Megat Iskandar Shah of Malacca

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Megat Iskandar Shah
2nd Sultan of Malacca
Reign Malacca Sultanate: 1414–1424
Predecessor Parameswara
Successor Muhammad Shah
Died 1424
Issue Muhammad Shah
Father Parameswara
Religion Sunni Islam

Sultan Megat Iskandar Shah ibni Almarhum Raja Parameswara (died 1424) was the second Sultan of Malacca and the son of Parameswara. The position of Megat Iskandar Shah as the second ruler of Malacca has historically been contested. Some argued that he is the same person as Parameswara, but was mistaken as a different person after Parameswara converted to Islam and changed his name, others however disagree that such a mistake could be made, and that Megat Iskandar Shah was indeed the second ruler of Malacca.[1]

He maintained a good relationship with the Ming Empire of China and paid tribute to China regularly. According to Portuguese sources he pushed for trade to move to Malacca instead of Singapura.[2]

Identity[edit]

Due to discrepancies between Malay, Chinese and Portuguese sources on the early history of Malacca, there have been some differences in opinions about the early rulers of the kingdom. The Malay Annals indicates that the founder of Malacca was Iskandar Shah, while Portuguese sources give the name Parameswara, and that Iskandar Shah was his son. Chinese sources recorded the name Mekat Iskandar Shah as the son of Parameswara. Sir Richard Winstedt initially supported the existence of Megat Iskandar Shah as a separate person in 1935. However, soon after the Second World War, he reevaluated his opinion after the accounts in the Suma Oriental by the Portuguese writer Tomé Pires was published in 1944.[3]

George Coedes states that Iskandar Shah was simply the name of Paramesvara after he had converted to Islam.[4]

In the 2005 book Admiral Zheng He & Southeast Asia published by Singapore's Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Professor Wang Gungwu, in his paper The First Three Rulers of Melaka, published in 1968, put forward evidence to support the belief that Megat Iskandar Shah was the second ruler of Malacca. The Ming annals named Parameswara as Bai-li-mi-su-la (拜里迷蘇剌) and his son Mu-gan Sa-yu-ti-er-sha (母幹撒于的兒沙) or Megat Iskandar Shah. Wang argued that the Parameswara had already visited China in 1411 and met the Emperor, and it is therefore unlikely that they would have mistaken him for his son who visited three years later.[3]

According to History of Ming, "The Prince Mugansakandi'ersha (Megat Iskandar Shah) paid tribute to the Yongle Emperor in 1414. After being informed that his father had died, the Emperor gave him gold coins and granted him his inherited title. After that Iskandar Shah paid frequent tribute to the Emperor."[5]

Conversion[edit]

According to Suma Oriental written by Tomé Pires, the son of Paramicura (Parameswara), Chaquem Daraxa (Iskandar Shah), converted to Islam at the age of 72 and died when he was 80.[3]

Megat Iskandar Shah conversion to Islam may have made it easier for him to establish a relationship with the traders of Gujarat and Bengal.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cheryl-Ann Low. "Iskandar Shah". Singapore Infopedia. National Library Board. 
  2. ^ Miksic, John N. (15 November 2013), Singapore and the Silk Road of the Sea, 1300–1800, NUS Press, pp. 163–164, ISBN 978-9971695743 
  3. ^ a b c Wang, G. (2005). "The first three rulers of Malacca". In L., Suryadinata. Admiral Zheng He and Southeast Asia. International Zheng He Society / Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 26–41. ISBN 9812303294. 
  4. ^ Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 246. ISBN 9780824803681. 
  5. ^ "明史/卷325". 

External links[edit]

Megat Iskandar Shah of Malacca
House of Malacca
Died: 1424
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Parameswara
Sultan of Malacca
1414–1424
Succeeded by
Muhammad Shah