From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Megalopolis (term))
Jump to: navigation, search

A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, or supercity)[1] is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas. Though these complexes have traditionally developed as separate metro areas, particularly in the 21st century, megaregions in the developing world are forming massive complexes whereby the distinction between a single metropolitan area and a megaregion is blurring, or rather a megaregion itself becoming the core metropolitan zone of an even larger megaregion. Such areas where a single metropolitan area are rapidly taking shape include, yet are not limited to: the Pearl River Delta, when formed, which would constitute the core part of a Southern China Coast megaregion; the Unified Jakarta-Bandung metro area forming the core of the Northern Java megaregion; and the Yangtze River Delta core, a part of a Central Chinese Coast megaregion.

History of term megalopolis[edit]

The term was used by Patrick Geddes in his 1915 book Cities in Evolution,[2][verification needed] by Oswald Spengler in his 1918 book The Decline of the West, and Lewis Mumford in his 1938 book The Culture of Cities, which described it as the first stage in urban overdevelopment and social decline. Later, it was used by Jean Gottmann in his landmark 1961 study, Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States, to describe the chain of metropolitan areas along the northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, Massachusetts, through New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and ending in Washington, D.C. and Northern Virginia.[3][4][5] The latter is sometimes called the "BosWash megalopolis".


Megalopolis is a Western deformation of the Greek word that derived from Greek: μέγας (mégas) meaning 'great' and Greek: πόλις (pólis) meaning 'city', therefore literally a 'great city'. This term is closer in meaning to megacity. Because in Greek, πόλις is feminine, the correct term is megalopolis.

A megalopolis, also known as a megaregion, is a clustered network of cities. Gottmann defined its population as 25 million.[6] Doxiadis defined a small megalopolis a similar cluster with a population of about 10 million.[7][8][9] America 2050,[10] a program of the Regional Plan Association, lists 11 megaregions in the United States and Canada.[7] Literally, megalopolis in Greek means a city of exaggerated size where the prefix megalo- represents a quantity of exaggerated size.[11] Megapolitan areas were explored in a July 2005 report by Robert E. Lang and Dawn Dhavale of the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech.[12] A later 2007 article by Lang and Nelson uses 20 megapolitan areas grouped into 10 megaregions.[13] The concept is based on the original Megalopolis model.[9]

Modern interlinked ground transportation corridors, such as rail and highway, often aid in the development of megalopolises. Using these commuter passageways to travel throughout the megalopolis is informally called megaloping. This term was coined by Davide Gadren and Stefan Berteau.[14]

Note: In Brazil, the similar sounding terms to megaregion (megarregião when translated to English, are actually legally distinct and take on quite different meaning: Mesoregions of Brazil (mesorregião) and Microregions of Brazil (microrregião).




Megalopolis name Population
in millions
in millions
2025 (projected)
percent growth 2011 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities
Cascadia 8.4 8.8 5.0%

 Canada: Abbotsford, Vancouver (BC), Victoria
 United States: Boise, Eugene, Portland (OR), Salem, Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane, Tri-Cities, Vancouver (WA)

Great Lakes 55.5 60.7 9.4%

 Canada: Hamilton, London, Montreal, Niagara Falls, Oshawa, Ottawa, Quebec City, Toronto, Vaughan, Windsor
 United States: Akron, Ann Arbor, Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Des Moines, Detroit, Duluth, Erie, Flint, Fort Wayne, Green Bay, Grand Rapids, Indianapolis, Kalamazoo, Kansas City, Lansing, Louisville, Madison, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Omaha, Pittsburgh, Quad Cities, Rochester (NY), Rochester (MN), Rockford, Traverse City, Saginaw, St. Louis, Saint Paul, South Bend, Toledo

Southern California 24.4 29 18.9%

 Mexico: Tijuana
 United States: Anaheim, Bakersfield, Las Vegas, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego


Satellite image of Greater Buenos Aires at night. Urban sprawl created a vast conurbation of 12,801,365 inhabitants including the City of Buenos Aires, a third of the total population of Argentina.
Megalopolis Name Population
Major cities Other cities
Greater Buenos Aires 13,641,973 Buenos Aires; Merlo, Buenos Aires; Quilmes; Banfield, Buenos Aires Lanús; Hurlingham, Buenos Aires; and Avellaneda


Megalopolis Name Population
Major cities Other cities
Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo +32,200,000 São Paulo and Campinas Sorocaba, Jundiaí, São José dos Campos, Piracicaba and Santos
Greater Rio de Janeiro +12,000,000 Rio de Janeiro and São Gonçalo Nova Iguaçu, Duque de Caxias, Niterói, Belford Roxo and São João de Meriti
Greater Belo Horizonte +5,800,000 Belo Horizonte and Contagem Betim, Nova Lima and Sete Lagoas
Greater Porto Alegre +4,200,000 Porto Alegre and Canoas São Leopoldo, Novo Hamburgo and Gravataí
Recife metropolitan area +3,900,000 Recife and Jaboatão dos Guararapes Olinda, Paulista, Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Camaragibe, Igarassu, São Lourenço da Mata, Abreu e Lima, Ipojuca, Moreno, Itapissuma, Ilha de Itamaracá and Araçoiaba
Greater Curitiba + 3,500,000 Curitiba and São José dos Pinhais Araucária, Colombo, Fazenda Rio Grande, Lapa and Pinhais


Megalopolis name Population
in millions
in millions
2025 (projected)
percent growth 2011 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities Related articles
Quebec City–Windsor Corridor 18.4 21 14.1% Hamilton, Kingston, Kitchener, London, Mississauga, Montreal, Oshawa, Ottawa, Peterborough, Quebec City, Toronto, Trois-Rivières, Vaughan, Windsor Southern Ontario
Calgary–Edmonton Corridor 2.7 4 48.1% Calgary, Edmonton, Red Deer, St. Albert, Airdrie Calgary Region, Edmonton Capital Region, Central Alberta


The following megaregions in Colombia are expected to have nearly 93% (55 Million people) of its population by 2030, up from the current 72%. There are currently 4 major megaregions in Colombia.

Megalopolis name Population in 2015 Population in 2030 (projected) Major cities
Bogota National Capital Metropolis 17,000,000 26,500,000 Bogotá, Soacha, Facatativá, Chía, Tunja, Fusagasugá, Zipaquirá, Madrid, Funza, Cajicá, Ubaté, Sibaté, Guaduas, Villa de Leyva and Tocancipá
Pacific Belt 9,000,000 14,000,000 Medellín, Cali, Bello, Pereira, Manizales, Armenia, Itagüí, Yumbo, and Palmira
Northeast Atlantic Region 6,000,000 10,500,000 Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta, Ciénaga, Malambo, Baranoa and Turbaco
Santander Belt 3,000,000 5,200,000 Bucaramanga, Cúcuta, Ocaña, and Pamplona

Other sources[20] show that another megaregion may be considered:

Megalopolis name Population in 2015 Population in 2030 (projected) Major cities
Golden Triangle 29,500,000 41,000,000 Bogotá, Soacha, Medellín, Cali, Bello, Manizales, Armenia


Mexico City megalopolis
Megalopolis name Population
in millions
in millions
2025 (projected)
percent growth 2000 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities Related articles
Bajío 11  ?  ?% León, Querétaro, Aguascalientes, Celaya, Irapuato, San Juan del Río, Salamanca Bajío
Mexico City megalopolis 28  ?  ?% Mexico City, Puebla, Cuernavaca, Toluca, Pachuca, Tula, Tlaxcala, Cuautla, Tulancingo


Megalopolis name Population
Major cities Other cities
Lima-Callao Megalopolis 10,523,796 Lima and Callao Cono Norte, Cono Sur, and Cono Este

United States[edit]


Constituent urban areas of each megalopolis are based on reckoning by a single American organization, the Regional Plan Association (RPA). The RPA definition of the Great Lakes Megalopolis includes some Canadian metropolitan areas with the United States, including some but not all major urban centres in the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor. Note that one city, Houston, is listed in two different Megalopolis regions as defined by the RPA, (the Gulf Coast and Texas Triangle).[7][21]

Megalopolis name Population
in millions
Percent of U.S. Population (2010) Population
in millions
2025 (projected)
percent growth 2010 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities
Arizona Sun Corridor[22][23] 5.6 2% 7.8 39.3% Mesa, Phoenix, Tucson, Prescott, Scottsdale
Florida 17.3 6% 21.5 24.3% Fort Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Miami, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tampa, Sarasota, Fort Myers, Gainesville, Palm Bay
Front Range 5.5 2% 6.9 26% Albuquerque, Cheyenne, Colorado Springs, Denver, Pueblo, Rio Rancho, Santa Fe, Taos
Gulf Coast 13.4 4% 16.3 21.6% Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Houston, Mobile, Gulfport, Biloxi, New Orleans, Pensacola
Northeast 52.3 17% 58.4 11.7% Allentown-Bethlehem, Atlantic City, Baltimore, Boston, Harrisburg, Hazleton, Nashua, Newark, New York, Norfolk, Ocean City, Philadelphia, Portland (ME), Pottsville, Providence, Richmond, Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, Knowledge Corridor (Springfield and Hartford), Trenton, Virginia Beach, Washington, Wilmington, Worcester
Northern California 14 5% 16.4 17.1% Fresno, Modesto, Oakland, San Francisco, San Jose, Stockton, Berkeley, Cupertino, Fremont, Reno, Sacramento
Southern California 24.4 8% 29 18.9% Los Angeles, San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Bernardino, Riverside, Bakersfield, Las Vegas, Long Beach, Tijuana
Piedmont Atlantic 17.6 6% 21.7 23.3% Atlanta, Birmingham, Charlotte, Durham, Chapel Hill, Greensboro, Greenville, Huntsville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis, Montgomery, Nashville, Raleigh, Winston-Salem
Texas Triangle 19.7 6% 24.8 25.9% Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio


Megalopolis name Population
Major cities Other cities
Caracas-Valencia Megalopolis +9,000,000 Caracas, Valencia, and Maracay Cagua, Maiquetía, and Guatire


East Asia[edit]


In July 2012, the Economist Intelligence Unit brought out a report entitled; Supersized cities: China’s 13 megalopolises, which pinpoints the 13 emerging megalopolises in China, and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping their development.


South Korea[edit]

Satellite image of Seoul and greater area


South Asia[edit]

Dhaka, Bangladesh; part of the emerging chain of cities in the Bengal region

Sri Lanka[edit]

Western Region Supercity of Colombo (Megapolis) with 3687 km2 land area and currently over 7 million population comprising several municipal, urban and town councils politically. This will be a well planned spacious modern megacity with dedicated core zones for financial, trade, industrial, educational, logistic, transport, health, sports, recreational activities and services in par with the international level. Once completed it would be one of the most livable and favored cities in the world.


Chennai International Airport, one of India's major international airports


  1. Dhaka (Greater Dhaka Megalopolis consists four city Corporations: Dhaka South, Dhaka North, Gazipur, and Narayanganj and five municipals: Savar Upazila (A class), Dohar Upazila (A class), Dhamrai Upazila (A class), Tongi (Special Class), Sonargaon (B class) (17,000,000)
  2. Chittagong (4,009,423)


Karachi comprises six district municipal corporations. The total population is 24 million according to the 2011 census.


Kathmandu valley, which consists of 5 municipalities namely Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Kirtipur and Madhyapur Thimi, along with the peripheral cities of Banepa, Panauti and Dhulikhel.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Rank Megalopolis Name Country Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Java  Indonesia 145[31] Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Bekasi, Bogor, Depok, Malang, Semarang, Tasikmalaya, Tangerang, Cirebon
2 Mega Manila  Philippines 40+ Manila, Calamba, Angeles, Baguio, Batangas, Dagupan, Olongapo, Bacoor
3 Central Thailand  Thailand 25+ Bangkok, Ayuthaya, Pattaya
4 Southeast Economic Zone  Vietnam 16+ Đồng Nai, Bình Dương, Ho Chi Minh City, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province, Long An, Tiền Giang


Mega Manila is made up of 4 Regions:

(Regional Centers) San Fernando-Manila-Calamba-Calapan

Total Population of Mega Manila as of 2015: (40,624,035)[32]

Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam[edit]

Southwest Asia[edit]


  • Greater Tehran: A region located in Iranian Tehran and Alborz Province in central Northern Iran with its influence expanding in Qom Province, Qazvin Province and Mazandaran Province, home for at least 15 million people, it is one of the most populous urban areas in the Greater Middle East and the surrounding regions. Tehran was a small village 200 years ago when it was first chosen as the Capital city and it has been growing at a very fast rate.


(all figures extrapolated from end of 2014 and end of 2015 figures of,[35] to middle of year 2016)

  • Greater Istanbul: Includes Istanbul city proper, with continuous urbanization spilling over to neighboring provinces, as well as nearby dense population and highly industrialized areas. Istanbul, eastern counties of Tekirdağ province, entire coast of Izmit bay, and Adapazarı add up to 17.5 million population.
  • Other major cities: Ankara (5 million), Izmir (includes satellites Torbalı-Aliağa-Urla-Manisa to add up to 4 million), Adana-Tarsus-Mersin (3 million), Bursa (2.1 million)


Transnational (Europe)[edit]

Rank Megalopolis Name Population in millions Countries & Respective Cities
1 Blue Banana 110–130[36]  United Kingdom: Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Birmingham, London
 Belgium: Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges, Liege
 Netherlands: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht
 Luxembourg: Luxembourg
 Germany: Rhine-Ruhr, Frankfurt am Main, Munich, Stuttgart, Nuremberg
 France: Strasbourg, Lille
  Switzerland: Zürich, Basel
 Italy: Turin, Milan, Genoa
2 Golden Banana 40–45[37]  Italy: Turin, Genoa
 France: Lyon, Nice, Toulon, Marseille, Nîmes, Montpellier, Narbonne, Perpignan, Toulouse
 Monaco: Monaco
 Andorra: Andorra
 Spain: Manresa, Girona, Vic, Barcelona, Tarragona, Castellón de la Plana, Sagunt, Valencia, Alicante, Murcia, Cartagena
3 Green Banana 40[citation needed]  Poland: Gdańsk, Warsaw, Kraków, Katowice
 Czech Republic: Ostrava, Prague, Olomouc, Brno
 Austria: Vienna
 Slovakia: Bratislava, Žilina
 Hungary: Budapest, Győr
 Slovenia: Ljubljana, Koper
 Croatia: Zagreb
 Italy: Trieste
4 Gulf of Finland 9[citation needed]  Russia: Gatchina, Saint Petersburg, Vyborg
 Finland: Lappeenranta, Kotka, Kouvola, Lahti, Vantaa, Helsinki, Espoo, Hämeenlinna, Tampere, Turku
 Estonia: Tallinn
5 STRING 8.5[38]  Germany: Hamburg
 Denmark: Copenhagen
 Sweden: Malmö
6 Atlantic Axis 4[39][better source needed]  Portugal: Setúbal, Lisbon, Santarém, Leiria, Coimbra, Viseu, Aveiro, Porto, Braga, Viana do Castelo
 Spain: Vigo, Ourense, Pontevedra, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña

Denmark and Sweden[edit]

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Øresund Region 3.9[40][41] Copenhagen, Malmö, Helsingborg, Lund, and Roskilde


Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Paris metropolitan area 12.3[42] Paris & Île-de-France
2 Lyon economic region 5.5[37] Lyon & Rhône-Alpes river area
3 Marseille metropolitan region 1.8[37] Marseille, Aix-en-Provence
4 Toulouse economic region 1.5[37] Toulouse, Andorra (independent state, not a part of France)
5 Nice economic region 1.1[37] Nice, Monaco (independent city-state, not a part of France)



Rank Megalopolis name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Rhine-Ruhr 13.5 Cologne, Düsseldorf, Dortmund, Essen
2 Berlin-Brandenburg 5.95 Berlin, Potsdam
3 Frankfurt Rhine-Main 5.52 Frankfurt, Wiesbaden, Mainz
4 Stuttgart Metropolitan Region 5.29[37] Stuttgart
5 Munich Metropolitan Region 5.2[37] Munich
6 Hamburg Metropolitan Region 5.0 Hamburg
7 Central German Metropolitan Region (Saxon triangle) 4.36[37] Leipzig, Halle, Dresden
8 Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region 3.91[37] Hanover, Braunschweig, Göttingen, Wolfsburg
9 Nuremberg Metropolitan Region 3.5[37] Nuremberg
10 Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region 2.37[37] Bremen, Oldenburg



Rank Megalopolis name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Grande Milano 8.2 Milan
2 Naples metropolitan area 4.46 Naples
3 Rome metropolitan area 4.3 Rome
4 Turin economic region 4.1 Turin & Piedmont centre and south area
5 Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area 2.6 Venice & Padua & Treviso central-eastern Veneto region
6 Genoa metropolitan region 1.5 Genoa
7 Conca d'Oro 1.1 Palermo and neighboring cities


Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg:[37]

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Randstad 7.5 Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht
2 Flemish Diamond 5.5 Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, Leuven
3 Brabantse Stedenrij 2.0 Eindhoven, Tilburg, Breda, 's-Hertogenbosch, Helmond

Poland and Czechia[edit]

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Silesian Metropolis 5.3 Katowice, Ostrava



Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 Madrid region 6.3 Madrid, Alcalá de Henares, Fuenlabrada, Getafe, Alcobendas, Alcorcón, Leganés, Móstoles
2 Barcelona 5 Barcelona, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Badalona, Terrassa, Sabadell, Mataró, Santa Coloma
3 Valencia 3 Valencia, Alicante, Elche, Benidorm, Sagunto, Gandia, Castellón, Vinaròs, Burriana
4 Sevilla 1.3 Sevilla, Dos Hermanas, Utrera

United Kingdom[edit]

Rank Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
1 London commuter belt 14.0[45] London, Medway, Southend-on-Sea, Chelmsford, Basildon, Luton, Reading
2 Northern England 9.4[37][46] Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield, Warrington, Bradford, Birkenhead, Preston, Blackburn, Blackpool
3 English midlands 6.3[37][46] Birmingham, Nottingham, Coventry, Leicester, Wolverhampton, Derby, Stoke-on-Trent
4 Central Belt 3.6[46] Glasgow, Edinburgh
5 South Hampshire-Brighton 2.8[37][46] Southampton, Portsmouth, Brighton, Worthing, Littlehampton, Bournemouth
6 Tyne & Wear Region 2.2[37][46] Newcastle, Sunderland, Middlesbrough
7 Cardiff-Bristol-Swansea 2.2[37][46] Cardiff, Bristol, Swansea, Newport



Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
Sydney Region[citation needed] 5.77[47] Greater Sydney (including Central Coast and Blue Mountains) (4.97 million), Newcastle and Lake Macquarie (501,000), Illawarra (300,000)
Port Phillip Bay Area[citation needed] 4.98 [47] Greater Melbourne (including Mornington Peninsula (4.7 million), Greater Geelong (233,429), Melton, Victoria (54,455)
South East Queensland[citation needed] 3.45[47] Greater Brisbane (2.3 million), Gold Coast-Tweed Heads (662,000), Sunshine Coast (341,000), Toowoomba (152,000)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Briggs, James (25 August 2015). "Capitals, Wizards owner Ted Leonsis says Baltimore will become part of a D.C. supercity". Baltimore Business Journal. Retrieved 2015-08-26. 
  2. ^ Geddes, Patrick (1915). Cities in Evolution. London: Williams & Norgate – via Internet Archive. 
  3. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1954). L'Amerique. Paris: Hachette. 
  4. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1957). "Megalopolis, or the urbanization of the Northeastern Seaboard". Economic Geography. 33 (3): 189–200. doi:10.2307/142307. 
  5. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1961). Megalopolis. The Urbanized Northeastern seaboard of the United States. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund. 
  6. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1989). Since Megalopolis. The Urban Writings of Jean Gottmann. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 163. 
  7. ^ a b c Taylor, Matt. "Megaregions". America 2050. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  8. ^ "Who's Your City?: What Is a Megaregion?". 19 March 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Cities: Capital for the New Megalopolis.Time magazine, November 4, 1966. Retrieved on July 19, 2010.
  10. ^ "About Us - America 2050". Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  11. ^ Definition of the prefix megalo-. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  12. ^ "Beyond Megalopolis: Exploring America's New "Megapolitan" Geography" (PDF). July 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-03-27. 
  13. ^ "America 2040: The Rise of the Megapolitans" (PDF). January 2007. 
  14. ^ Tremble, Sam (May 30, 2007). "Fumbling Toward Portland". Philadelphia City Paper. Archived from the original on July 7, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2007-01-01. 
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-09-24. Retrieved 2007-01-01. 
  17. ^ "Welcome to the official South African government online site! | South African Government". Archived from the original on 2012-05-14. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  18. ^ "Cabinet Secretary names team to modernize Nairobi city transport :: Kenya - The Standard". 2015-02-23. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  19. ^ 46 - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Brazil, 2015, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 28 August 2015 
  20. ^ Ordóñez Burbano, Luis A. (2007). Universidad del Valle 60 años 1945-2005: Atando cabos en clave de memoria. Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia: Universidad del Valle. p. 58. OCLC 645219600
  21. ^ Regional Plan Association (2008). America 2050: An Infrastructure Vision for 21st Century America. New York: Regional Plan Association.
  22. ^ "Megapolitan: Arizona's Sun Corridor". Morrison Institute for Public Policy. May 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  23. ^ Catherine Reagor (2006-04-09). "When Phoenix, Tucson Merge". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 2016-05-31. 
  24. ^ John Vidal. "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions' | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  25. ^ "关于长江三角洲构建世界第六大城市群的思考". Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  26. ^ a b Vidal, John (2010-03-22). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". The Guardian. London. 
  27. ^ "Foreign investment shows trend of "moving northward"". 2004-05-14. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  28. ^ "地域活性化戦略(案)資料" (PDF) (in Japanese). Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. p. 4. Retrieved August 13, 2016. 
  29. ^ "2015 Population Census". Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Retrieved August 13, 2016. 
  30. ^ A government publication states that on 1 November 2010, the population of "Seoul Metropolitan Area" stood at 23,616 thousand, which is the sum of the figures given for Gyeonggi-do (11,270 thousand), Seoul (9,708 thousand) and Incheon (2,638 thousand), apparently including the periphery.
    Source: "Preliminary Results of the 2010 Population and Housing Census" (PDF). Statistics Korea. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  31. ^ "Java - Google Arts & Culture". Google Cultural Institute. Retrieved 2018-02-07. 
  32. ^ "Google". Google. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  33. ^ "广西北部湾经济区概况". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  34. ^ "Chinese Cities on Beibu Gulf Increase Cooperation". Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  35. ^ Turkish Statistical Institute - Address Based Population Record System
  36. ^ Ina Schmidt. "The European Blue Banana". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t From Territorial Cohesion to the New Regionalized Europe. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  38. ^ "STRING - Facts and Figures" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  39. ^ Lois-González, Rubén C. (7 October 2004). "A Model of Spanish-portuguese Urban Growth: the Atlantic Axis". Universidad de Santiago de Compostela. p. 7(287). 
  40. ^ "Danmarks Statistik". Danmarks Statistik. Retrieved 22 September 2015. 
  41. ^ "Statistics Sweden". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 22 September 2015. 
  42. ^ "INSEE - Paris". Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  43. ^ "Regionales Monitoring 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  44. ^ "Brookings". The Brookings Institution. 30 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  45. ^ "Population on 1 January by broad age group, sex and metropolitan regions" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  46. ^ a b c d e f "3.29.2 British urban pattern: population data" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2017-04-06. 
  47. ^ a b c 3218.0 - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2014-15, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 30 March 2016, retrieved 3 October 2016 

External links[edit]