Medical astrology (traditionally known as iatromathematics) is an ancient applied branch of astrology based mostly on melothesia (Gr. μελοθεσία), the association of various parts of the body, diseases, and drugs with the nature of the sun, moon, planets, and the twelve astrological signs. The underlying basis for medical astrology, astrology itself, is considered to be a pseudoscience as there is no scientific basis for its core beliefs. 
Medical astrology and the Zodiac Man diagram associates each sign of the zodiac with parts of the body, from head (Aries) to toes (Pisces). The Zodiac Man illustrates centuries of connections between astrology and human personality, health, sickness, and medical treatments. These associations and the impact of the heavens on the health of humans were believed by both educated elite and average people for centuries.
Medical treatments were related to the zodiac in multiple ways. First, one must consider the patient's personality and constitution that were determined by the zodiac sign of one's birthday. Second, the affected part of the body and its sign must be considered. Third, the time of year or season when the patient became sick and its zodiac characteristics had to be assessed. Fourth, decisions about the best day for bleeding, purging, bathing, sweating, or other treatments were made based on the locations and phase of the moon in the zodiac. Finally, herbs and other medicines had to be selected for treatments while considering their associated astrological qualities. Specialized publications advised readers about the best time of year based on the astrological calendar to gather medicinal plants so they would be the most beneficial.
While astrological decision-making was often do-it-yourself, astrological specialists could also be consulted. After examining an individual's natal chart, a medical astrologer may give advice to the client about the areas of the body in which they are most likely to experience trouble.
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