Paperback edition cover
|Author||Harriet A. Washington|
|Subject||Unethical human experimentation in the United States|
|9 January 2007|
|Media type||Print, e-book|
Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present is a 2007 book by Harriet A. Washington. It is a history of medical experimentation on African Americans. From the era of slavery to the present day, this book presents the first full account of black America's mistreatment as unwitting subjects of medical experimentation.
Medical Apartheid traces the convoluted history of medical experimentation on Black Americans in the United States since the middle of the eighteenth century. Harriet Washington argues that "diverse forms of racial discrimination have shaped both the relationship between white physicians and black patients and the attitude of the latter towards modern medicine in general".
The book is divided into three parts: the first is about the cultural memory of medical experimentation; the second examines recent cases of medical abuse and research; while the last addresses the complex relationship between racism and medicine. Some topics discussed are well-known, such as the Tuskegee syphilis experiment (1932—72), in which African Americans with the disease were intentionally denied treatment in order to allow the progression of the disease so it could be observed in all stages, but other episodes are less well known to the general public. The book also mentions cases of Medical experimentation in Africa and their links to African-American cases.
James Marion Sims
James Marion Sims, born in Hanging Rock, South Carolina, was considered by many to be the "father of gynecology". Washington uses her book to expose Sims by detailing the misdiagnosis of his patients during his medical training and the mistreatment of black slave women that led to his medical breakthrough.
In the beginning on the excerpt on Sims, the book details how Sims would blame the wrong parties for diseases and infections, such as neonatal tetanus. Neonatal tetanus is a bacterial disease caused by animal manure and grows in wounds such as umbilical stumps. Instead of blaming the slave owners for not providing proper and clean living areas for these slaves to live in, Sims instead blamed slave women for being lazy as the cause of their diseases.
Washington also mentioned the exploitation of black slave bodies when talking about the mistreatment of black infants during the 1800s. Sims used their bodies for tetany experiments. Sims determined through his research that the cause of tetany in the babies was a result of the movement of skull bones during birth. In order to test his theory, he took a black baby and, using shoemaker's tools, opened the baby's brain based on his belief that black babies' skulls grew faster than white babies, causing their brains not to grow or develop. Most of the babies died and he blamed the baby's death on its lack of intelligence.
The most infamous example of Sims' medical malpractice was his research on vesicovaginal fistulas. Sims acquired four female slaves and used their bodies in order to find a cure for the complication of childbirth. Sims put the slave women through painful surgeries without giving any of them anesthesia and eventually was eventually able to find the cure. As Washington said in the book, "he claimed that his procedures were “not painful enough to justify the trouble and risk attending the administration,” but this claim rings hollow when one learns that Sims always administered anesthesia when he performed the perfected surgery to repair the vaginas of white women in Montgomery a few years later. Sims also cited the popular belief that blacks did not feel pain in the same way as whites." (7) Despite this, he was given lots of fame and attention for his breakthrough. Because of the use of black women, Sims was eventually able help white women who experienced vesicovaginal fistulas, but black women still did not have access to these treatments and many died from the same disease that the slave women helped to cure. Along with not giving them anesthesia, he mistreated the women, making them undress completely, then kneel on hands and knees while doctors examined their vaginas.
Medical Apartheid won the 2007 National Book Critics Circle Award for Nonfiction. Harriet Washington has been a fellow in ethics at the Harvard Medical School, a fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health, and a senior research scholar at the National Center for Bioethics at Tuskegee University.
- Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present Google Books.
- Alondra Nelson. Unequal Treatment: How African Americans have often been the unwitting victims of medical experiments The Washington Post, January 7, 2007.
- Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present Social History of Medicine (2007) 20 (3): 620-621.
- Holland, Brynn. "The 'Father of Modern Gynecology' Performed Shocking Experiments on Slaves". HISTORY. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
- Medical Apartheid