Megalopolis

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Rio de Janeiro–São Paulo Megalopolis at night (cities in order from right to left). This picture was taken by NASA's Suomi NPP satellite.

A megalopolis (/ˌmɛɡəˈlɒpəlɪs/) or a supercity,[1] also called a megaregion,[2] is a group of metropolitan areas which are perceived as a continuous urban area through common systems of transport, economy, resources, ecology, and so on.[2] They are integrated enough that coordinating policy is valuable, although the constituent metropolises keep their individual identities.[2] The megalopolis concept has become highly influential as it introduced a new, larger scale thinking about urban patterns and growth.[3]

Etymology and earlier definitions[edit]

The term megalopolis, also sometimes spelled megapolis,[citation needed] is described as being of Greek origin—where it was in reported use by ancient philosophers, with regard to the "world of ideas"—by Jean Gottmann, a professor of political science at the University of Paris, and member of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, who in the late 1950s and early 1960s directed "A Study of Megalopolis" for The Twentieth Century Fund.[4] Specifically, the term has earlier, specifically geographic definitions dating to 1832, when its meaning was "a metropolis," that is, "a very large, heavily populated urban complex", which is noted to derive from the Greek mégas, meaning "great", and pólis, meaning "city".[5][6] The Online Etymology Dictionary notes that the term was used "in classical times as an epithet of great cities (Athens, Syracuse, Alexandria)", that is, for the large cities of that day, and that it was the "name of a former city in Arcadia".[5]

Gottmann, in his extensive studies, applied the term megalopolis to an analysis of the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S., in particular from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. (now commonly referred to as the Northeast megalopolis, or BosWash,[citation needed] see image below).[4][7] He chose the term megalopolis in consultation with classicists, noting earlier usage "with quite different meaning" (besides by the ancients, by Lewis Mumford with regard to the general trend in history and geography "toward large cities").[4] [Mumford, in his The Culture of Cities (1938), describes their formation as the first stage in urban overdevelopment and social decline.[8]] In 1994, William S. Ellis and the editors of the National Geographic, writing about the city of Boston, asserted that Gottmann's c.1961 use of the term for the Northeast megalopolis was the first specific use of the term with the refined meaning of an amalgam of multiple urban areas into a larger area.[9] Yoav Hagler, writing in 2009 for the America 2050 project of the Regional Plan Association (RPA) likewise, in introducing the term historically, states megalopolis as the antecedent of the RPA's preferred term for U.S. examples, which is "megaregion"[2] Pedagogically, the term "supercity" has been offered as a synonym for these two terms.[1]

According to Syracuse University assistant professor of architecture Lydia Kallipoliti (and her students, citing Volker Welter's Biopolis: Patrick Geddes and the City of Life), the term megalopolis was coined by Patrick Geddes in his 1915 book, Cities in Evolution,[10][11][12] and that it was then used by Oswald Spengler in his 1918 book The Decline of the West.[13]

Modern definitions[edit]

A megalopolis and its synonym megaregion, following the work of Gottmann, refer to two or more roughly adjacent metropolitan areas that, through commonality of systems—e.g., of transport, economy, resources, and ecologies—experience a blurring of the boundaries between the population centers,[2] such that while some degree of separation may remain, their perception as a continuous urban area is of value, e.g., "to coordinate policy at this expanded scale".[2] Simply put, a megalopolis (or a megaregion[14]) is a clustered network of big cities. Gottmann defined its population as 25 million,[15] while Doxiadis defined a small megalopolis a similar cluster with a population of about 10 million.[14][16] America 2050,[17] a program of the Regional Plan Association (RPA), lists 11 megaregions in the United States and Canada.

Megaregions of the United States were explored in a July 2005 report by Robert E. Lang and Dawn Dhavale of the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech.[18] A later 2007 article by Lang and Nelson uses 20 'megapolitan' areas grouped into 10 megaregions.[19] The concept is based on the original "Megalopolis model".[16]

Modern interlinked ground transportation corridors, such as rail and highway, often aid in the development of megalopolises. Using these commuter passageways to travel throughout the megalopolis is informally called megaloping, a term coined by Davide Gadren and Stefan Berteau.[20]

In Brazil, the term megarregião has a legal meaning, different from the English word megaregion: mesoregions of Brazil (mesorregião) and microregions of Brazil (microrregião). In China, the official term corresponding to the meaning of "megalopolis" is '城市群' (chéngshì qún), which literally means "city cluster". City cluster '城市群' is defined as "[a]n area in which cities are relatively densely distributed in a certain region".[21][22] Until 2019, and the publication of National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) guidelines, there was no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" (都市圈) in China.[23]

Africa[edit]

Egypt[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Morocco[edit]

Kenya[edit]

Asia[edit]

East Asia[edit]

China[edit]

In July 2012, the Economist Intelligence Unit brought out a report that described 13 emerging megalopolises in China, highlighting the demographic and income trends that are shaping their development.[28] Eleven Chinese megalopolises (not necessarily drawn from the preceding source), are:

Japan[edit]

Japan is made up of overlapping megapolises. The Taiheiyō Belt megapolis itself includes both the Greater Tokyo Area and Keihanshin megapoles.

South Korea[edit]

Taiwan[edit]

Skyline of Taipei, capital city of Taiwan in 2016.

Middle East[edit]

Iran[edit]

  • Greater Tehran: A region located Tehran and Alborz provinces in central northern Iran with its influence expanding in Mazandaran, Qazvin, and Qom provinces, home for at least 15 million people, it is one of the most populous urban areas in the Greater Middle East and the surrounding regions. Tehran was a small village 200 years ago when it was first chosen as the Capital city and it has been growing at a very fast rate.[citation needed]

Turkey[edit]

Istanbul, Kocaeli, and Sakarya provinces at night

South Asia[edit]

India[edit]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Rank Megalopolis name Country Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Mega Manila  Philippines 40+ Manila, Calamba, Angeles City, Baguio, Batangas, Dagupan, Olongapo, Bacoor
2 Southeast Economic Zone  Vietnam 16+ Đồng Nai, Bình Dương, Ho Chi Minh City, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu province, Long An, Tiền Giang

Philippines[edit]

Mega Manila area 50,525.48 km2 is made up of 4 Regions:

Regional centres:

Total Population of Mega Manila as of 2015: (40,624,035)[46]

Indonesia[edit]

Thailand[edit]

  • Bay of Bangkok Economic Rim: Bangkok–Ayutthaya–Pattaya (16,000,000)

Vietnam[edit]

Europe[edit]

The Blue Banana, also known as the European Megalopolis or the Liverpool-Milan axis, is a discontinuous corridor of urbanization spreading over Western and Central Europe, with a population of around 111 million.

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

Megalopolis name Population
in millions
2011
Population
in millions
2025 (projected)
Population
percent growth 2011 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities Related articles
Quebec City–Windsor Corridor 18.4 21 14.1% Hamilton, Kingston, Kitchener, London, Mississauga, Montreal, Oshawa, Ottawa, Peterborough, Quebec City, Toronto, Trois-Rivières, Vaughan, Windsor Southern Ontario, Quebec

Mexico[edit]

Mexico City megalopolis
Megalopolis name Population
in millions
Major cities Related articles
Mexico City megalopolis 30.8 Mexico City, Puebla, Cuernavaca, Toluca, Pachuca, Tula, Tlaxcala, Cuautla, Tulancingo Mexico City megalopolis
Bajío 11 León, Querétaro, Aguascalientes, Celaya, Irapuato, San Juan del Río, Salamanca Bajío

Note: Tijuana, Mexico is part of the Southern California megalopolis.

United States[edit]

Downtown Dallas, the largest metro of the Texas Triangle
Aerial view of Seattle with Lake Union in the foreground, part of Cascadia

Constituent urban areas of each megalopolis are based on reckoning by a single American organization, the Regional Plan Association (RPA). The RPA definition of the Great Lakes Megalopolis includes some Canadian metropolitan areas with the United States including some but not all major urban centres in the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor. Note that one city, Houston, is listed in two different Megalopolis regions as defined by the RPA, (the Gulf Coast and the Texas Triangle). 77% of the US population lives in at least one of the megalopolis listed below.[citation needed][50][page needed]

Megalopolis name Population
in millions
2010
Percent of U.S. Population (2010) Population
in millions
2025 (projected)
Population
percent growth 2010 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities
Arizona Sun Corridor[51][52] 5.6 2% 7.8 39.3% Mesa, Phoenix, Tucson, Prescott, Scottsdale
Northern California 14 5% 16.4 17.1% Fresno, Modesto, Oakland, San Francisco, San Jose, Stockton, Berkeley, Cupertino, Fremont, Reno, Sacramento, Santa Rosa
Southern California 24.4 8% 29 18.9% Los Angeles, San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Bernardino, Riverside, Bakersfield, Las Vegas, Long Beach, Tijuana
Cascadia 12.4 3% 13.5 8.2% Abbotsford, Bellevue, Boise, Eugene, Everett, Portland (OR), Salem, Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane, Tri-Cities, Vancouver (BC), Vancouver (WA), Victoria
Florida 17.3 6% 21.5 24.3% Jacksonville, Fort Lauderdale, Miami, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Sarasota, Fort Myers, Orlando, Gainesville, Palm Bay, Pensacola
Front Range 5.5 2% 6.9 26% Albuquerque, Cheyenne, Colorado Springs, Denver, Pueblo, Salt Lake City, Santa Fe
Great Lakes 59.1 18% 65.7 10% Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Detroit, Hamilton, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Louisville, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, Pittsburgh, Rochester (NY), St. Louis, Toronto
Gulf Coast 13.4 4% 16.3 21.6% Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Houston, McAllen, Brownsville, Mobile, Gulfport, Biloxi, New Orleans, Pensacola
Northeast 52.3 17% 58.4 11.7% Allentown-Bethlehem, Atlantic City, Baltimore, Boston, Edison, Hagerstown, Harrisburg, Hazleton, Knowledge Corridor (Springfield and Hartford), Manchester (NH), Nashua, New Haven, New York, Newark, Norfolk, Philadelphia, Portland (ME), Pottsville, Providence, Reading, Richmond, Salisbury, Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, Trenton, Virginia Beach, Washington, Waterbury, Wilmington, Worcester
Piedmont Atlantic 17.6 6% 21.7 23.3% Atlanta, Charlotte, Research Triangle, Raleigh, Durham, Chapel Hill, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, Greenville, Huntsville, Nashville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis, Birmingham, Montgomery, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Tuscaloosa
Texas Triangle 19.7 6% 24.8 25.9% Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio

Oceania[edit]

South America[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Satellite image of Greater Buenos Aires at night. Urban sprawl created a vast conurbation of 12,801,365 inhabitants including the City of Buenos Aires, a third of the total population of Argentina.
Megalopolis Name Population
in
2013
Major cities Other cities
Greater Buenos Aires 14,967,000[53] Buenos Aires; Merlo, Moreno; Quilmes; Florencio Varela, La Matanza Lanús; Lomas de Zamora, San Martin; Avellaneda; Zárate; San Pedro; San Nicolás de los Arroyos

Brazil[edit]

Megalopolis Name Population
in
2015[54]
Major cities Other cities
Rio de Janeiro–São Paulo Megalopolis +51,500,000 São Paulo Macrometropolis and Greater Rio de Janeiro Santos, Campinas, São José dos Campos, Sorocaba, Jundiaí, Piracicaba, Mogi Guaçu, Bragança Paulista, Volta Redonda, Barra Mansa, Pouso Alegre, Varginha and Juiz de Fora
São Paulo Macrometropolis +34,500,000 São Paulo, Campinas, São José dos Campos, Sorocaba, Jundiaí, Piracicaba, Santos Guarulhos, Osasco, ABC Region, Mogi das Cruzes, Americana, Limeira, Rio Claro, Bragança Paulista, Itu, Itapetininga São Vicente, Guarujá, Taubaté and Pindamonhangaba
Greater Rio de Janeiro +13,000,000 Rio de Janeiro and São Gonçalo Nova Iguaçu, Duque de Caxias, Niterói, Belford Roxo and São João de Meriti
Greater Belo Horizonte +5,800,000 Belo Horizonte and Contagem Betim, Nova Lima and Sete Lagoas
Greater Porto Alegre +4,200,000 Porto Alegre and Canoas São Leopoldo, Novo Hamburgo and Gravataí
Recife metropolitan area +3,900,000 Recife and Jaboatão dos Guararapes Olinda, Paulista, Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Camaragibe, Igarassu, São Lourenço da Mata, Abreu e Lima, Ipojuca, Moreno, Itapissuma, Ilha de Itamaracá, Araçoiaba and Goiana
Salvador metropolitan area +3,900,000 Salvador and Camaçari São Francisco do Conde, Lauro de Freitas, Simões Filho, Candeias, Dias d'Ávila, Mata de São João, Pojuca, São Sebastião do Passé, Vera Cruz, Madre de Deus and Itaparica
Eixo Goiânia-Anápolis-Brasília + 8,000,000 Greater Goiânia and Federal District (Brazil) Aparecida de Goiânia, Anápolis, Águas Lindas de Goiás, Brasília, Ceilândia, Goiânia, Luziânia, Samambaia, Federal District and Taguatinga
Greater Curitiba + 3,500,000 Curitiba and São José dos Pinhais Araucária, Colombo, Fazenda Rio Grande, Lapa and Pinhais

Colombia[edit]

The following megaregions in Colombia are expected to have nearly 93% (55 Million people) of its population by 2030, up from the current 72%[citation needed]. There are currently 4 major megaregions in Colombia.

Megalopolis name Population in 2015 Population in 2030 (projected) Major cities
Bogota National Capital Metropolis 17,000,000 26,500,000 Bogotá, Soacha, Facatativá, Chía, Tunja, Fusagasugá, Zipaquirá, Madrid, Funza, Cajicá, Ubaté, Sibaté, Guaduas, Villa de Leyva and Tocancipá
Pacific Belt 9,000,000 14,000,000 Medellín, Cali, Bello, Pereira, Manizales, Armenia, Itagüí, Yumbo, and Palmira
Northeast Atlantic Region 6,000,000 10,500,000 Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta, Ciénaga, Malambo, Baranoa and Turbaco
Santander Belt 3,000,000 5,200,000 Bucaramanga, Cúcuta, Ocaña, and Pamplona

Other sources[55] show that another megaregion may be considered:

Megalopolis name Population in 2015 Population in 2030 (projected) Major cities
Golden Triangle 29,500,000 41,000,000 Bogotá, Soacha, Medellín, Cali, Bello, Manizales, Armenia

Chile[edit]

Megalopolis Name Population in 2017 Major Cities Other Cities
Santiago-Valparaíso +8,000,000 Santiago, Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and Rancagua Quillota, Quilpué, La Calera, Villa Alemana, Lampa, Los Andes

Peru[edit]

Megalopolis name Population
in
2013
Major cities Other cities
Lima-Callao Megalopolis 10,523,796 Lima and Callao
Maracaibo Lake Narrows, the city of Maracaibo connected by bridge to the Eastern Coast cities.

Venezuela[edit]

Megalopolis Name Population
in
2013
Major Cities Other Cities
Caracas-Valencia +9,000,000 Caracas, Valencia, and Maracay Cagua, Maiquetía, Guacara, La Victoria and Guatire
Maracaibo Lake Narrows +3,500,000 Maracaibo, Cabimas and Ciudad Ojeda Lagunillas, Tiajuana, Santa Rita, La Concepción, El Moján and Los Puertos de Altagracia

Transnational urban agglomeration[edit]

Africa[edit]

Asia[edit]

Europe[edit]

The Blue Banana, the Golden Banana, the Green Banana, and the Gulf of Finland (red).
Rank Megalopolis name Population in millions Countries and cities
1 Blue Banana 110–130[59]  United Kingdom: Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Derby, Nottingham, Birmingham, London
 Belgium: Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi, Liège
 Netherlands: Randstad (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht), Eindhoven
 Luxembourg: Luxembourg
 Germany: Rhine-Ruhr, Frankfurt am Main, Munich, Stuttgart, Nuremberg
 France: Strasbourg, Lille
  Switzerland: Zürich, Basel
 Italy: Turin, Milan, Venice
2 Golden Banana 40–45[60]  Italy: Turin, Genoa
 France: Nice, Toulon, Aix-en-Provence, Marseille, Nîmes, Montpellier, Narbonne, Perpignan
 Monaco: Monaco
 Andorra: Andorra
 Spain: Girona, Barcelona, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Terrassa, Sabadell, Badalona, Tarragona, Castellón de la Plana, Valencia, Alicante
3 STRING 12.8[61]  Germany: Hamburg, Kiel, Lübeck, Flensburg
 Denmark: Copenhagen, Roskilde, Helsingør
 Sweden: Malmö, Landskrona, Helsingborg, Halmstad, Varberg, Borås, Gothenburg, Uddevalla
 Norway: Askim, Moss, Fredrikstad, Oslo, Sandvika
4 Green Banana 40-45  Poland: Gdańsk, Warsaw, Kraków, Katowice
 Slovakia: Bratislava
 Austria: Vienna
 Czech Republic: Brno, Ostrava
 Hungary: Budapest, Pécs, Győr, Székesfehérvár, Szombathely
 Croatia: Zagreb
 Italy: Trieste
 Slovenia: Ljubljana
5 Atlantic Axis 10[62][63]  Portugal: Setúbal, Lisbon, Santarém, Leiria, Coimbra, Viseu, Aveiro, Porto, Braga, Viana do Castelo
 Spain: Vigo, Ourense, Pontevedra, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña
6 Gulf of Finland 8  Russia: Gatchina, St.Petersburg, Vyborg, Sosnovy Bor
 Finland: Kotka, Kouvola, Espoo, Helsinki, Vantaa, Lappeenranta, Lahti
 Estonia: Tallinn, Narva, Tartu

North America[edit]

Megalopolis name Population
in millions
2011
Population
in millions
2025 (projected)
Population
percent growth 2011 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities
Cascadia 8.4 8.8 5.0%

 Canada: Abbotsford, Surrey, Vancouver (BC), Victoria
 United States: Bellevue, Eugene, Everett, Portland (OR), Salem, Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane, Tri-Cities, Vancouver (WA)

Great Lakes 55.5 60.7 9.4%

 Canada: Brampton, Cambridge, Hamilton, Kingston, Kitchener, London, Mississauga, Montreal, Niagara Falls, Oshawa, Ottawa, Quebec City, Toronto, Vaughan, Waterloo, Windsor
 United States: Akron, Ann Arbor, Buffalo, Canton, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Des Moines, Detroit, Duluth, Erie, Flint, Fort Wayne, Green Bay, Grand Rapids, Indianapolis, Kalamazoo, Kansas City, Lansing, Louisville, Madison, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Omaha, Pittsburgh, Quad Cities, Rochester (NY), Rochester (MN), Rockford, Traverse City, Saginaw, St. Louis, Saint Paul, Sandusky, South Bend, Toledo, Youngstown

Southern California 24.4 29 18.9%

 Mexico: Tijuana
 United States: Anaheim, Bakersfield, Las Vegas, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Oceanside, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego

In popular culture[edit]

Metropolis[edit]

Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist science-fiction drama film directed by Fritz Lang. Written by Thea von Harbou in collaboration with Lang,[64][65] it stars Gustav Fröhlich, Alfred Abel, Rudolf Klein-Rogge and Brigitte Helm. Erich Pommer produced it in the Babelsberg Studios for Universum Film A.G. (Ufa). The silent film is regarded as a pioneering science-fiction movie, being among the first feature-length movies of that genre.[66] Filming took place over 17 months in 1925–26 at a cost of over five million Reichsmarks.[67]

Judge Dredd[edit]

In the Judge Dredd (1977) comic book series and its spinoff series, Mega-City One is a huge fictional megalopolis-size city-state covering much of what is now the Eastern United States and some of Canada. The exact geography of the city depends on which writer and artist has done which story, but from its first appearance it has been associated with New York City's urban sprawl; originally it was presented as a future New York, which was retconned as the centre of a "Mega-City One" in the very next story.[68] The Architects' Journal placed it at No. 1 in their list of "comic book cities".[69]

Blade Runner[edit]

Blade Runner is a 1982 neo-noir science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young, and Edward James Olmos. It is a loose adaptation of Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968). The film is set in a dystopian future Los Angeles of 2019, in which synthetic humans known as replicants are bio-engineered by the powerful Tyrell Corporation to work on off-world colonies. When a fugitive group of replicants led by Roy Batty (Hauer) escapes back to Earth, burnt-out cop Rick Deckard (Ford) reluctantly agrees to hunt them down.

Sprawl trilogy[edit]

In William Gibson's Sprawl trilogy, "the Sprawl" is a colloquial name for the "Boston-Atlanta Metropolitan Axis" (BAMA), an urban sprawl environment on a massive scale, and a fictional extension of the real Northeast megalopolis. The Sprawl is a visualization of a future where virtually the entire East Coast of the United States, from Boston to Atlanta, has melded into a single mass of urban sprawl.[70] It has been enclosed in several geodesic domes and merged into one megacity. The city has become a separate world with its own climate, no real night/day cycle, and an artificial sky that is always grey.

Further reading[edit]

  • Hagler, Yoav (November 2009). "Defining U.S. Megaregions" (PDF). America 2050. Retrieved February 19, 2022 – via RPA.org. This work, while dated, is from Associate Planner Yoav Hagler of America 2050, and while not used as a source in this article, is one of the most focused articles available on the American aspects of the title subject. It includes history, methodology, and statistical and other criteria sections, and identifies the U.S. megaregions as of its publication date.
  • America 2050 Staff (February 19, 2022). "Megaregions". America 2050. Archived from the original (homepage) on May 16, 2017. Retrieved February 19, 2022 – via RPA.org. Starting point for access to articles from the America 2050 effort, while it was active. Note, an earlier cited article by Matt Taylor, on urban transit issues, appears among the works linked at this home page.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fielder, W. & Feeney, Georgiana (1976). Inquiring about Cities. New York, N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston (Georg Von Holtzbrinck/Holt). pp. 193, 299. ISBN 9780030897849. Retrieved June 25, 2018.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b c d e f Hagler, Yoav (November 2009). "Defining U.S. Megaregions" (PDF). America 2050. Retrieved February 19, 2022 – via RPA.org. As metropolitan regions continued to expand throughout the second half of the 20th century their boundaries began to blur, creating a new scale of geography now known as the megaregion. Interlocking economic systems, shared natural resources and ecosystems, and common transportation systems link these... The challenge of identifying... emerging regions has been undertaken... The most recent iteration... has been developed by Regional Plan Association (RPA) in partnership with the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Eleven such megaregions have been identified... that would make cooperative integrated planning advantageous... Th[e] tradition of geographers and planners attempting to enhance the value of geographic definitions to meet the needs of new generations continued with the first identification of a scale larger than the metro regions by French geographer Jean Gottmann in his 1961 book Megalopolis. This “Megalopolis” referred specifically to the Northeastern United States ... Regional Plan Association also identified this emerging Northeast Megaregion in the 1960s.
  3. ^ Caves, R.W. (2004). Encyclopedia of the City. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge (Informa/Taylor & Francis. p. 456. ISBN 9780415252256.
  4. ^ a b c Gottmann, Jean (1957). "Megalopolis, or the urbanization of the Northeastern Seaboard". Economic Geography. 33 (3): 189–200. doi:10.2307/142307. JSTOR 142307.
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