Mehmed III

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Mehmed III
محمد ثالث
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Sultan Mehmet III of the Ottoman Empire.jpg
The portrait of Sultan Mehmet III by Italian painter Cristofano dell'Altissimo, 16th century.
13th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign January 15, 1595 – December 22, 1603 (8 years)
Predecessor Murad III
Successor Ahmed I
Born May 26, 1566
Manisa Palace, Manisa, Ottoman Empire
Died December 21/22, 1603 (aged 37)
Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Consorts Handan Sultan
Halime Sultan
Haseki Sultan
Full name
Mehmed bin Murad
Dynasty House of Osman
Father Murad III
Mother Safiye Sultan
Religion Sunni Islam
Tughra
Mehmed III accepting the surrender of Eger, 1596

Mehmed III (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثالث‎, Meḥmed-i sālis; Turkish: III. Mehmet; May 26, 1566 – December 21/22, 1603) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death in 1603.

Early life[edit]

He was born at the Manisa Palace, during the reign of his great-grandfather, Suleiman the Magnificent, in 1566. He was the son of Şehzade Murad (later Murad III), himself the son of Şehzade Selim (later Selim II), who was the son of Sultan Suleiman and Hürrem Sultan. His mother was Safiye Sultan, said to have been Albanian from the Dukagjin highlands.[1] His great-grandfather died the year he was born and his grandfather became the new Sultan, Selim II. His grandfather Sultan Selim II died when Mehmed was 8 and Mehmed's father, Murad III, became Sultan in 1574. Mehmed thus became Crown Prince until his father's death in 1595, when he was 28 years old.

Reign[edit]

Power struggle in Constantinople[edit]

Mehmed III remains notorious even in Ottoman history for having nineteen of his brothers and half-brothers executed to secure power.[2] They were all strangled by his deaf-mutes.

Mehmed III was an idle ruler, leaving government to his mother Safiye Sultan, the valide sultan.[3][unreliable source] His first major problem was the rivalry between two of his viziers, Serdar Ferhad Pasha and Koca Sinan Pasha, and their supporters. His mother and her son-in-law Damat Ibrahim Pasha supported Koca Sinan Pasha, and prevented Mehmed III from taking control of the issue himself. The issue grew to cause major disturbances by janissaries. On 7 July 1595, Mehmed III finally sacked Serdar Ferhad Pasha from the position of Grand Vizier due to his failure in Wallachia and replaced him with Sinan.[4]

Austro-Hungarian War[edit]

The major event of his reign was the Austro-Ottoman War in Hungary (1593–1606). Ottoman defeats in the war caused Mehmed III to take personal command of the army, the first sultan to do so since Suleiman I in 1566. Accompanied by the Sultan, the Ottomans conquered Eger in 1596. Upon hearing of the Habsburg army's approach, Mehmed wanted to dismiss the army and return to Istanbul.[5] However, the Ottomans eventually decided to face the enemy and defeated the Habsburg and Transylvanian forces at the Battle of Keresztes[6] (known in Turkish as the Battle of Haçova), during which the Sultan had to be dissuaded from fleeing the field halfway through the battle. Upon returning to Istanbul in victory, Mehmed told his Vezirs that he would campaign again.[7] The next year the Venetian Bailo in Istanbul noted, "the doctors declared that the Sultan cannot leave for war on account of his bad health, produced by excesses of eating and drinking".[8][unreliable source?]

In reward for his services at the war, Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha was made Grand Vizier in 1596. However, with pressure from the court and his mother, Mehmed reinstated Damat Ibrahim Pasha to this position shortly afterwards.[4]

However, the victory at the Battle of Keresztes was soon set back by some important losses, including the loss of Győr (Turkish: Yanıkkale) to the Austrians and the defeat of the Ottoman forces led by Hafız Ahmet Pasha by the Wallachian forces under Michael the Brave in Nikopol in 1599. In 1600, Ottoman forces under Tiryaki Hasan Pasha captured Nagykanizsa after a 40-day siege and later successfully held it against a much greater attacking force in the Siege of Nagykanizsa.[9]

Jelali revolts[edit]

Another major event of his reign was the Jelali revolts in Anatolia. Karayazıcı Abdülhalim, a former Ottoman official, captured the city of Urfa and declared himself sultan in 1600. The rumors of his claim to the throne spread to Constantinople and Mehmed ordered the rebels to be treated harshly to dispel the rumors, among these was the execution of Hüseyin Pasha, whom Karayazıcı Abdülhalim styled as Grand Vizier. In 1601, Abdülhalim fled to the vicinity of Samsun after being defeated by the forces under Sokulluzade Hasan Pasha, the governor of Baghdad. However, his brother, Deli Hasan, killed Sokulluzade Hasan Pasha and defeated troops under the command of Hadım Hüsrev Pasha. He then marched on to Kütahya, captured and burned the city.[4][9]

Relationship with England[edit]

In 1599, the fourth year of Mehmed III's reign, Queen Elizabeth I sent a convoy of gifts to the Ottoman court. These gifts were originally intended for the sultan's predecessor, Murad III, who had died before they had arrived. Included in these gifts was a large jewel-studded clockwork organ that was assembled on the slope of the Royal Private Garden by a team of engineers including Thomas Dallam. The organ took many weeks to complete and featured dancing sculptures such as a flock of blackbirds that sung and shook their wings at the end of the music.[10][11] The musical clock organ was destroyed by the succeeding Sultan Ahmed I. Also among the English gifts was a ceremonial coach, accompanied by a letter from the Queen to Mehmed's mother, Safiye Sultan. These gifts were intended to cement relations between the two countries, building on the trade agreement signed in 1581 that gave English merchants priority in the Ottoman region.[12] Under the looming threat of Spanish military presence, England was eager to secure an alliance with the Ottomans, the two nations together having the capability to divide the power. Elizabeth's gifts arrived in a large 27-gun merchantman ship that Mehmed personally inspected, a clear display of English maritime strength that would prompt him to build up his fleet over the following years of his reign. The Anglo-Ottoman alliance would never see consummation, however, with relations between the nations growing stagnant due to anti-European sentiments reaped from the worsening Austro-Ottoman War and the deaths of Safiye Sultan's interpreter and the pro-English chief Hasan Pasha.[12][13]

Death[edit]

Mehmed died on 22 December 1603 at the age of 37. According to one source, the cause of his death was the distress caused by the death of his son, Şehzade Mahmud,[14] According to another source he died either of plague or of stroke.[15] He was buried in Hagia Sophia Mosque. He was suceeded by his son Ahmed I as the new Sultan.

Family[edit]

Consorts

Mehmed had three known consorts:

  • Halime Sultan (buried in Mustafa I Mausoleum, Hagia Sophia Mosque, Istanbul);
  • Handan Sultan (died 9 November 1605, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, buried in Mehmed III Mausoleum, Hagia Sophia Mosque);
  • Haseki Sultan (died 1597, during the outbreak of plague, buried in Eyüp Cemetery);[16][17]
Sons
  • Şehzade Sultan Selim[18] (1585, Manisa Palace, Manisa - 20 April 1597, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, buried in Hagia Sophia Mosque) - with Handan;
  • Şehzade Sultan Süleyman[18] (born 1586, Manisa Palace, Manisa, died young, buried in Hagia Sophia Mosque) - with Handan;
  • Sultan Ahmed I (18 April 1590, Manisa Palace, Manisa – 22 November 1617, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, buried in Ahmed I Mausoleum, Sultan Ahmed Mosque), Sultan of the Ottoman Empire - with Handan;
  • Şehzade Sultan Mahmud (Manisa Palace, Manisa – executed by Mehmed III, 7 June 1603, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, buried in Şehzade Mahmud Mausoleum, Şehzade Mosque) - with Halime;[19]
  • Sultan Mustafa I (1591, Manisa Palace, Manisa – 20 January 1639, Eski Palace, Istanbul, buried in Mustafa I Mausoleum, Hagia Sophia Mosque), Sultan of the Ottoman Empire - with Halime;
  • A son who died in second year of his life, after Selim's death.[18]
  • Şehzade Sultan Cihangir[18] (1599, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul – 1602, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, buried in Hagia Sophia Mosque);
  • Şehzade Sultan Osman (died aged three or four);[18]
Alleged son
Daughters
  • a daughter from Halime Sultan, married in 1604 to Damat Kara Davud Pasha, Grand Vizier;[21]
  • another daughter from Halime Sultan, married firstly in 1604 to Damat Mirahur Mustafa Pasha, married secondly in 1612 to Damat Mahmud Pasha, son of Cigalazade Sinan Pasha;[21]
  • A daughter, married in 1612 to Damat Halil Pasha;[22]
  • A daughter, married in 1616 to Damat Ali Pasha, Vizier;[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peirce, Leslie P. (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 94. ISBN 0-19-507673-7. Murad's favorite was Safiye, a concubine said to be of Albanian origin from the village of Rezi in the Ducagini mountains. 
  2. ^ Quataert, Donald. The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922, p.90. Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-63328-1
  3. ^ Kinross, p.288
  4. ^ a b c "Mehmed III". İslam Ansiklopedisi. 28. Türk Diyanet Vakfı. 2003. pp. 407–413. 
  5. ^ Karateke, Hakan T. "On the Tranquility and Repose of the Sultan." The Ottoman World. Ed. Christine Woodhead. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge, 2011. p. 120.
  6. ^ Finkel, Caroline. Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, p.175. Basic Books, 2005. ISBN 0-465-02396-7
  7. ^ Karateke, p. 122.
  8. ^ Goodwin, Jason. Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire, p.166. New York: Henry Holt & Company.
  9. ^ a b "Mehmed III". Büyük Larousse. 15. Milliyet Newspaper Press. pp. 7927–8. 
  10. ^ Malcolm, Noel (2004-05-02). "How fear turned to fascination". London: telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  11. ^ Jean Giullou: Die Orgel. Erinnerung und Vision.Christoph Glatter-Götz 1984 p. 35 with image
  12. ^ a b "An eye for detail". BBC News. December 21, 2007. 
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ Güzel, Hasan Celâl; Oğuz, Cem; Karatay, Osman (2002). The Turks: Ottomans (2 v. ). 
  15. ^ Börekçi, Günhan (2010). Factions And Favorites At The Courts Of Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603-17) And His Immediate Predexessors. pp. 89, n. 25. 
  16. ^ Disease and Empire: A History of Plague Epidemics in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire (1453--1600). ProQuest. 2008. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-549-74445-0. 
  17. ^ Ipşırlı, Mehmet (June 1976). Mustafa Selaniki's history of the Ottomans. p. 172. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Tezcan, Baki. Searchimg For Osman: A Reassessment Of The Deposition Of Ottoman Sultan Osman II (1618-1622). pp. 330 and n. 29. 
  19. ^ Börekçi, Günhan. İnkırâzın Eşiğinde Bir Hanedan: III. Mehmed, I. Ahmed, I. Mustafa ve 17. Yüzyıl Osmanlı Siyasî Krizi - A Dynasty at the Threshold of Extinction: Mehmed III, Ahmed I, Mustafa I and the 17th-Century Ottoman Political Crisis. p. 78. 
  20. ^ Ostapchuk, Victor (1989). The Ottoman Black Sea Frontier and the Relations of the Porte with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy: 1622-1628. Harvard University. p. 92. 
  21. ^ a b Tezcan, Baki. The Debut Of Kösem Sultan's Political Career. p. 357. 
  22. ^ And, Metin (1982). Osmanlı şenliklerinde Türk sanatları. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı. p. 16. 
  23. ^ Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2008). Bu mülkün kadın sultanları: Vâlide sultanlar, hâtunlar, hasekiler, kadınefendiler, sultanefendiler. Oğlak Yayıncılık. p. 303. ISBN 978-9-753-29623-6. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Mehmed III at Wikimedia Commons

Mehmed III
Born: May 26, 1566 Died: December 22, 1603[aged 37]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Murad III
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
January 15, 1595 – December 22, 1603
Succeeded by
Ahmed I
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Murad III
Caliph of Islam
January 15, 1595 – December 22, 1603
Succeeded by
Ahmed I