Medium Earth orbit
Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around the Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of 2,000 kilometres (1,243 mi)) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi)).
The most common use for satellites in this region is for navigation, communication, and geodetic/space environment science. The most common altitude is approximately 20,200 kilometres (12,552 mi)), which yields an orbital period of 12 hours, as used, for example, by the Global Positioning System (GPS). Other satellites in medium Earth orbit include Glonass (with an altitude of 19,100 kilometres (11,868 mi)) and Galileo (with an altitude of 23,222 kilometres (14,429 mi)) constellations. Communications satellites that cover the North and South Pole are also put in MEO.
- Atmospheric reentry
- Escape velocity
- Geostationary Earth orbit (GEO)
- High Earth orbit (HEO)
- Highly elliptical orbit (HEO)
- International Space Station
- List of orbits
- Low Earth orbit (LEO)
- Satellite phone
- Specific orbital energy examples
- Suborbital spaceflight
- Orbital periods and speeds are calculated using the relations 4π²R³ = T²GM and V²R = GM, where R = radius of orbit in metres, T = orbital period in seconds, V = orbital speed in m/s, G = gravitational constant ≈ 6.673×10−11 Nm²/kg², M = mass of Earth ≈ 5.98×1024 kg.
- Approximately 8.6 times (in radius and length) when the moon is nearest (363 104 km ÷ 42 164 km) to 9.6 times when the moon is farthest (405 696 km ÷ 42 164 km).
- "Definitions of geocentric orbits from the Goddard Space Flight Center". User support guide: platforms. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
- Galileo Satellites
- Satellite Basics: Solution Benefits
- Medium Earth Orbit