|Caliph of Islam
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Photograph of Mehmet VI by Sébah & Joaillier, c. 1920
|28th Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate|
|Reign||3 July 1918 – 19 November 1922|
|36th and last Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)|
|Reign||3 July 1918 – 1 November 1922|
|Sword girding||4 July 1918|
|Successor||Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (as President of Turkey)|
|Head of the House of Osman
|Pretence||19 November 1922 – 16 May 1926|
14 January 1861|
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
|Died||16 May 1926
|Issue||From the 1st marriage:
Princess Münire Sultan
Princess Fenire Sultan
Princess Fatma Ulviye Sultan
Princess Rukiye Sabiha Sultan Hanım Efendi
From the 3rd marriage:
Prince Mehmed Ertuğrul Efendi
|Royal styles of
|Reference style||His Imperial Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Imperial Majesty|
Mehmed VI (Ottoman Turkish: محمد السادس Meḥmed-i sâdis, وحيد الدين Vahideddin, Turkish: Vahideddin or VI. Mehmed), who is also known as Şahbaba (meaning "Emperor-father") among his relatives, (14 January 1861 – 16 May 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922. The brother of Mehmed V, he succeeded to the throne as the eldest male member of the House of Osman after the 1916 suicide of Abdülaziz's son Yusuf Izzettin Efendi, the heir to the throne. He was girded with the Sword of Osman on 4 June 1918, as the thirty-sixth padishah. His father was Sultan Abdülmecid I and mother was Gülüstü (1831 – May 1861), an ethnic Abkhazian, daughter of Prince Tahir Bey Çaçba and his wife Afişe Lakerba, originally named Fatma Çaçba. Mehmed was removed from the throne when the Ottoman sultanate was abolished in 1922.
The First World War was a disaster for the Ottoman Empire. British and allied forces had conquered Baghdad, Damascus, and Jerusalem during the war and most of the Empire was divided among the European allies. At the San Remo conference of April 1920, the French were granted a mandate over Syria and the British were granted one over Palestine and Mesopotamia. On 10 August 1920, Mehmed's representatives signed the Treaty of Sèvres, which recognized the mandates and recognized Hejaz as an independent state.
Turkish nationalists rejected the settlement by the Sultan's four signatories. A new government, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) was formed on 23 April 1920, in Ankara (then known as Angora). The new government denounced the rule of Imperial Sultan Mehmed VI and a temporary constitution was drafted.
Exile and death
The Turkish Grand National Assembly abolished the Sultanate on 1 November 1922, and Mehmed was expelled from Istanbul. Leaving aboard the British warship Malaya on 17 November, he went into exile in Malta; Mehmed later lived on the Italian Riviera.
On 19 November 1922, Mehmed's first cousin and heir Abdülmecid Efendi was elected Caliph, becoming the new head of the Imperial House of Osman as Abdülmecid II before the Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly in 1924.
Marriages and issue
First marriage and issue
He married firstly at the Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, on 8 June 1885 to Abkhazian HH Emine Nazikedâ Kadınefendi (Sukhum, Abkhazia, 9 October 1866 - Maadi, Cairo, 4 April 1944 and buried there), née Fatma Emine Marşania, daughter of Prince Hasan Ali Bey Marşan by his wife Princess Fatma Horecan Hanım Aredba, and had four children:
- Princess Münire Sultan (1886 - 1888).
- Princess Fenire Sultan (1888 - 1888).
- Princess Fatma Ulviye Sultan (11 September 1892, Ortaköy Palace, Ortaköy, Istanbul, – 25 January 1967, İzmir and buried at Çengelköy, Üsküdar, Istanbul, first married to HE Damat Ismail Hakki Okday Beyefendi (Athens, 28 October 1881 - Istanbul, 11 October 1977) at the Kurucheshme Palace, Istanbul, on 10 August 1916, with issue; second marriage to Damat Ali Haidar Beyefendi (Göztepe, Istanbul, 20 September 1889 – Istanbul, 5 February 1962) at the Nişantaşı Palace, Nişantaşı, Pera (today Beyoğlu), on 1 November 1923, also with issue.
- Princess Rukiye Sabiha Sultan Hanım Efendi (the Ortaköy Palace, Ortaköy, Istanbul, 19 March/1 April 1894 – Istanbul, 26 August 1971), married to her cousin Prince Şehzade Ömer Faruk Efendi (the Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, 27/29 February 1898 – 28 March 1969/1971), son of Abdülmecid II, at the Yıldız Palace, Istanbul, on 29 April 1920 as his first wife. Their issue was:
- Princess Fatma Neslişah Osmanoğlu Sultan (Istanbul, Nişantaşı, Nişantaşı Palace, 4 February 1921 – 1 April 2012), married in Heliopolis Palace, Cairo, 26 September 1940 to her cousin Damat Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim Beyefendi (Alexandria, Montaza Palace, 20 February 1899 – Istanbul, 1/2 December 1979, buried in Cairo), Heir Apparent to the Throne of Egypt from 1899 to 1914, created HH in 1922, created HRH in 1952, Regent of Egypt from 1952 to 1953, and had issue.
- Zehra Hanzade Sultan married with Issue.
- Necla Hibetullah Sultan married with Issue.
He married secondly at the Çengelköy Palace, Çengelköy, Üsküdar, Istanbul, on 8 July 1905 and divorced on 7 November 1909 to Ubykh HH Inşirah Hanımefendi (Batumi, 10 July 1887 - Cairo, 30 June 1930), née Seniye Voçibe, daughter of Zekeriya Aziz Bey Voçibe, without issue.
Third marriage and issue
He married thirdly at the Çengelköy Palace, Çengelköy, Üsküdar, Istanbul, on 25 April 1911 to Abkhazian HH Müveddet Kadınefendi (Adapazarı, 12 October 1893 – Çengelköy Palace, Çengelköy, Üsküdar, Istanbul, 1951 and buried there), née Şadiye Çıhçı, daughter of Kato Davut Bey Çıhcı by his wife Ayşe Hanım, and had:
- Prince Şehzade Ertuğrul Mehmed Efendi (Çengelköy Palace, Çengelköy, Üsküdar, Istanbul, 5 September 1912 – Cairo, 2 July 1944). No Issue.
His married fourthly at the Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, on 20 June 1918 and divorced on 20 May 1924, to Abkhazian HH Nevvare Hanımefendi (Adapazarı, 4 May 1901 – 13 June 1992 ), née Ayşe Çıhçı, daughter of Mustafa Bey Çıhcı by his wife Hafize Hanım Kap, without issue.
He married fifthly at the Yıldız Palace, Istanbul, on 1 September 1921, to Turkish HH Nimet Nevzad Hanımefendi (Istanbul, 2 March 1900 – 23 June 1992) daughter of Şaban Efendi Bargu by his wife Hatice Hanım, without issue.
Titles and styles
- Freely, John, Inside the Seraglio, 1999, Chapter 16: The Year of Three Sultans.
- Harun Açba (2007). Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924. Profil. ISBN 978-9-759-96109-1.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), The Encyclopædia Britannica, 7 (3),
Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire.
- Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.
- Freely, John, Inside the Seraglio, published 1999, Chapter 19: The Gathering Place of the Jinns
- Fromkin, David, 1989. A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East ISBN 0-8050-0857-8
Media related to Mehmed VI at Wikimedia Commons
- on YouTube
Mehmed VIBorn: 14 January 1861 Died: 16 May 1926
|Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
3 July 1918 – 1 November 1922
|Sunni Islam titles|
|Caliph of Islam
3 July 1918 – 19 November 1922
|Titles in pretence|
|— TITULAR —
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
1 November 1922 – 19 November 1922