Media of Turkmenistan
The Media of Turkmenistan is under heavy control of the state. The government funds nearly all newspapers, and criticism of the president is absolutely forbidden. State licensing policy effectively eliminates all outlets not reflecting official views. To avoid reprisal, domestic and foreign journalists engage in self-censorship.
In 2003 the newspapers with the largest circulation were Adalat (Justice), Mugallymlar gazeti (Teacher’s Newspaper), Neytralny Turkmenistan (Neutral Turkmenistan), Turkmenistan, and Vatan (Fatherland). Most newspapers appear weekly or three times weekly. The only domestic news agency is the Turkmen State News Service; the Anadolu Agency of Turkey maintains an office in Ashgabat. Broadcasting is under the full control of the National Television and Radio Company of Turkmenistan, which operates four national television channels. Little recent information on radio stations is available.
There are at least four radio stations in Turkmenistan:
- TR1 Radio Watan (279 kHz & 67.04 MHz)
- TR2 Radio Char-Tarapdan (69.68 MHz)
- TR3 Radio Miras (103.9 MHz)
- TR4 Radio Ovaz (101.3 & 104.4 MHz)
TR1 broadcasts on Longwave, Mediumwave OIRT FM and CCIR FM, TR2 & TR3 broadcast on MW and OIRT & CCIR FM, and TR4 broadcasts on CCIR FM. All four stations also broadcast on DAB+ in Ashgabat. There is no local or regional radio stations in the country.
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