MeerKAT type dish
|Alternative names||Karoo Array Telescope|
|Observatory||South African Radio Astronomy Observatories|
|Location(s)||Northern Cape, South Africa|
|Organization||Department of Science and Technology|
National Research Foundation
|Wavelength||3 cm (10.0 GHz)-30 cm (1,000 MHz)|
|First light||16 July 2016|
|Telescope style||radio interferometer|
|Number of telescopes||64|
|Diameter||13.5 m (44 ft 3 in)|
|Collecting area||9,000 m2 (97,000 sq ft)|
MeerKAT, originally the Karoo Array Telescope, is a radio telescope consisting of 64 antennas now being tested and verified in the Northern Cape of South Africa. When fully functional it will be the largest and most sensitive radio telescope in the southern hemisphere until the Square Kilometre Array is completed in approximately 2024. The telescope will be used for research into cosmic magnetism, galactic evolution, the large-scale structure of the cosmos, dark matter and the nature of transient radio sources. It will also serve as a technology demonstrator for South Africa's bid to host the Square Kilometer Array. First light was on 16 July 2016. As of May 2018, all sixty-four 13.5-meter diameter (44.3 feet) dish antennae have been completed and are currently undergoing verification tests.
MeerKAT will consist of 64 dishes of 13.5 metres in diameter each with an offset Gregorian configuration. An offset dish configuration has been chosen because its unblocked aperture provides uncompromised optical performance and sensitivity, excellent imaging quality and good rejection of unwanted radio frequency interference from satellites and terrestrial transmitters. It also facilitates the installation of multiple receiver systems in the primary and secondary focal areas and is the reference design for the mid-band SKA concept.
MeerKAT supports a wide range of observing modes, including deep continuum, polarisation and spectral line imaging, pulsar timing and transient searches. A range of standard data products are provided, including an imaging pipeline. A number of "data spigots" are also available to support user-provided instrumentation. Significant design and qualification efforts are planned to ensure high reliability to achieve low operational cost and high availability.
|Number of antennae||64|
|Dish diameter||13.5 m|
|Minimum baseline||29 m|
|Maximum baseline||8 km|
|Frequency bands (receivers)||0.58 – 1.015 GHz|
1 – 1.75 GHz
8 – 14.5 GHz
|Continuum imaging dynamic range at 1.4 GHz||60 dB|
|Line-to-line dynamic range at 1.4 GHz||40 dB|
|Mosaicing imaging dynamic range at 1.4 GHz||27 dB|
|Linear polarisation cross coupling across −3 dB beam||−30 dB|
MeerKAT's 64 dishes will be distributed over two components:
- A dense inner component containing 70% of the dishes. These are distributed in a two-dimensional fashion with a Gaussian uv-distribution with a dispersion of 300 m, a shortest baseline of 29 m and a longest baseline of 1 km.
- An outer component containing 30% of the dishes. These are also distributed in a two-dimensional Gaussian uv-distribution with a dispersion of 2 500 m and a longest baseline of 8 km.
To acquire experience in the construction of interferometric telescopes, members of the Karoo Array Telescope constructed the Phased Experimental Demonstrator (PED) at the South African Astronomical Observatory in Cape Town between 2005 and 2007.
Construction of the MeerKAT Precursor Array (MPA – also known as KAT-7), on the site started in August 2009. In April 2010 four of the seven first dishes were linked together as an integrated system to produce its first interferometric image of an astronomical object. In Dec 2010, there was a successful detection of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) fringes between the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory 26 m dish and one of the KAT-7 dishes.
Despite original plans to complete MeerKAT by 2012, construction was suspended in late 2010 due to budget restructure. Science Minister Naledi Pandor denied the suspension marked any setback to the SKA project or 'external considerations'. MeerKAT construction received no funding in 2010/11 and 2011/12. The 2012 South African National Budget projected that just 15 MeerKAT antennas would be completed by 2015.
The last of the reinforced concrete foundations for the MeerKAT antennas was completed on 11 February 2014. Almost 5000 m3 of concrete and over 570 tonnes of steel were used to build the 64 bases over a 9-month period.
MeerKAT is planned to be completed in three phases. The first phase will include all the antennas but only the first receiver will be fitted. A processing bandwidth of 750 MHz is available. For the second and third phases, the remaining two receivers will be fitted and the processing bandwidth will be increased to at least 2 GHz, with a goal of 4 GHz. With construction of all sixty-four MeerKAT antennas complete, verification tests have begun to ensure the instruments are functioning correctly. Following this, MeerKAT will be commissioned in the second half of 2018 with the array then coming online for science operations.
MeerKAT Phase 1
MeerKAT Phase 2 and 3
|Number of dishes||7||64||64|
|Receiver bands (GHz)||0.9 – 1.6||1.00 – 1.75||0.58 – 1.015|
1.00 – 1.75
8 – 14.5
|Max processed BW (GHz)||0.256||0.75||2 (goal 4)|
|Max baseline (km)||0.2||8||20|
|Min baseline (m)||20||29||29|
The science objectives of the MeerKAT surveys are in line with the prime science drivers for the first phase of the SKA, confirming MeerKAT's designation as an SKA precursor instrument. Five years of observing time on MeerKAT have been allocated to leading astronomers who have applied for time to do research.
|Science projects||Research leaders|
|Testing Einstein's theory of gravity and gravitational radiation – Investigating the physics of enigmatic neutron stars through observations of pulsars.||Prof Matthew Bailes, Swinburne Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Australia|
|LADUMA (Looking at the Distant Universe with the MeerKAT Array) – An ultra-deep survey of neutral hydrogen gas in the early universe.||Dr Sarah Blyth, University of Cape Town, South Africa|
Dr Benne Holwerda, European Space Agency, The Netherlands
Dr Andrew Baker, Rutgers University, United States
|MESMER (MeerKAT Search for Molecules in the Epoch of Reionization) – Searching for CO at high red-shift (z>7) to investigate the role of molecular hydrogen in the early universe.||Dr Ian Heywood, University of Oxford, United Kingdom|
|MeerKAT Absorption Line Survey for atomic hydrogen and OH lines in absorption against distant continuum sources (OH line ratios may give clues about changes in the fundamental constants in the early universe).||Dr Neeraj Gupta, ASTRON, The Netherlands|
Dr Raghunathan Srianand, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, India
|MHONGOOSE (MeerKAT HI Observations of Nearby Galactic Objects: Observing Southern Emitters) – Investigations of different types of galaxies, dark matter and the cosmic web.||Prof Erwin de Blok, University of Cape Town, South Africa|
|TRAPUM (Transients and Pulsars with MeerKAT) – Searching for and investigating new and exotic pulsars.||Dr Benjamin Stappers, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, United Kingdom|
Prof Michael Kramer, Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany
|A MeerKAT HI Survey of the Fornax Cluster (Galaxy formation and evolution in the cluster environment).||Dr Paolo Serra, ASTRON, The Netherlands|
|MeerGAL (MeerKAT High Frequency Galactic Plane Survey) – Galactic structure and dynamics, distribution of ionised gas, recombination lines, interstellar molecular gas and masers.||Dr Mark Thompson, University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom|
Dr Sharmila Goedhart, SKA South Africa, South Africa
|MIGHTEE (MeerKAT International GigaHertz Tiered Extragalactic Exploration survey) – Deep continuum observations of the earliest radio galaxies.||Dr Kurt van der Heyden, University of Cape Town, South Africa|
Dr Matt Jarvis, University of the Western Cape, South Africa and the University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
|ThunderKAT (The Hunt for Dynamic and Explosive Radio Transients with MeerKAT) – e.g. gamma-ray bursts, novae and supernovae, plus new types of transient radio sources.||Prof Patrick Woudt, University of Cape Town, South Africa|
Prof Rob Fender, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
MeerKAT will also participate in global VLBI operations with all major radio astronomy observatories around the world and will add considerably to the sensitivity of the global VLBI network. Further potential science objectives for MeerKAT are to participate in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and collaborate with NASA on downloading information from space probes.
- Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder
- Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory
- List of radio telescopes
- Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization
- South African Astronomical Observatory for optical astronomy in South Africa
- Square Kilometer Array
- "About MeerKAT". SKA South Africa. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
- Campbell, Keith (3 April 2009). "An array of technology spin-offs emerges as the 'MeerKAT' radio telescope gains traction". Martin Creamer Engineering News. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
- "MeerKAT joins the ranks of the world's great scientific instruments through its First Light image". SKA Africa. 16 July 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-28.
- Tshangela, Lebo (16 May 2018). "MeerKAT telescope is complete". SABC News. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
- "SKA Africa eNews". SKA South Africa Project. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- "MeerKAT Concept Design Review". MeerKAT. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- "History of PED". Karoo Array Telescope. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "Progress with KAT – XDM". Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
- Campbell, Keith (29 May 2009). "Radio telescope project advances with issue of tender". Martin Creamer Engineering News. Retrieved 2009-06-30.
- First HartRAO-KAT-7 VLBI fringes signal new capability Archived 11 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Science and Technology Dept Budget Vote 2009/10 Speech, 18 June 2009[permanent dead link]
- Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project plans on schedule states Pandor 9 November 2010
- South Africa National Budget – Estimates of National Expenditure, Table 34.6 "Research, Development and Innovation" page 766
- South Africa National Budget – Estimates of National Expenditure page 764
- "MeerKAT telescope foundations complete". Phys.org. 2014-02-11. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
- Home page for the LADUMA (Looking At the Distant Universe with the MeerKAT Array) survey
|Creamer Media's Shannon O'Donnell speaks to Engineering News senior contributing editor Keith Campbell about the MeerKAT radio telescope. 24 April 2009|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to MeerKAT.|