"" (in Korean). Asiae. 2017-02-13. Retrieved 2017-02-26. 
  35. ^ "Medea". IMDb.com. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  36. ^ Christian Science Monitor Zoe Caldwell's 'Medea,' a theatrical mountaintop; Medea Tragedy by Euripides, freely adapted by Robinson Jeffers. Directed by Robert Whitehead
  37. ^ Medea: Freely adapted from the Medea of Euripides (1948) Robinson Jeffers (translator)
  38. ^ "Medea". IMDb.com. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  39. ^ "OedipusEnders - BBC Radio 4". BBC. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  40. ^ "The Internet Classics Archive - Medea by Euripides". classics.mit.edu. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  41. ^ Euripides, 480? BCE-406 BCE (16 February 2005). "The Tragedies of Euripides, Volume I". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  42. ^ Euripides; Murray, Gilbert (1 June 2018). "The Medea. Translated into English rhyming verse with explanatory notes by Gilbert Murray". New York Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 June 2018 – via Internet Archive. 
  43. ^ Lucas, F. L., Euripides: Medea; verse translation, with introduction and notes (Oxford University Press, 1924)
  44. ^ "Medea and Other Plays". Penguin Classics. 30 August 1963. Retrieved 1 June 2018 – via Amazon. 
  45. ^ "Medea Μήδεια". Bacchicstage.wordpress.com. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  46. ^ "Medea by Joseph Goodrich - Playscripts Inc". Playscripts.com. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  47. ^ "Encore -- Euripides: Hecuba, Electra, Medea / adapted into English verse by Brian Vinero". Nypl.bibliocommons.com. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  48. ^ Fisher, Mark (3 October 2012). "Medea – review". the Guardian. Retrieved 1 June 2018. 
  49. ^ Stuttard, David, Looking at Medea: Essays and a translation of Euripides' tragedy (Bloomsbury Academic 2014)

Sources[edit]

  • DuBois, Page (1991). Centaurs and Amazons: Women and the Pre-History of the Great Chain of Being. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08153-5. 
  • Ewans, Michael (2007). Opera from the Greek: Studies in the Poetics of Appropriation. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-7546-6099-0.  ISBN 978-0-7546-6099-6
  • Gregory, Justina (2005). A Companion to Greek Tragedy. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-0770-7. 
  • Griffiths, Emma (2006). Medea. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-30070-3.  ISBN 978-0-415-30070-4
  • Hall, Edith (1991). Inventing the Barbarian: Greek Self-definition through Tragedy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814780-5. 
  • Mastronarde, Donald (2002). Euripides: Medea. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64386-4. 
  • McDermott, Emily (1989). Euripides' Medea: the Incarnation of Disorder. Penn State Press. ISBN 0-271-00647-1.  ISBN 978-0-271-00647-5
  • McDonald, Marianne (1997). "Medea as Politician and Diva: Riding the Dragon into the Future". In Ckauss, James; Johnston, Sarah Iles. Medea: Essays on Medea in Myth, Literature, Philosophy, and Art. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04376-0. 
  • Mitchell-Boyask, Robin (2008). Euripides: Medea. Translated by Diane Arnson Svarlien. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-87220-923-7. 
  • Powell, Anton (1990). Euripides, Women and Sexuality. Routledge Press. ISBN 0-415-01025-X. 
  • Rabinowitz, Nancy S. (1993). Anxiety Veiled: Euripides and the Traffic in Women. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8091-4. 
  • Saïd, Suzanne (2002). "Greeks and Barbarians in Euripides' Tragedies: The End of Differences?". In Harrison, Thomas. Greeks and Barbarians. Translated by Antonia Nevill. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-93959-3. 
  • Sommerstein, Alan (2002). Greek Drama and Dramatists. Routledge Press. ISBN 0-203-42498-0.  ISBN 978-0-203-42498-8

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]