Medvedev Forest massacre
The Medvedev Forest massacre was a mass execution in the Soviet Union carried out by the NKVD on September 11, 1941. Barely three months after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, 157 political prisoners incarcerated at Oryol Prison were executed in Medvedev Forest, just outside Oryol, by personal order of Joseph Stalin. Among the victims were Christian Rakovsky, Sergei Efron, Olga Kameneva, and Maria Spiridonova. In 1941, the Orel isolation prison contained some five thousand political prisoners. This execution was one of the many massacres of prisoners committed by the NKVD in 1941.
- Michael Parrish, "Chapter 3 The Orel Massacres, the Killings of Senior Military Officers" in The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939-1953, pp. 69-109
- Alexander Rabinowitch, Maria Spiridonova's "Last Testament", Russian Review, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Jul., 1995), pp. 424-446