Media of Turkmenistan
The Media of Turkmenistan is one of the most tightly controlled in the world. The press is heavily controlled by the government, which funds nearly all newspapers. Criticism of the president is absolutely forbidden. State licensing policy effectively eliminates all outlets not reflecting official views. To avoid reprisal, domestic and foreign journalists engage in self-censorship.
The only domestic news agency is the State News Agency of Turkmenistan; the Anadolu Agency of Turkey maintains an office in Ashgabat, and TRT has a representative in Ashgabat. Broadcasting is under the full control of the "Turkmenistan" Television Broadcasting Center, which operates seven national television channels. Little recent information on radio stations is available.
Reporters Without Borders' 2018 Press Freedom Index ranked Turkmenistan 178th out of 180 countries surveyed, ahead of only North Korea and Eritrea. It has consistently ranked at or near the bottom of most measures of press freedom since the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Newspapers and magazines
There are 22 newspapers (2 private-owned) and 14 magazines (any private-owned) operating in Turkmenistan. The newspapers are not different from each other[clarification needed]. They are very cheap, with most expensive newspaper costing $0.50. 1 year subscription is equal to 1 month minimum salary.[obsolete source] Additionally, some online newspapers have been founded and Russian magazines and Uzbek newspapers are sold in some buffets (kiosk)[example needed].
- Neytralny Turkmenistan (Russian: Neutral Turkmenistan]] - publishing in Russian language, main newspaper of Turkmenistan. Newspaper publishing six times in a week. Publishing since 1924, its old name was Turkmenskaya Iskra (Russian: The Turkmen Spark)
- Turkmenistan - main newspaper of Turkmenistan. Published in Turkmen, six times in a week, since 1920.
- Watan (Turkmen: The Homeland) - Publishing in Turkmen, three times in a week. It is a Soviet-era newspaper, and its old name wasYash Kommunistler (Turkmen: Young Communists).
- Nesil (Turkmen: The Generation) - Founded and owned by Makhtumkuli Youth Organization. It is published in Turkmen, three times in a week.
- Adalat (Turkmen: The Justice) - Founded and owned by Ministry of Justice of Turkmenistan. It is published in Turkmen, weekly.
- Rysgal (Turkmen: The Welfare) - Founded and owned by Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Turkmenistan. The country's first and only private newspaper. It publishing in Turkmen, weekly.
- Turkmen Sporty (Turkmen: The Turkmen Sport) - Founded and owned by State Sports Committee of Turkmenistan. It has been published in Turkmen, weekly.
- Nebit-Gaz (Turkmen: Oil and Gas) - Founded and owned by Ministry of Oil and Gas Resources of Turkmenistan. It has been published in Turkmen, since 2011.
- Mugallymlar Gazeti (Turkmen: The Newspaper of Teachers) - Founded and owned by Ministry of Education of Turkmenistan. It has been published in Turkmen, three times in a week.
- Habarlar (Turkmen: The News) - It publishing economic news on headline, publicities and advertisements[clarification needed]. It has been published in Turkmen, three times per week, since 1975.
- Zaman Turkmenistan - Founded and owned by Turkish newspaper Zaman. It was published weekly in Turkmen. It was closed by government after a coup attempt in Turkey.
- Edebiyat we Sungat (Turkmen: Literature and Art) - Owned by Ministry of Culture and Broadcasting of Turkmenistan. It has been published in Turkmen, weekly since 1958.
- Bereketli Toprak (Turkmen: The Fertile Land.) - Founded and owned by Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources of Turkmenistan. It has been published in Turkmen, weekly since 2008.
- Turkmen Dunyasi (Turkmen: The Turkmen World.) - Founded and owned by Humanitarian Association of World Turkmens. It has been published in Turkmen, twice in a month, since 1991.
- Turkmenin Yupek Yoly (Turkmen: The Silk Road of Turkmen) - Owned by Ministry of Railways of Turkmenistan. It has been published in Turkmen, weekly, since 1936.
- Esger (Turkmen: The Soldier) - Founded and owned by Ministry of Defence of Turkmenistan. It has been published in Turkmen, weekly, since 1993.
- Biznes Reklama (Turkmen: Business Advertising) - Founded and owned by Ministry of Trade and Foreign Economic Relations.
- Galkynysh (Turkmen: The Development) - Founded and owned by Democratic Party of Turkmenistan. It has been published in Turkmen, weekly, since 1997.
- Maru-Shahu-Jahan - Mary Velayat, publishing since 1931, in Turkmen, three times in a week.
- Ahal Durmushy (Ahal Life) - Ahal Velayat, publishing in Turkmen, three times in a week.
- Dashoguz Habarlary (Dashoguz News) - Dashoguz Velayat, publishing in Turkmen, three times in a week.
- Turkmen Gundogary (Eastern of Turkmen) - Lebap Velayat, publishing in Turkmen, three times in a week.
- Balkan - Balkan Velayat, publishing in Turkmen, three times in a week.
- Gundogar.org - Foreign based independent media
- Turkmenistan Today (TDH official website)  - state-owned.
- Turkmenistan: Golden Age  - service of Neytralny Turkmenistan, state-owned.
- Turkmenistan.ru 
- Azatlyk Radiosy (Voice of America Turkmen Service) 
- Chronicles of Turkmenistan 
- Parahat Info 
- Arzuw News 
- Turkmen Inform 
- Turkmen Habar Gullugy
- "Media-Turkmen" news agency (http://www.orient.tm/)
- Dunya Edebiyaty (Turkmen: World Literature) - Founded and owned by Turkmen State Publishing Service. It publishing once in a month.
- Garagum (Turkmen: Karakum) - Founded and owned by Turkmen State Publishing Service. It publishing once in a month.
- Zenan Kalby (Turkmen: The Woman's Heart) - Owned by Women's Union of Turkmenistan. It publishing since 1931, once in a month.
- Saglyk (Turkmen: Health) - Founded and owned by Ministry of Health of Turkmenistan. It publishing since 1990, once in two month.
- Turkmenistanda Ylym we Tehnika (Turkmen: Science and Technic in Turkmenistan) - It publishing once in two month.
- Altyn Asyr Ykdysadyyeti (Turkmen: The Golden Age Economy) - Founded and owned by Ministry of Economy and Development of Turkmenistan. It publishing since 2000, once in a month.
- Gunesh (Turkmen: The Sun) - Founded and owned by Ministry of Education of Turkmenistan. It publishing once in a month.
- Taze Oba (Turkmen: The New Village) - Owned by Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources of Turkmenistan. It publishing since 1929, once in a month.
- Diyar (Turkmen: The Land) - Founded and owned by Cabinet of Turkmenistan. It publishing since 1992, once in a month.
- Возрождение (Vozrojdenie, Rebirth in Russian) - Owned by Democratic Party of Turkmenistan. It publishing since 1937, once in a month.
Turkmenistan broadcasts 7 public television channels (6 of them on the territory of the whole country, and 1 only in Ashgabat). All of them are broadcast in the Turkmen language (with the exception of Turkmenistan news channel, which broadcasts in 7 languages). By the content and quality of programs, they do not differ from each other. These sources of information are an ideological mouthpiece of the ruling regime in the country. Any opinion or idea that differs from the President of Turkmenistan cannot be broadcast (except if the criticism is made by the president himself). They also present informative and entertaining programs and movies produced nationally, sports events with the participation of Turkmen sportsmen. Sometimes Altyn Asyr broadcasts popular movies in Turkmen dublage in the evenings, and Turkmenistan Sport was broadcast Serie A in 2015. Any television broadcast 24 hour. Only state companies and institutions advertising to Turkmen televisions. People are forced to subscribe to Cable TV. IPTV is partly forbidden.
- Altyn Asyr (formerly TMT-1; English: Golden Age) - The main channel of the country.
- Yaşlyk (formerly TMT-2; English: Youth) - Channel catered to the youth of Turkmenistan.
- Miras (formerly TMT-3; English: Heritage) - TV channel about the culture and heritage of the Turkmen people
- Türkmenistan (formerly TMT-4) - international channel broadcast in seven different languages.
- Türkmen Owazy (English: Voice of Turkmen) - Turkmen music channel.
- Aşgabat - TV channel broadcasting programs about Ashgabat.
- Türkmenistan Sport - sports channel.
- AŞTU (Aşgabat şäher telefon ulgamy, English: Ashgabat City Telephone System) - the company announced they has 13000 subscribers in 2015.
The State Telecommunication Company "Turkmen Telekom operating cable TV activities in the country. The service has not a brand.
There are at least four radio stations in Turkmenistan:
- TR1 Radio Watan (279 kHz & 67.04 MHz)
- TR2 Radio Char-Tarapdan (69.68 MHz)
- TR3 Radio Miras (103.9 MHz)
- TR4 Radio Ovaz (101.3 & 104.4 MHz)
TR1 broadcasts on Longwave, Mediumwave OIRT FM and CCIR FM, TR2 & TR3 broadcast on MW and OIRT & CCIR FM, and TR4 broadcasts on CCIR FM. All four stations also broadcast on DAB+ in Ashgabat. There is no local or regional radio stations in the country.
- Turkmenistan country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (February 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- World Press Freedom Index 2018, Reporters Without Borders
- "Merkezi Aziýanyň we Türkmenistanyň neşirleri". Azatlyk Radiosy.
- "Hususy gazet çap edilip başlandy". Azatlyk Radiosy.
- "Turkish News - Latest News from Turkey". Hürriyet Daily News.
- Editor. "Satellite dishes banned in Turkmenistan". advanced-television.com.
- "На туркменском телевидении появится шестой канал - Интернет-газета Turkmenistan.Ru". www.turkmenistan.ru.
- "НОВЫЙ СПУТНИКОВЫЙ КАНАЛ ТУРКМЕНСКОГО ТЕЛЕВИДЕНИЯ БУДЕТ ВЕЩАТЬ НА СЕМИ ЯЗЫКАХ - Интернет-газета Turkmenistan.Ru". www.turkmenistan.ru.
- "Российский спутник «Ямал-201» начал трансляцию программ нового телеканала «Туркмен овазы» - Интернет-газета Turkmenistan.Ru". www.turkmenistan.ru.
- "Золотой век". www.turkmenistan.gov.tm.
- "С 1 января в Туркменистане начнет круглосуточное вещание телеканал «Спорт» - Интернет-газета Turkmenistan.Ru". www.turkmenistan.ru.
- "AşTU öwünýär, müşderiler zeýrenýär". Azatlyk Radiosy.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2016-01-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Aşgabatda radiostantsiýalar, Türkmenistan / Radio stations in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan — World Radio Map". Worldradiomap.com. 1927-12-20. Retrieved 2019-04-13.