Megacity

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This article is about the general category of conurbation. For other uses, see Mega City (disambiguation).

A megacity is usually defined as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people.[1] A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge. The terms conurbation, metropolis and metroplex are also applied to the latter.

As of 2015, there are 34 megacities in existence. The largest of these are the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, and Jakarta, each of these having a population of over 30 million inhabitants. Tokyo is the largest metropolitan area, while Shanghai is the largest city proper.

Largest cities[edit]

Tokyo, Japan, is the world's largest megacity
Delhi, India
Karachi, Pakistan
Seoul, South Korea
Shanghai, China
Mumbai, India
Mexico City, Mexico
Beijing, China
São Paulo, Brazil
Lagos, Nigeria.
Jakarta, Indonesia
New York City, United States of America
Lahore, Pakistan

This is the list as of 2015.


Megacity Country Continent Population
Tokyo Japan Japan Asia 37,900,000
Jakarta Indonesia Indonesia Asia 30,326,103[2]
Seoul South Korea South Korea Asia 26,100,000
Shanghai China China Asia 25,400,000
Delhi India India Asia 24,953,000[3]
New York City United States United States North America 23,632,722[4]
Karachi Pakistan Pakistan Asia 23,500,000
Mexico City Mexico Mexico North America 22,200,000
Beijing China China Asia 21,650,000
Sao Paulo Brazil Brazil South America 21,250,000
Lagos Nigeria Nigeria Africa 21,000,534[5]
Mumbai India India Asia 20,741,000[3]
Osaka Japan Japan Asia 20,260,000
Manila Philippines Philippines Asia 20,040,000
Cairo Egypt Egypt Africa 18,810,000
Los Angeles United States United States North America 18,550,288[6]
Dhaka Bangladesh Bangladesh Asia 18,250,000
Moscow Russia Russia Europe 16,900,000
Buenos Aires Argentina Argentina South America 16,500,000
Lahore Pakistan Pakistan Asia 16,200,000
Bangkok Thailand Thailand Asia 15,350,000
Istanbul Turkey Turkey Europe/Asia 14,800,000
Kolkata India India Asia 14,766,000[3]
Rio de Janeiro Brazil Brazil South America 14,450,000
London United Kingdom United Kingdom Europe 14,031,830[7]
Tehran Iran Iran Asia 13,700,000
Guangzhou China China Asia 12,700,000
Kinshasa Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of Congo Africa 12,500,000
Shenzhen China China Asia 12,250,000
Paris France France Europe 12,005,077[7]
Bogota Colombia Colombia South America 12,000,000
Rhine-Ruhr Germany Germany Europe 11,350,000
Tianjin China China Asia 11,000,000
Chongqing China China Asia 10,000,000

History[edit]

In 1800, only 3% of the world's population lived in cities, a figure that rose to 47% by the end of the twentieth century. In 1950, there were 83 cities with populations exceeding one million; by 2007, this number had risen to 468.[8] The UN forecasts that today's urban population of 3.2 billion will rise to nearly 5 billion by 2030, when three out of five people will live in cities.[9] This increase will be most dramatic on the least-urbanized continents, Asia and Africa. Surveys and projections indicate that all urban growth over the next 25 years will be in developing countries.[10] One billion people, almost one-seventh of the world's population, now live in shanty towns.[11] In many poor countries overpopulated slums exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care.[12] By 2030, over 2 billion people in the world will be living in slums.[13] Over 90% of the urban population of Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda, three of the world's most rural countries, already live in slums.

By 2025, Asia alone will have at least 28 megacities, including Mumbai, India (31.7 million people), Shanghai, China (31.4 million people), Delhi, India (35.6 million people), Tokyo, Japan (38.9 million people) and Seoul, South Korea (31.2 million people). Lagos, Nigeria has grown from 300,000 in 1950 to an estimated 15.2 million today.

Growth[edit]

For almost five hundred years, Rome was the largest, wealthiest, and most politically important city in Europe.[14] Its population passed one million people by the end of the 1st century BC.[15] Rome's population started declining in 402 AD when Flavius Honorius, Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423, moved the government to Ravenna and Rome's population declined to a mere 20,000 during the Early Middle Ages, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation.

Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation in 762 AD until the 930s, with some estimates putting its population at over one million.[16] Chinese capital cities Chang'an and Kaifeng also experienced huge population booms during prosperous empires. According to the census in the year 742 recorded in the New Book of Tang, 362,921 families with 1,960,188 persons were counted in Jingzhao Fu (京兆府), the metropolitan area including small cities in the vicinity of Chang'an.[17] The medieval settlement surrounding Angkor, the one-time capital of the Khmer Empire which flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, could have supported a population of up to one million people.[18]

From around 1825 to 1918 London was the largest city in the world, with the population growing rapidly, it was the first city to reach a population of over 5 million in 1900. In 1950, New York City was the only urban area with a population of over 10 million.[19] Geographers had identified 25 such areas as of October 2005,[20] as compared with 19 megacities in 2004 and only nine in 1985. This increase has happened as the world's population moves towards the high (75–85%) urbanization levels of North America and Western Europe.

Since the 2000s, the largest megacity has been the Greater Tokyo Area. The population of this urban agglomeration includes areas such as Yokohama and Kawasaki, and is estimated to be between 37 and 38 million. This variation in estimates can be accounted for by different definitions of what the area encompasses. While the prefectures of Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Saitama are commonly included in statistical information, the Japan Statistics Bureau only includes the area within 50 kilometers of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Offices in Shinjuku, thus arriving at a smaller population estimate.[21][22] A characteristic issue of megacities is the difficulty in defining their outer limits and accurately estimating the populations.

Another list defines megacities as urban agglomerations instead of metropolitan areas.[23] As of 2010, there are 25 megacities by this definition, like Tokyo.[citation needed][needs update] Other sources list Nagoya[24] and the Rhein-Ruhr[25] as megacities.

Challenges[edit]

Slums[edit]

According to the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the developing world between 1990 and 2005.[26] However, due to rising population, the absolute number of slum dwellers is rising. The majority of these come from the fringes of urban margins, located in legal and illegal settlements with insufficient housing and sanitation. This has been caused by massive migration, both internal and transnational, into cities, which has caused growth rates of urban populations and spatial concentrations not seen before in history.[citation needed] These issues raise problems in the political, social, and economic arenas.[citation needed] Slum dwellers often have minimal or no access to education, healthcare, or the urban economy.

Crime and terrorism[edit]

The lack of proper and sufficient infrastructure and public services (such as proper sanitation, housing, education and healthcare) to support the growing population not only leads to the growth of slums, but also breeds discontent among urban dwellers, leading to high crime rates, as visibly seen in growing megacities such as Karachi, Rio de Janeiro and Lagos.[27]

Homelessness[edit]

Megacities often have significant numbers of homeless people. The actual legal definition of homelessness varies from country to country, or among different entities or institutions in the same country or region.[28]

In 2002, research showed that children and families were the largest growing segment of the homeless population in the United States,[29][30] and this has presented new challenges, especially in services, to agencies. In the USA, the government asked many major cities to come up with a ten-year plan to end homelessness. One of the results of this was a "Housing first" solution, rather than to have a homeless person remain in an emergency homeless shelter it was thought to be better to quickly get the person permanent housing of some sort and the necessary support services to sustain a new home. But there are many complications with this kind of program and these must be dealt with to make such an initiative work successfully in the middle to long term.[31][32]

Traffic congestion[edit]

Bangkok is notorious for its traffic congestion.

Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, increased pollution, and increased vehicular queueing. The Texas Transportation Institute estimated that, in 2000, the 75 largest metropolitan areas experienced 3.6 billion vehicle-hours of delay, resulting in 5.7 billion U.S. gallons (21.6 billion liters) in wasted fuel and $67.5 billion in lost productivity, or about 0.7% of the nation's GDP. It also estimated that the annual cost of congestion for each driver was approximately $1,000 in very large cities and $200 in small cities.[citation needed] Traffic congestion is increasing in major cities and delays are becoming more frequent in smaller cities and rural areas.

Urban sprawl[edit]

A flat land area in the Greater Los Angeles Area in the U.S. state of California almost completely filled with houses, buildings, roads, and freeways. Areas constructed to capacity contribute to urban expansion.

Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density, auto-dependent development on rural land, with associated design features that encourage car dependency.[33] As a result, some critics argue that sprawl has certain disadvantages including longer transport distances to work, high car dependence, inadequate facilities (e.g. health, cultural. etc.) and higher per-person infrastructure costs. Discussions and debates about sprawl are often obfuscated by the ambiguity associated with the phrase. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the average number of residential units per acre in a given area. But others associate it with decentralization (spread of population without a well-defined center), discontinuity (leapfrog development), segregation of uses, etc.[citation needed]

Gentrification[edit]

Gentrification and urban gentrification denote the socio-cultural changes in an area resulting from wealthier people buying housing property in a less prosperous community.[34] Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size decreases in the community, which may result in the informal economic eviction of the lower-income residents, because of increased rents, house prices, and property taxes. This type of population change reduces industrial land use when it is redeveloped for commerce and housing. In addition, new businesses, catering to a more affluent base of consumers, tend to move into formerly blighted areas, further increasing the appeal to more affluent migrants and decreasing the accessibility to less wealthy natives.

Environmental problems[edit]

Air pollution[edit]

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere. Many urban areas have significant problems with smog, a type of air pollution derived from vehicle emissions from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog.

Smog is also caused by large amounts of coal burning, which creates a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. World coal consumption was about 6,743,786,000 short tons in 2006[35] and is expected to increase 48% to 9.98 billion short tons by 2030.[36] China produced 2.38 billion tons in 2006. India produced about 447.3 million tons in 2006. 68.7% of China's electricity comes from coal. The USA consumes about 14% of the world total, using 90% of it for generation of electricity.[37]

Energy and Material Flows[edit]

Megacities face enormous social stresses because of their sheer size and complexity and it is critical for these cities to be able to access, share and manage their energy and material resources. Chris Kennedy, a Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Toronto, recently led a team of researchers to quantify energy and material flows for the world’s 27 megacities. This major undertaking and the sheer magnitude of the flows these researchers discovered (e.g., 9% of global electricity, 10% of gasoline; 13% of solid waste), shows the importance of megacities in addressing global environmental challenges, some of their findings can be found below.

Kennedy et al.’s research help identify megacities exhibiting high and low levels of consumption and those making efficient use of resources. Correlations are established for electricity consumption, heating and industrial fuel use, ground transportation energy use, water consumption, waste generation, and steel production in terms of heating-degree-days, urban form, economic activity, and population growth.

The University of Ontario Institute of Technology is working with partners to add the next group of large cities - those expected to have 5 million or more residents by 2050. The 120+ cities will be home to much of the world's economy, as well as material and energy flows.

Energy Flows - Energy (Stationary)

City, Country Region Electricity consumption (GWh) - renewable Electricity consumption (GWh) - grid Electrical line losses (GWh) Total electricity consumption (GWh) Total electricity consumption (TJ) 10-year growth rate, 2001-2011 (%) Total energy consumption (heating + ind. fuels) (TJ) Total energy consumption (res & comm heating) (TJ)
Beijing, China East Asia 80,686.00 4,682.00 80,686.00 290,469.60 53.69 652,342.88 295,511.33
Buenos Aires, Argentina South America 0.00 34,170.00 34,170.00 123,012.00 18.23 449,961.00 279,875.74
Cairo, Egypt North Africa/ Southwest Asia 1,523.37 29,374.10 3,482.80 30897.47 111,230.89 129.51 250,964.10
Delhi, India South Asia 0.00 21,700.00 252.90 21,700.00 78,120.00 57.16 56,623.15 48,413.30
Dhaka, Bangladesh South Asia 613.20 9,058.07 1,089.69 9,671.27 34,816.57 95.53 348,582.61
Guangzhou, China East Asia 63,120.34 3,235.10 63,120.34 227,223.34 187.43 60,017.91
Istanbul, Turkey North Africa/ Southwest Asia 3,066.00 35,182.73 2,000.00 38,248.73 137,695.43 22.99 286,315.00 28,631.00
Jakarta, Indonesia Southeast Asia 35,601.40 2,986.80 35,061.40 126,221.04 16.19 95,488.00
Karachi, Pakistan South Asia 20,690.00 20,690.00 74,484.00 636.99 193,075.94
Kolkata, India South Asia 0.00 12,383.02 12,388.02 44,578.87 Example
Lagos, Nigeria Sub-Saharan Africa Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
London, United Kingdom Europe Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Los Angeles, United States of America North America Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Manila, Philippines Southeast Asia Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Mexico City, Mexico North America Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Moscow, Russia Europe Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Mumbai, India South Asia Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
New York, United States of America North America Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Osaka, Japan East Asia Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Paris, France Europe Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil South America Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Sao Paulo, Brazil South America Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Seoul, South Korea East Asia Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Shanghai, China East Asia Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Shenzhen, China East Asia Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Tehran, Iran North Africa/ Southwest Asia Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example
Tokyo, Japan East Asia Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example

In fiction[edit]

Many of the following fictional cities were inspired by Fritz Lang's 1927 film, Metropolis and the influential depiction of Los Angeles in Ridley Scott's 1982 film, Blade Runner.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "How Big Can Cities Get?" New Scientist Magazine, 17 June 2006, page 41.
  2. ^ "Jakarta Population 2014". World Population Review. Retrieved January 13, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c "Population Division Data Query (2014)". http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/. United Nations. Retrieved 1 July 2015. 
  4. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - United States -- Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". United States Census. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  5. ^ "What Makes Lagos a Model City". New York Times. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  6. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - United States -- Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". United States Census. Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "Eurostat - Data Explorer". Eurostat. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  8. ^ "Principal Agglomerations of the World". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  9. ^ "Megacities Of The Future". Forbes.com. 2007-06-11. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  10. ^ "Nigeria: Lagos, the mega-city of slums and plums". Energypublisher.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  11. ^ Whitehouse, David (2005-05-19). "Half of humanity set to go urban". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  12. ^ "Planet of Slums - The Third World’s Megacities". Blackcommentator.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  13. ^ "State of World Population 2007". Unfpa.org. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  14. ^ "Roman Empire Population". Unrv.com. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  15. ^ "Population crises and cycles in history". Home.vicnet.net.au. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  16. ^ "Largest Cities Through History". Geography.about.com. 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  17. ^ New Book of Tang, vol. 41 (Zhi vol. 27) Geography 1.
  18. ^ Metropolis: Angkor, the world's first mega-city, The Independent, August 15, 2007
  19. ^ Tertius Chandler, 1987, St. David's University Press. "Top 10 Cities of the Year 1950". Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census. Retrieved 2007-03-24. 
  20. ^ "Population statistics". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  21. ^ "Greater Tokyo population statistics". Stat.go.jp. 2008-10-01. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  22. ^ "Tokyo metropolitan area population statistics". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  23. ^ http://www.demographia.com/db-megacity.pdf
  24. ^ http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf
  25. ^ http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/ESPON2006Projects/StudiesScientificSupportProjects/UrbanFunctions/fr-1.4.3_April2007-final.pdf
  26. ^ "p. 26" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  27. ^ P. H. Liotta, James F. Miskel. The Real Population Bomb: Megacities, Global Security & the Map of the Future. Potomac Books. Retrieved 2014-05-03. 
  28. ^ "Glossary defining homelessness". Homeless.org.au. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  29. ^ FACS, "Homeless Children, Poverty, Faith and Community: Understanding and Reporting the Local Story", March 26, 2002 Akron, Ohio. [1]
  30. ^ National Coalition for the Homeless, "Homeless Youth" 2005 [2] PDF (164 KB)
  31. ^ Abel, David, "For the homeless, keys to a home: Large-scale effort to keep many off street faces hurdles", Boston Globe, February 24, 2008.
  32. ^ PBS, "Home at Last? – A radical new approach to helping the homeless", NOW TV program, December 21, 2007.
  33. ^ What is Sprawl?. SprawlCity.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  34. ^ Benjamin Grant (June 17, 2003). Urban gentrification is associated with movement "PBS Documentaries with a point of view: What is Gentrification?". Public Broadcasting Service. 
  35. ^ World coal consumption 1980-2006 October 2008 EIA statistics
  36. ^ EIA, World Energy Projections Plus (2009)
  37. ^ "U.S. Coal Supply and Demand". Eia.doe.gov. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  38. ^ Sharp, Michael D. (2005). Popular Contemporary Writers. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0-7614-7601-6. 
  39. ^ Namu, Adilifu (2008). Black space: imagining race in science fiction film. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71745-8. 
  40. ^ Westfahl, Gary (2005). The Greenwood encyclopedia of science fiction and fantasy: themes, works, and wonders, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32952-4.