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Victory of Meghanada by RRV.jpg
Victory of Meghanada by Ravi Varma
Other namesMeghanada, Shakrajit, Ravani, Vasavajit, Varidanada, Ghananada
Personal information

Indrajit or Meghanada, according to Hindu mythology, was a prince of Lanka and a conqueror of Indra Loka (heaven) like his father Ravana before him. He is regarded as one of the greatest warriors in Hindu mythology. He was mentioned in the Indian epic Ramayana. Indrajit played an active role in the great war between Rama and Ravana. He is considered as the only Atimaharathi class warrior ever born on earth as told in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas and the Vedas. He is the one and only warrior who possessed the three ultimate weapons of Trimurti, i.e. Brahmanda astra, Vaishnavastra, and Pashupatastra. He acquired all kinds of celestial weapons from his Guru Shukra, Lord Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. By defeating the Devas in the heaven he took their weapons and became the possessor of all kinds of divine weapons of deva's, asura's and Trimurti's.[1] Indrajit subdued both Rama and Lakshman, and later incapacitated Lakshman in their second encounter. Indrajit killed 670 million Vanaras in a single day, nearly exterminating the entire half man-half monkey race.[1][2]


In Sanskrit literal translation the name "Indrajit" (इन्द्रजित्) mentioned as "Conqueror of Indra" and "Meghanāda" (Sanskrit: मेघनाद) as "Thunderous or lord of sky". In Tamil literal translation of the name "Meghanathan" [3] (Tamil: மேகநாதன்) is mentioned as "Lord of Clouds", which combines the words "Megham" (clouds) and "Nathan"/"nathudu" (lord). He defeated Indra, the king of the Devas, after which he came to be known as 'Indrajit' ("the conqueror of Indra").[4] He can be also known as Shakrajit, Ravani, Vasavajit, Varidanada and Ghananada.


Wayang Figure Of Indrajit.

Indrajit was the eldest son of Ravana and his wife Mandodari. He was named Meghanada after his birth because his birth cry sounded like thunder. When Meghnadh was going to be born, Ravana wished his son to be supreme so that no one in the world could defeat him. Ravana wanted his son to be the ultimate warrior and extremely knowledgeable. Ravana was a great astrologist so to make his son immortal he commanded all the planets and constellations in such a position that would allow his son to be born the way he wanted. Because of Ravana's anger and power, all the planets and constellations feared him. All the planets were in the position as desired by Ravana at time of his son Meghnad's birth. All the planets aligned in such a way that they came in the 11th house of his Meghnad's horoscope.[5] However, Shani (Saturn) had disobeyed Ravana's orders and had settled in the 12th house of Meghanada's horoscope. Ravana became furious at this and lamed Shani. Due to the state of Shani, Meghanada had to die at the hands of Lakshmana in the war between Rama and Ravana.

At a very young age, Meghanada became the possessor of several supreme celestial weapons, including Brahmanda astra, Vaishnavastra and Pashupatastra. He is considered as the one and only Atimaharati class mortal warrior ever. Meghanada was also an expert in magical warfare, sorcery and tantra. He was married to Sulochana, the virtuous daughter of the King of the Serpents, Shesha Naga.[6]

Brahma's boon[edit]

During the battle between the Devas and Ravana, Lord Indra, king of heavens accompanied by all other devas captured Ravana. To rescue his father, Meghanada attacked Indra and his elephant Airavata, and defeated all the Devas, even Indra. Meghanada tied and mounted Indra onto his celestial chariot and dragged him to Ravana in Lanka. Ravana and Meghanada decided to kill Indra. At this juncture, Lord Brahma intervened and asked Meghanada to free Indra. Meghanada obliged and was granted a chance to ask for a boon from Brahma. Meghanada asked for immortality, but Brahma remarked that absolute immortality is against the law of the nature. Instead, he was then granted another boon that after the completion of the Yagna (fire-worship) of his native goddess Prathyangira or the "Nikumbhila yagna" would be completed, he will get a celestial chariot, mounting on which, he will win over any enemy in war and become invulnerable. But Brahma also cautioned him that whosoever would destroy this yagna would also kill him. Brahma was highly impressed by Meghanada's valor in this war and it was he who gave him the name Indrajit ("the conqueror of Indra"). It is also believed that Meghanada was granted another boon by Brahma in which it was promised to him that he would only be killed by such a man who hadn't had sleep and food for twelve years. [7]

Astra's (Celestial missiles) of Indrajit[edit]

Indrajit was trained under the guidance of Shukra and obtained all kinds of divine weapons of man, Devas, Asura's and Trimurti's. The weaponry is categorized mainly into two types. One is Shastra, a handheld weapon like a sword, lance or mace. The other is astra, a projectile missile invoked by reciting hymns.

Shastras (Celestial weapons) of Indrajit[edit]

Shastra Effect
Kaal Disc Time disc; renders a piteous state of the enemy, full with magical powers, ending in air and water filled, ends in craters with fire, generates fire.
Vishnu Disc It first sparkles with cosmic holes, contains high degree radiance, revolves with one lakh revolutions per foot, very panicking is its projection.
Indra Disc Disc of King of Gods.
Danda Disc Punisher Disc.
Dharma Disc Virtue Disc.
Modaki Mace The Beater mace.
Shikhari Mace The tower of Protection mace.
Dharma Paasha The noose of Dharma.
Kaala Paasha The noose of Time.
Naga Pasha Noose of The Nagas; upon impact this weapon would bind the target in coils of living venomous snakes.
Varuna paasha Noose of Varuna, god of water. Can hook any beings be Deva, Asura or Human. It's impossible to escape from the hook of this weapon.
Yama Paasha Noose of Yama, god of death. Arrests, plucks out life force of any living being. Except Trimurti's, no being can escape from this weapon.
Samvarta Weapon belonging to Yama. Used by Emperor Bharata to annihilate thirty million gandharvas in a moment, tearing them to pieces.
Vajra Weapon of Lord Indra, King of Devas. Infalliable and Invincible.
Vasavi Shakti Magical dart of Indra and King of Devas, Infallible and Invincible.
Kankaalam The deadly Pounder weapons that are wielded by demons.
Impellers Presided over by the power of Vishnu.
Impellers Presided over by the power of Rudra.
Kapaalam Weapons that are wielded by demons, Rod for the elimination of those very demons.
Kankanam Weapons that are wielded by demons, Rod for the elimination of those very demons.
Chandrahas Sword of Lord Shiva, the Destroyer. The divine sword Chandrahas (literally 'the laughter of the moon' but referring to the shape formed by a crescent moon which resembles a smile) was given to Ravana by Lord Shiva when pleased with his intense devotion. Ravana gave this sword to Indrajit in different occasions especially to fight against Devas. Invincible, infalliable against any weapons and victory is assured.

Offensive astras of Indrajit were[edit]

Astra Effect
Aishiika Astra Grass-Blade missile, aisiika missile is a dried blade of grass, which by invoking with hymns will become a projectile weapon.
Shushka Astra The Drier astra.
Aardra Astra The Drencher astra.
Krouncha Astra The Wrestler astra.
Mohana Astra The Stupefier astra of Gandharvas.
Prashamana Astra The Pacifier of the enemy's anger, astra of Gandharvas.
Maanava Astra The Humane astra of Gandharvas.
Varshana Astra The Rainer astra.
Shoshana Astra The Drainer astra.
Santaapana Astra The Humidifier astra.
Vilaapana Astra The Weep inducer astra.
Mohana Astra The Intoxicator, an unassailable intoxicator and a dear astra of Manmatha.
Sammohanastra Astra of Gandarvas; would cause entire hosts, armies to collapse in a trance.
Prasvapana Astra of Gandarvas, the inducer of sleep.
Sabdavedastra Astra of Gandharvas, this weapon is used to hunt down invisible enemies.
Paishaca Astra The Monster missile; astra of pishaacas, monsters.
Nalika Astra Astra of Asuras; very short, quick astras designed for mass killing and penetrating hard armours. Sages had prohibited the use of Nalika astras in wars. It was declared unfair and immoral to use these arrows in war because it is extremely difficult to counter and gives unfair advantage in a fair fight, similar to present day bullets. Also used to pierce extremely small targets.
Teja Prabha Astra Solar missile, the sequestrator of others' brilliance.
Shishira Astra The Cooler, the missile of Moon-god.
Sudaamana Astra A very deadly astra of Tvasta.
Shitaisu Astra Dangerous Astra of Bhaga.
Samvarta Astra, Mausala Astra, Satya Astra, Maaya Astra Indomitable Astras.
Vaidyadhara Astra, Taamasa Astra, Saumana Astra Indomitable Astras.
Naga-astra Astra of the Nagas; the weapon would have an unerring aim and take on the form of a snake, proving deadly upon impact.
Garudastra Astra of Garuda, the eagle weapon to counter against the Nagastra.
Twashtar Astra Astra of Twashtri, the heavenly builder; when used against a group of opponents (such as an army), it would cause them to mistake each other for enemies and fight each other.
Manavastra Astra of Manu (Hinduism), father of the human race; could overcome supernatural protections and carry the target hundreds of miles away. Can inspire humane traits in an evil being.
Parvataastra Would cause a Parvata/mountain to fall on the target from the skies.
Bhaumastra Astra of Bhumi, goddess of earth, The weapon could create tunnels deep into the earth.
Agneyastra Astra of Agni, god of fire; the weapon discharged would emit flames inextinguishable through normal means.
Varunastra Astra of Varuna, god of water;, the weapon discharged would release torrential volumes of water. This weapon is commonly mentioned as used to counter the Agneyastra.
Vayvayastra Astra of Vayu, god of wind; brings about a gale capable of lifting armies off the ground.
Suryastra Astra of Surya, the solar deity and the father of Karna; creates a dazzling light that would dispel any darkness about/dry up water bodies/could produce blinding light.
Indraastra Astra of Indra god of weather and King of Devas; would bring about a 'shower' of arrows from the sky.
Mohini Astra Astra of Mohini, an Avatar of Vishnu; dispels any form of maya or sorcery in the vicinity.
Hayagriva Astra The Astra of the Horse-head avatar of Vishnu.
Ravaana Astra The Astra of almighty Ravana, the father of Meghnada; brings out the strength and 10000 year tapas energy of mighty Ravana into the battle field as destructive power. No weapons, astras of Devas, Asuras or Humans can counter this astra. Completely infalliable and invincible. No counter until Rama, the 7th avatar of Lord Vishnu invented Kodandaram astra to neutralise this weapon.
Rudra Astra Astra of Rudra, a form of Lord Shiva, Contains the power of a Rudra. When it is used, it invokes the power of a Rudra out of the Ekadasha (Eleven) Rudras and destroys the target. The mantra for the Siva kavach (armour) can be weakened by the Rudra astra.
Maheshwarastra Astra of Lord Maheshwara, a form of Lord Shiva; contains the power of Shiva's third eye. Shoots a really fast fiery beam which can turn even celestial beings to complete ashes. Infallible and unstoppable. It has the power to turn the entire creation to ashes.
Shiva Astra The Astra of Lord Shiva, the Destroyer.
Brahmastra Astra of Lord Brahma, the Creator; capable of killing devas, would destroy entire hosts at once. Could also counter most other astras. It is said that the weapon manifests with the single head of Lord Brahma as its tip. It is the only weapon capable of piercing the Brahma Kavach (invincible armour of Lord Brahma). Extremely powerful. Capable of destroying any being except Trimurti's in any realm.
Narayanastra Astra of Lord Vishnu. This is the personal weapon of Lord Vishnu in his Narayana form. This weapon had to be obtained from Vishnu directly. When invoked, Ekadasha (Eleven) Rudras appear in the sky to destroy the targets. Whoever tries to resist it will be destroyed. This astra lets loose a powerful tirade of millions of deadly missiles simultaneously. The intensity of the shower increases with resistance. Capable of killing devas and any beings, would destroy entire hosts at once. The only solution is total submission before the missile and the user, only then it ceases.
Brahmashirsha astra Astra of Lord Brahma, the Creator; capable of killing devas. It is the evolution of the Brahmastra, 4 times stronger than Brahmastra. It is said that the weapon manifests with the four head of Lord Brahma as its tip. Capable of destroying the entire world and any realm in a blink of an eye.
Vaishnavastra Astra of Lord Vishnu, the personal weapon of Vishnu; once fired it cannot be thwarted by any means, save by the will of Vishnu himself and Lord Shiva. Only counters are Pashupatasra of Lord Shiva and Brahmanda Astra. This weapon is said to possess the power to destroy the entire solar system or Brahmand, the 14 realms according to Hindu cosmology, when used for offensive purpose. Highly prohibited to use against an inferior enemy. Capable of destroying the entire universe in a blink of an eye.
Pashupatastra Astra of Lord Shiva, the Destroyer; would destroy any target completely, irrespective of target's nature. When released, the weapon summons several monsters and a huge spirit which personifies the weapon. Each time the weapon is summoned, its head is never the same. This weapon had to be obtained from Shiva directly. Capable of destroying the entire multiverse in a blink of an eye. Personal weapon of Adiparsakthi and Paramasiva.
Brahmanda astra Astra of Lord Brahma, the Creator; capable of repelling the Brahmastra and any other weapons ever created. This weapon is said to possess the power to destroy the entire solar system or Brahmand, the 14 realms according to Hindu cosmology, when used for offensive purpose. Highly prohibited to use against an inferior enemy. Designed to neutralize Vaishnavastra of Vishnu and Pashupatastra of Shiva. In some texts it is called Brahma-dhanda astra, the weapon created by Saptarishi's to counter any weapon ever created, even that of Trimurti's. The rishi of this weapon is Para Brahman. It is said to be the most difficult astra to obtain. Capable of destroying the entire multiverse in a blink of an eye. Vishvamitra used all kinds of divine weapons against sage Vashistha, even Pashupatastra, but the Brahma-dhanda astra of Vashistha neutralized and swallowed all astra (weapon) of Vishwamitra proving that Brahma-dhanda astra is the most powerful of all astras.[8]

Defensive astras or Upasamhaara astras, which can be used to neutralize the enemy's astras[edit]

Defensive Astras or Upasamhaara Astras
Upasamhaara Astras!
Satyavanta, Satyakeerti, Dhristha, Rabhasa, Pratihaaratara, Paraanmuka, Avaanmukha, Lakshya, Alakshya, Dhridhanaabha, Sunaabha, Dashaaksha, Shatavaktra, Dashasheersha, Shatodara, Padmanaabha, Mahaanaabha, Dundunaabha, Svanaabha, Jyotisha, Shakuna, Nairaashya, Vimala, Yungandhara, Vinidra, Daitya, Pramadhana, Suchibaahu, Mahaabaahu, Nishkali, Virucha, Saarchirmaali, Dhritimaali, Vrittiman, Ruchira, Pitrya, Ssaumansa, Vidhoota, Makara, Karaveerakara, Dhana, Dhaanya, Kaamaroopa, Kaamaruchira, Moha, Aavarana, Jrimbhaka, Sarvanaabha, Varana.

Offensive astras and their Defensive astras or Upasamhaara Astras that can be used for both offensive and defensive purposes are:[9]

Astras and their Upasamhaara Astras
Astra Upasamhaara Astras
Andhatamisr Astra Mahatarany Astra
Pakhand Astra Gayatry Astra
Andh Astra Chakshushmat Astra
Shaktinash Astra Vishvavasumah Astra
Antak Astra Mriityunjay Astra
Sarvasmritinashan Astra Sarvasmritidharan Astra
Bhay Astra Abhayankaraaindr Astra
Maharog Astra namatray Astra
Ayurnash Astra Kalasamkarshan Astra
Mahasur Astra Muladurg Astra
Muk Astra mahavagvadiny astra
Vedataskar Astra Mahamatsy Astra
Arnav Astra Adikurm Astra
Hiranyaksh Astra Mahavarah Astra
Hiranyakashipvastra Ugranrisimh Astra
Balindr Astra Vaman Astra
Haihay Astra Bhargav Astra
Dvivid Astra Haladhar Astra
Rajasur Astra Vasudev Astra
Sankarshan Astra Pradyumn Astra, AniruddhAstra
Kalyastra Kalkyastra

Battle against Hanuman[edit]

Rama sent Hanuman to know about Sita, who was held captive by Ravana in Lanka. Hanuman met Sita and passed the message of Rama to Sita. The other purpose of this mission was to spy on Lanka and its forces. On the way Hanuman encountered the troops of Ravana in Ashok Vatika, where Sita was kept. Hanuman fought with them and swiftly destroyed many soldiers. Hanuman even killed the Vatika's guard Jambumali and Ravana's youngest son Akshayakumara (Indrajit's brother). Indrajit entered the battlefield. He used tantrik vidya as well as several astras on him. Though due to the boons by various gods, most celestial weapons of Indrajit had no effect on Hanuman. Indrajit then used Brahmastra and Hanuman swooned due to the immense power of this weapon. Indrajit then arrested Hanuman and presented him in front of his father King Ravana.[10]

Battle Against Rama & Lakshmana[edit]

Indrajit joined the battle when all his brothers had been killed by Rama and his army. His father, Ravana, had been humiliated in the battle by Rama and his paternal uncle Kumbhakarna had been killed by Rama. Indrajit fought with Rama's army for three days.

First Day[edit]

Rama & Lakshmana Bound By Indrajit's Nagapasha

On the first day of his battle with Rama's army, Indrajit was fast with his weapons. He swiftly wiped out the armies of Sugriva, calling on Lord Rama and Lakshmana to come out of their hiding, so he could avenge the deaths of his paternal uncle and his brothers. When Rama and Lakshmana appeared before him, he fought fiercely and arrested both the brothers using his most nefarious weapon Nagapash (a trap made of a million snakes). Both the brothers fell on the ground breathless. They were rescued by Garuda on behest of Hanuman. Garuda was the enemy of the serpents and also the flying vehicle of Vishnu, of whom Rama was the seventh avatar.

Second Day[edit]

When Indrajit learned that both Rama and Lakshmana had been rescued by Garuda and were still alive, he was livid and vowed to kill at least one of the brothers that day. When the battle started, he used all his force to cast a havoc on the armies of Sugriva. At this Rama and Lakshmana appeared before him and fought a fierce battle with him. Indrajit used his supreme magical powers, darting across the clouds and skies like a bolt of lightning. He combined his skills of sorcery and warfare, repeatedly vanishing and reappearing behind Rama's and Lakshmana's back. Indrajit used the Vasavi Sakthi against Lakshmana, and upon being impaled Lakshmana fell unconscious, poised to die precisely at the following sunrise. His life was saved by Lord Hanuman, who brought the whole mountain of Dronagiri from the Himalayas to Lanka overnight to find the remedy (the magical herb - Sanjivani) for the weapon used by Indrajit and cured him.

Third day[edit]

Lakshamana Fights Indrajit
Killing Of Indrajit Painting By Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi

When Indrajit came to know that Lakshmana had survived again, he went to his native deity's secret temple to perform the yagna that would make him invincible. Vibhishana, Indrajit's paternal uncle who left Ravana to join Rama, learned of his nephew Indrajit's plans through his spies and alerted Rama. Lakshmana and Vibhisana took the opportunity to face Indrajit in the "Yagnaagaar", where Indrajit would not touch any weapons. As the Valmiki Ramayana quotes, upon his Yagna being destroyed by the armies of Lakshmana, Indrajit became enraged and stormed out of the Temple Cave. Indrajit fought Lakshmana with the utensils of the yagna.[11]

Seeing his uncle Vibhishana at Lakshmana's side multiplied Indrajit's fury manyfold. He vowed to kill his uncle Vibhisana along with Lakshmana once and for all, letting loose the Yama-astra which he had been conserving for punishing Vibhishana's perceived treason. At this juncture, Lakshmana protected Vibhishana, countering the Yama-astra owing to an earlier warning by Kubera. A fierce battle ensued and Indrajit resorted to using the three Supreme Weapons (Brahmanda astra, Pashupatastra and Vaishnavastra) on Lakshmana. To Indrajit's surprise and dismay, each of the three weapons refused to touch Lakshmana, with the Vaishnavastra circumambulating Lakshmana before disappearing. Realization dawned on Indrajit that Lakshman was not an ordinary human and had met the criteria to defeat Indrajit, i.e. blunder the yagna and not sleep for 13 years. Indrajit vanished briefly from the battlefield, returning to Ravana at the royal palace, and reported the developments, proposing that his father make peace with Rama. Ravana blinded with pride was unrelenting and annoyed, claiming that Indrajit was a coward for having fled the battlefield. This accusation provoked Indrajit who briefly lost his temper, striking fear even at the mighty Ravana's heart before apologizing and clarifying to his father that his primary duty as a son was to serve his father's best interests and that even in the face of death, he would never abandon Ravana. Preparing to go back to the battle and knowing that he indeed faced death at the hands of a heavenly incarnation, Indrajit said his last goodbyes to his parents and his wife. He returned to the battlefield and fought Lakshmana with all his skill at both warfare and sorcery. The celestial weapons of Indrajit refused to harm Lakshmana because Lakshman was the part incarnation of Vishnu and Sesha Naga. Lakshmana slew Indrajit by beheading him with the Indrastra. It was possible only because of a curse given to Indrajit by Sesha Naga for marrying his daughter without his permission. Sesha Naga incarnated as Rama's brother Lakshmana, to kill Indrajit, didn't have any sleep or food for twelve years during their exile so that he would be able to serve Rama and Sita efficiently and meet the criteria to kill Indrajit.[citation needed] Upon his death his wife Sulochana became Sati on his funeral pyre. [12]


Indrajit is said to be the most skilled warrior even surpassing Rama, the avatar of Vishnu. Indrajit with the help of Shukracharya acquired weapons from Lord Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, including the boon that he would remain immortal as long as he fought from the divine chariot which rose each time he performed sacrifices to Pratyangira at Nikumbhila.

He was said to be so skilled in archery that he could slay multiple opponents with one arrow shot from his bow. Indrajit was also capable of spreading darkness and ignorance among enemies, which greatly empowered the might of the Rakshasas. He even defeated Indra and all Devas and captured all of them. Indrajit was well versed in using divine weapons and shot serpents in the form of arrows at Rama and Lakshmana. On the second battle at Lanka, Indrajit infused the power of the Brahmashira astra into his chariot, bow and arrows and slew six hundred and seventy million Vanaras in one day. Indrajit was capable of producing a false version of Sita and killing her in front of Vanaras, demoralizing them.

Lakshmana had to employ deceit to kill Indrajit. Lakshman started the fight with Indrajit before sunrise, which was considered to be prohibited at that era. Lakshmana with the help of Vibhishana, the brother of Ravana, by employing deceit disrupted the sacrifice of Indrajit at early morning. Lakshmana with the help of Vibhishana, who had earlier betrayed his brother Ravana, ambushed Indrajit and finally killed him.

In popular culture[edit]

Meghnad is the central figure of Meghnad Badh Kavya, a Bengali ballad, which describes Meghnad as a caring husband, a devoted son of parents and friend of all people. Meghnad Badh Kavya is the most famous and most acclaimed poem by the poet Michael Madhusudan Dutta. It is based on the demise of Meghnad (Indrajit), son of Ravana, the villain of the classic Sanskrit epic Ramayana.

It was first published in 1861, incidentally the year of birth of the Bengali author, Rabindranath Tagore, who afterwards wrote a review on it. The ballad is divided into 9 different sargas, i.e. parts.[13] Each part exhibits different incidents. Starting from the death of Beerbahu, a son of Ravana, it is continued till the sati-daha (the ancient Indian custom of burning the widows alive with the dead husband) of Prameela, Meghnad's beloved wife. Since according to this ballad, Meghnad's wife is Prameela, it can be reasonably believed that Sulochana was also known as Prameela.

Ravana, along with his sons, were the ones performing evil deeds in the Ramayana, which was originally written in Sanskrit by the sage Valmiki. But Dutta claims to have found a tragic hero in Meghnad of Ramayana, as he was conversant in Western literature. He feels a shadow of Hector of Troy in Meghnad and Karna in Mahabharata. According to him, he realized why Ravana had perpetrated such crimes and Meghnad was slayed by Lakshmana brutally in an unfair fight. He says that Meghnad was worshiping Lord Shiva in the royal temple of Lanka, while Lakshmana attacked him with some help from Vibhishana who is eventually an uncle of Meghnad. Meghnad asked not to fight with an unarmed person, rebuking Lakshmana as a coward; but Lakshmana did not heed him. This unfortunate hero twice endangered Rama but could not survive himself in this unfair battle. This is the central theme of this epic. Here Meghnad is shown to be a patriot, a loving husband, a caring son and a friend to his countrymen.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b C. G. Uragoda (2000). Traditions of Sri Lanka: A Selection with a Scientific Background. Vishva Lekha Publishers. ISBN 978-955-96843-0-5.
  2. ^ George M. Eberhart (1 January 2002). Mysterious Creatures: A Guide to Cryptozoology. ABC-CLIO. p. 388. ISBN 978-1-57607-283-7.
  3. ^ Kamba Rāmāyanam: an English prose rendering (1996), p. 20.
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Ravana and Shani fight over the horoscope of Meghnad". Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  6. ^
  7. ^ B. A van Nooten William (2000). Ramayana. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22703-3.
  8. ^ "Brahmadhanda astra". Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  9. ^ Mani, Vettam. Puranic Encyclopedia. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ Read the whole ballad in Bangla

External links[edit]