Megadiverse countries

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The 17 countries identified as megadiverse by Conservation International

The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbor the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species. Conservation International identified 17 megadiverse countries in 1998.[1][2] Many of them are located in, or partially in, tropical or subtropical regions.

Megadiversity means exhibiting great biodiversity. The main criterion for megadiverse countries is endemism at the level of species, genera and families. A megadiverse country must have at least 5,000 species of endemic plants and must border marine ecosystems.

In 2002, Mexico formed a separate organization focusing on Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries, consisting of countries rich in biological diversity and associated traditional knowledge. This organization includes all but three megadiverse countries as identified by Conservation International.[3][failed verification]

List of megadiverse countries[edit]

In alphabetical order, the 17 megadiverse countries are:[1]

List of most biodiverse countries 2022[edit]

TOP 20 Global Biodiversity Index[4]
Country (or dependent territory) Bird Amphibian Fish Mammal Reptile Vascular Plant Biodiversity Index
 Brazil 1,816 1,141 4,738 693 847 34,387 512.34
 Indonesia 1,723 383 4,813 729 773 19,232 418.78
 Colombia 1,863 812 2,105 477 634 24,025 369.76
 China 1,285 540 3,476 622 554 31,362 365.84
 Mexico 1,105 411 2,629 533 988 23,385 342.47
 Australia 725 245 4,992 355 1,131 19,324 337.18
 Peru 1,861 655 1,583 490 510 19,812 330.12
 India 1,212 446 2,601 440 715 15,000 301.63
 Ecuador 1,629 659 1,111 392 492 18,466 291.58
 United States 844 326 3,081 531 556 15,500 280.13
 Venezuela 1,386 365 1,735 376 419 30,000 273.39
 Papua New Guinea 743 416 2,884 282 384 13,634 226.57
 Myanmar 1,034 540 1,088 304 364 16,000 221.77
 Vietnam 835 263 2,423 313 512 8,500 216.97
 Malaysia 721 278 1,951 348 502 14,030 214.71
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,110 227 1,528 465 313 8,860 214.43
 Tanzania 1,074 207 1,773 412 346 10,100 213.10
 Bolivia 1,435 259 407 382 315 14,729 209.55
 South Africa 762 132 2,094 331 421 21,250 207.94
 Thailand 936 153 2,150 314 468 6,600 200.77

Cancún initiative and declaration of like-minded megadiverse countries[edit]

The 20 current like-minded megadiverse countries

On 18 February 2002, the Ministers in charge of the Environment and the Delegates of Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa and Venezuela assembled in Cancún, Mexico. These countries declared to set up a Group of Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries as a mechanism for consultation and cooperation so that their interests and priorities, related to the preservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, could be promoted. They also declared that they would call on those countries that had not become Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and the Kyoto Protocol on climate change to become parties to these agreements.

At the same time, they agreed to meet periodically, at the ministerial and expert levels, and decided that upon the conclusion of each annual Ministerial Meeting, the next rotating host country would take on the role of Secretary of the group, to ensure its continuity, the further development of cooperation among these countries, and to reach the various agreements and objectives.[5] Later, in 2010, Guatemala and Iran were also included in the list.[6]

List of current member countries[edit]

The current member countries of the Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries organization are as follows, in alphabetical order:[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Williams, J. (2001). "Biodiversity Theme Report". environment.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  2. ^ "Megadiverse Countries definition| Biodiversity A-Z". www.biodiversitya-z.org.
  3. ^ "Biodiversity, Australia State of the Environment Report 2001 (Theme Report): The meaning, significance and implications of biodiversity (Megadiverse countries)". 2014-12-11. Archived from the original on 2014-12-11. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
  4. ^ "The 201 Most (& Least) Biodiverse Countries in 2022". 2022-09-22. Retrieved 2022-10-16.
  5. ^ "UNIDO – United Nations Industrial Development Organization".
  6. ^ CONABIO. "Plataforma de monitoreo de las actividades de implementación de la Estratgeia Nacional sobre Especies Invasoras (Previene) – Biodiversidad Mexicana – Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad".
  7. ^ "LIKE MINDED MEGADIVERSE COUNTRIES" (PDF). Retrieved Jul 26, 2018.

External links[edit]