Medicago lupulina

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Medicago lupulina
MedicagoLupulina02.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Trifolieae
Genus: Medicago
Species: M. lupulina
Binomial name
Medicago lupulina

Medicago lupulina, commonly known as black medick, nonesuch, or hop clover, is a plant of dry grassland belonging to the legume or clover family. Plants of the genus Medicago, or bur clovers, are closely related to the true clovers (Trifolium) and sweet clover (Melilotus). Like the true clovers, black medick has three leaflets and a small, yellow flower closely resembling those of lesser trefoil. Black medick belongs to the same genus as alfalfa.[1]

Names[edit]

The generic name, Medicago, is derived, via Latin medica, from Ancient Greek Μηδική (Mēdikḗ) "Median", because alfalfa was believed to have been introduced from the region of Media in antiquity. The specific name, lupulina, means "wolf-like," and refers to the hop, or willow-wolf (Humulus lupulus). Its scientific name is a translation of the common name, "hop clover" (or "hop-clover"), which is also used for several members of the genus Trifolium.[2][3]

Also spelled medic or meddick, the plant is known by a number of alternate names, including nonesuch, black nonesuch, black medic clover, hop clover, hop medic, black clover, black hay, blackweed, English trefoil, hop trefoil, and yellow trefoil. Some of these names are also applied to wildflowers of the related genera Trifolium and Melilotus.[4][5][6][7]

Description[edit]

Medicago lupulina is an annual or short-lived perennial plant,[8]:168 growing each year from adventitious buds on the roots. Mature plants measure from 15 to 80 cm (6 to 31 in) in height, with fine stems often lying flat at the beginning of growth and later erecting. The leaves are compound, each with three oval leaflets, carried on a short petiole; the center leaflet usually has a longer petiole.[9][2] The leaflets are hairy, toothed toward the tip, and differ from those of the similar Trifolium dubium in that they end in a short point.[10]:148[8]:175

Black medick has small (2-3 mm)[8] yellow flowers grouped in tight bunches (compact racemes). On larger plants the flower heads may reach 8 mm (516 in) or more.[2] The fruit is a single-seeded pod, 1.5 to 3 mm in diameter,[8] that does not open upon maturation, but hardens and turns black when ripe. Each pod contains a single amber-colored seed.[9]

Like other legumes, the roots of black medick contain nodules hosting nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Plants that survive for more than one year may develop a deep tap root.[9]

Distribution[edit]

A native of the old world, black medick is found throughout Europe, north Africa, the near east, and most of Asia, including India, China, and Korea. It is naturalized in central Asia, Japan, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, and much of South America.[4] Black medick is found throughout the United States, including Hawaii and Alaska.[5]

Black medick thrives in dry to moist, well-drained soils[11] containing sand, loam, or clay, and is a pioneer plant, often growing on disturbed ground. It grows in alkaline, neutral, and mildly acidic conditions. It does not grow in shady areas.[12] Black medick grows well in limestone soils and on coastal sand dunes, where it suffers less competition from the other plants, and as such is found on many islands, such as Taiwan, the Canary Islands, the Azores, and Madeira.[4] It is resistant to cold and can be found on mountains up to 1,800 meters.[citation needed]

Uses[edit]

Black medick is one of the flowers used to make honey.[citation needed] It is frequently found in natural pastures, and may be planted in order to create artificial meadows, especially on dry land. The presence of black medick in large concentrations as a lawn weed may indicate that the soil is poor in nitrogen.[citation needed] However, because black medick and other clovers fix nitrogen in the soil, this deficiency can improve over time due to the presence of these plants.[4][13]

Black medick is sometimes used as a fodder plant. Its hardiness and ability to grow in poor soils, as well as its tendency to fix nitrogen in the soil, make black medick a good choice for pasturage, although its fodder value is limited.[4] It is grazed by sheep but is not very palatable to cattle.[14]

Similar plants[edit]

Black medick may be confused with other plants that have three leaflets and small yellow flowers, such as hop trefoil, large hop trefoil, lesser hop trefoil, and yellow woodsorrel.

Photographs[edit]

Illustrations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Venning, Frank D. (1984), Wildflowers of North America, Golden Field Guide, St. Martin's Press 
  2. ^ a b c "Medicago lupulina", Flora of Wisconsin, Wisconsin State Herbarium, University of Wisconsin–Madison, retrieved 14 June 2015 
  3. ^ "Medicago lupulina", Plants of Wisconsin, Robert W. Freckmann Arboretum, University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point, archived from the original on 2013-05-10, retrieved 2015-06-15 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Medicago lupulina", Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), retrieved 14 June 2015 
  5. ^ a b "Medicago lupulina", Integrated Taxonomic Information System, retrieved 14 June 2015 
  6. ^ James Britten (1886), A Dictionary of English Plant-names, 15, Richard Clay & Sons 
  7. ^ Jacobson, Arthur Lee (1995), "Black Medick" 
  8. ^ a b c d Stace, C. A. (2010), New Flora of the British Isles (Third ed.), Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521707725 
  9. ^ a b c "Black Medic", Forage Information System, Oregon State University, retrieved 14 June 2015 [permanent dead link]
  10. ^ Blamey, M.; Fitter, R.; Fitter, A (2003), Wild flowers of Britain and Ireland: The Complete Guide to the British and Irish Flora., London: A & C Black, ISBN 978-1408179505 
  11. ^ "Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora: Medicago lupulina". Biological Records Centre and Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 1 September 2018. 
  12. ^ "Medicago lupulina", Plants for a Future, retrieved 14 June 2015 
  13. ^ Clark, Andy (ed.), "Medics" (PDF), Managing Cover Crops Profitably (3rd ed.), Beltsville, Maryland: Sustainable Agriculture Network, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05, retrieved 14 June 2015 
  14. ^ Heuzé, V.; Thiollet, H.; Tran, G.; Hassoun, P.; Lebas, F. (2018), "Black medic (Medicago lupulina)", Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO 

External links[edit]