Coordinates: 29°23′N 67°37′E / 29.383°N 67.617°E / 29.383; 67.617
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ruins of houses at Mehrgarh, Balochistan
Mehrgahr is located in Balochistan, Pakistan
Location within the Pakistani province of Balochistan
Mehrgahr is located in Pakistan
Location within Pakistan
Mehrgahr is located in South Asia
Mehrgahr (South Asia)
Alternative nameMehrgahr, Merhgarh, Merhgahr
LocationBalochistan, Pakistan
RegionSouth Asia
Coordinates29°23′N 67°37′E / 29.383°N 67.617°E / 29.383; 67.617
Foundedc. 7000 BCE
Abandonedc. 2600 BCE
Site notes
Excavation dates1974–1986, 1997–2000
ArchaeologistsJean-François Jarrige, Catherine Jarrige
Followed by: Early Harappan period

Mehrgarh is a Neolithic archaeological site (dated c. 7000 BCEc. 2500/2000 BCE) situated on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan in modern-day Pakistan.[1] It is located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River and between the modern-day Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi. The site was discovered in 1974 by the French Archaeological Mission[2] led by the French archaeologists Jean-François Jarrige and his wife, Catherine Jarrige. Mehrgarh was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986,[3] and again from 1997 to 2000.[4] Archaeological material has been found in six mounds, and about 32,000 artifacts have been collected from the site. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh, located in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site, was a small farming village dated between 7000 BCE and 5500 BCE.


Mehrgarh is one of the earliest known site in South Asia showing evidence of farming and herding.[5][6][note 1] It was influenced by the Neolithic culture of the Near East,[16] with similarities between "domesticated wheat varieties, early phases of farming, pottery, other archaeological artefacts, some domesticated plants and herd animals."[17][note 2] According to Asko Parpola, the culture migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation of the Bronze Age.[18]

Jean-Francois Jarrige argues for an independent origin of Mehrgarh. Jarrige notes "the assumption that farming economy was introduced full-fledged from Near-East to South Asia,"[19][note 2] and the similarities between Neolithic sites from eastern Mesopotamia and the western Indus Valley, which are evidence of a "cultural continuum" between those sites. However, given the originality of Mehrgarh, Jarrige concludes that Mehrgarh has an earlier local background," and is not a "'backwater' of the Neolithic culture of the Near East."[19]

Site location of Mehrgarh

Lukacs and Hemphill suggest an initial local development of Mehrgarh, with continuity in cultural development but a population change.[35] According to Lukacs and Hemphill, while there is a strong continuity between the Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures of Mehrgarh, dental evidence shows that the Chalcolithic population did not descend from the Neolithic population of Mehrgarh,[36] which "suggests moderate levels of gene flow."[36] They wrote that "the direct lineal descendants of the Neolithic inhabitants of Mehrgarh are to be found to the south and the east of Mehrgarh, Pakistan in northwestern India and the western edge of the Deccan Plateau," with Neolithic Mehrgarh showing greater affinity with Chalcolithic Inamgaon, south of Mehrgarh, than with Chalcolithic Mehrgarh.[36][note 3]

Gallego Romero et al. (2011) state that their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Pakistan, Iran and the Middle East."[39] Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation."[40] According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India – likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found."[40] They further note that "[t]he earliest evidence of cattle herding in south Asia comes from the Indus River Valley site of Mehrgarh and is dated to 7,000 YBP."[39][note 4]

Periods of occupation[edit]

Archaeologists divide the occupation at the site into eight periods.

Mehrgarh Period I (pre-7000–5500 BCE)[edit]

The Mehrgarh Period I (pre-7000–5500 BCE)[note 5] was Neolithic and aceramic (without the use of pottery). The earliest farming in the area was developed by semi-nomadic people using plants such as wheat and barley and animals such as sheep, goats and cattle. The settlement was established with unbaked mud-brick buildings and most of them had four internal subdivisions. Numerous burials have been found, many with elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles, pendants, and occasionally animal sacrifices, with more goods left with burials of males. Ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli and sandstone have been found, along with simple figurines of women and animals. Seashells from far seashores, and lapis lazuli from as far away as present-day Badakshan, show good contact with those areas. One ground stone axe was discovered in a burial, and several more were obtained from the surface. These ground stone axes are the earliest to come from a stratified context in South Asia.

Periods I, II, and III are considered contemporaneous with another site called Kili Gul Mohammad.[43] The aceramic Neolithic phase in the region had originally been called the Kili Gul Muhammad phase. While the Kili Gul Muhammad site itself probably started c. 5500 BCE, subsequent discoveries allowed the date range of 7000–5000 BCE to be defined for this aceramic Neolithic phase.[44]

In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of nine men from Mehrgarh discovered that the people of this civilization knew proto-dentistry. In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region. "Here we describe eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Pakistan that dates from 7,500 to 9,000 years ago. These findings provide evidence for a long tradition of a type of proto-dentistry in early farming culture."[45]

Mehrgarh Period II (5500–4800 BCE) and Period III (4800–3500 BCE)[edit]

The Mehrgarh Period II (5500 BCE4800 BCE) and Merhgarh Period III (4800 BCE3500 BCE) were ceramic Neolithic, using pottery, and later chalcolithic. Period II is at site MR4 and Period III is at MR2.[46] Much evidence of manufacturing activity has been found and more advanced techniques were used. Glazed faience beads were produced and terracotta figurines became more detailed. Figurines of females were decorated with paint and had diverse hairstyles and ornaments. Two flexed burials were found in Period II with a red ochre cover on the body. The number of burial goods decreased over time, becoming limited to ornaments and with more goods left with burials of females. The first button seals were produced from terracotta and bone and had geometric designs. Technologies included stone and copper drills, updraft kilns, large pit kilns, and copper melting crucibles. There is further evidence of long-distance trade in Period II: important as an indication of this is the discovery of several beads of lapis lazuli, once again from Badakshan. Mehrgarh Periods II and III are also contemporaneous with an expansion of the settled populations of the borderlands at the western edge of South Asia, including the establishment of settlements like Rana Ghundai, Sheri Khan Tarakai, Sarai Kala, Jalilpur, and Ghaligai.[46]

Period III was not much explored, but it was found that Togau phase (c. 4000–3500 BCE) was part of this level, covering around 100 hectares in the areas MR.2, MR.4, MR.5 and MR.6, encompassing ruins, burial and dumping grounds, but archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige concluded that "such wide extension was not due to contemporaneous occupation, but rather due to the shift and partial superimposition in time of several villages or settlement clusters across a span of several centuries."[47]

Togau phase[edit]

At the beginning of Mehrgarh III, Togau ceramics appeared at the site. Togau ware was first defined by Beatrice de Cardi in 1948. Togau is a large mound in the Chhappar Valley of Sarawan, 12 kilometers northwest of Kalat in Balochistan. This type of pottery is found widely in Balochistan and eastern Afghanistan, at sites such as Mundigak, Sheri Khan Tarakai, and Periano Ghundai. According to Possehl it is attested at 84 sites up to date.[when?] Anjira is a contemporary ancient site near Togau.[48]

Togau ceramics are decorated with geometric designs and were already being made with a potter's wheel.

Mehrgarh Period III, during the second half of the 4th millennium BCE, is characterized by important new developments. There is a big increase in the number of settlements in the Quetta Valley, the Surab Region, the Kachhi Plain and elsewhere in the area. Kili Ghul Mohammad (II−III) pottery is similar to Togau Ware.[49]

Mehrgarh Periods IV, V and VI (3500–3000 BCE)[edit]

Period IV was 3500–3250 BCE, Period V from 3250–3000 BCE, and Period VI was around 3000 BCE.[50] The site containing Periods IV to VII is designated as MR1.[46]

Mehrgarh Period VII (2600–2000 BCE)[edit]

Sometime between 2600 BCE and 2000 BCE, the city seems to have been largely abandoned in favor of the larger fortified town Nausharo five miles away, when the Indus Valley civilisation was in its middle stages of development. Historian Michael Wood suggests this took place around 2500 BCE.[51]

Archaeologist Massimo Vidale considers a series of semi-columns found in a structure at Mehrgarh, dated around 2500 BCE by the French mission there, to be very similar to semi-columns found in Period IV at Shahr-e Sukhteh.[52]: min.12:10 

Mehrgarh Period VIII[edit]

The last period is found at the Sibri cemetery, about 8 kilometers from Mehrgarh.[46]

Lifestyle and technology[edit]

Early Mehrgarh residents lived in mud brick houses, stored their grain in granaries, fashioned tools with local copper ore, and lined their large basket containers with bitumen. They cultivated six-row barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle. Residents of the later period (5500 BCE to 2600 BCE) put much effort into crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metal working.[53] Mehrgarh is probably the earliest known center of agriculture in South Asia.[54]

The oldest known example of the lost-wax technique comes from a 6,000-year-old wheel-shaped copper amulet found at Mehrgarh. The amulet was made from unalloyed copper, an unusual innovation that was later abandoned.[55]


Seated Mother Goddess, 3000–2500 BCE. Mehrgarh.[56]

Human figurines[edit]

The oldest ceramic figurines in South Asia were also found at Mehrgarh. They occur in all phases of the settlement and were prevalent even before pottery appears. The earliest figurines are quite simple and do not show intricate features. However, they grow in sophistication with time, and by 4000 BCE begins to show their characteristic hairstyles and typical prominent breasts. All the figurines up to this period were female. Male figurines appear only from period VII and gradually become more numerous. Many of the female figurines are holding babies, and were interpreted as depictions of a mother goddess. However, due to some difficulties in conclusively identifying these figurines with a mother goddess, some scholars prefer using the term "female figurines with likely cultic significance".[57][58][59]


Mehrgarh painted pottery, 3000–2500 BCE[60]

Evidence of pottery begins from Period II. In Period III, the finds become much more abundant as the potter's wheel is introduced, and they show more intricate designs and also animal motifs.[46] The characteristic female figurines appear beginning in Period IV and the finds show more intricate designs and sophistication. Pipal leaf designs are used in decoration from Period VI.[61] Some sophisticated firing techniques were used from Periods VI and VII and an area reserved for the pottery industry has been found at mound MR1. However, by Period VIII, the quality and intricacy of designs seem to have suffered due to mass production, and a growing interest in bronze and copper vessels.[50]


There are two types of burials in the Mehrgarh site. There were individual burials where a single individual was enclosed in narrow mud walls and collective burials with thin mud-brick walls within which skeletons of six different individuals were discovered. The bodies in the collective burials were kept in a flexed position and were laid east to west. Child bones were found in large jars or urn burials (4000–3300 BCE).[62]


Metal findings have been dated as early as Period IIB, with a few copper items.[46][61]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Excavations at Bhirrana, Haryana, in India between 2006 and 2009, by archaeologist K. N. Dikshit, provided six artifacts, including "relatively advanced pottery," so-called Hakra ware, which were dated at a time bracket between 7380 and 6201 BCE.[7][8][9][10] These dates compete with Mehrgarh for being the oldest site for cultural remains in the area.[11]

    Yet, Dikshit and Mani clarify that this time-bracket concerns only charcoal samples, which were radio-carbon dated at respectively 7570–7180 BCE (sample 2481) and 6689–6201 BCE (sample 2333).[12][13] Dikshit further writes that the earliest phase concerns 14 shallow dwelling-pits which "could accommodate about 3–4 people."[14] According to Dikshit, in the lowest level of these pits wheel-made Hakra Ware was found which was "not well finished,"[14] together with other wares.[15]
  2. ^ a b According to Gangal et al. (2014), there is strong archeological and geographical evidence that neolithic farming spread from the Near East into north-west India.[16][20] Gangal et al. (2014):[16] "There are several lines of evidence that support the idea of a connection between the Neolithic in the Near East and the subcontinent. The prehistoric site of Mehrgarh in Baluchistan (modern Pakistan) is the earliest Neolithic site in the northwest of the subcontinent, dated as early as 8500 BCE.[18][21]

    Neolithic domesticated crops in Mehrgarh include more than 90% barley and a small amount of wheat. There is good evidence for the local domestication of barley and the zebu cattle at Mehrgarh [19],[22] [20],[23] but the wheat varieties are suggested to be of Near-Eastern origin, as the modern distribution of wild varieties of wheat is limited to Northern Levant and Southern Turkey [21].[24] A detailed satellite map study of a few archaeological sites in the Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa regions also suggests similarities in early phases of farming with sites in Western Asia [22].[25] Pottery prepared by sequential slab construction, circular fire pits filled with burnt pebbles, and large granaries are common to both Mehrgarh and many Mesopotamian sites [23].[26] The postures of the skeletal remains in graves at Mehrgarh bear strong resemblance to those at Ali Kosh in the Zagros Mountains of southern Iran [19].[22] Clay figurines found in Mehrgarh resemble those discovered at Teppe Zagheh on the Qazvin plain south of the Elburz range in Iran (the 7th millennium BCE) and Jeitun in Turkmenistan (the 6th millennium BCE) [24].[27] Strong arguments have been made for the Near-Eastern origin of some domesticated plants and herd animals at Jeitun in Turkmenistan (pp. 225–227 in [25]).[28]

    The Near East is separated from the Indus Valley by the arid plateaus, ridges, and deserts of Iran and Afghanistan, where rainfall agriculture is possible only in the foothills and cul-de-sac valleys [26].[29] Nevertheless, this area was not an insurmountable obstacle for the dispersal of the Neolithic. The route south of the Caspian sea is a part of the Silk Road, some sections of which were in use from at least 3,000 BCE, connecting Badakhshan (north-eastern Afghanistan and south-eastern Tajikistan) with Western Asia, Egypt, and India [27].[30] Similarly, the section from Badakhshan to the Mesopotamian plains (the Great Khorasan Road) was apparently functioning by 4,000 BCE, and numerous prehistoric sites are located along with it, whose assemblages are dominated by the Cheshmeh-Ali (Tehran Plain) ceramic technology, forms and designs [26].[29] Striking similarities in figurines and pottery styles, and mud-brick shapes, between widely separated early Neolithic sites in the Zagros Mountains of north-western Iran (Jarmo and Sarab), the Deh Luran Plain in southwestern Iran (Tappeh Ali Kosh and Chogha Sefid), Susiana (Chogha Bonus and Chogha Mish), the Iranian Central Plateau (Tappeh-Sang-e Chakhmaq), and Turkmenistan (Jeitun) suggest a common incipient culture [28].[31] The Neolithic dispersal across South Asia plausibly involved migration of the population ([29][32] and [25], pp. 231–233).[28] This possibility is also supported by Y-chromosome and mtDNA analyses [30],[33] [31]."[34]
  3. ^ Genetic research shows a complex pattern of human migrations.[20] Kivisild et al. (1999) note that "a small fraction of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture."[37] at c. 9,300 ± 3,000 years before present,[38] which coincides with "the arrival to India of cereals domesticated in the Fertile Crescent" and "lends credence to the suggested linguistic connection between the Elamite and Dravidic populations."[38] Singh et al. (2016) investigated the distribution of J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 in South Asia, which "suggested a complex scenario that cannot be explained by a single wave of agricultural expansion from Near East to South Asia,"[20] but also notes that "regardless of the complexity of dispersal, NW region appears to be the corridor for entry of these haplogroups into India."[20]
  4. ^ Gallego Romero et al. (2011) refer to (Meadow 1993):[39] Meadow RH. 1993. Animal domestication in the Middle East: a revised view from the eastern margin. In: Possehl G, editor. Harappan civilization. New Delhi (India): Oxford University Press and India Book House. p 295–320.[41]
  5. ^ Jarrige: "Though it is difficult to date precisely the beginning of Period I, it can be rather securely assessed that the first occupation of Mehrgarh has to be put in a context probably earlier than 7000 BC."[42]


  1. ^ "Stone age man used dentist drill". Archived from the original on 5 May 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2006.
  2. ^ "French Archaeological Mission in the Indus Basin". Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  3. ^ Jarrige, Catherine; Jarrige, Jean-François; Meadow, Richard; Quivron, Gonzague (1995). Mehrgarh.
  4. ^ Jarrige, Jean-François; Jarrige, Catherine; Quivron, Gonzague; Wengler, Luc; Castillo, David Sarmiento (2013). Mehrgarh. Vol. Serie Indus-Balochistan.
  5. ^ UNESCO World Heritage. 2004. " Archived 26 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Archaeological Site of Mehrgarh
  6. ^ Hirst, K. Kris. 2005. "Mehrgarh" Archived 18 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Guide to Archaeology
  7. ^ "Archeologists confirm Indian civilization is 2000 years older than previously believed, Jason Overdorf, Globalpost, 28 November 2012". Archived from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  8. ^ "Indus Valley 2,000 years older than thought". 4 November 2012. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015.
  9. ^ "Archeologists confirm Indian civilization is 8000 years old, Jhimli Mukherjee Pandey, Times of India, 29 May 2016". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  10. ^ "History What their lives reveal". 4 January 2013. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  11. ^ "Haryana's Bhirrana oldest Harappan site, Rakhigarhi Asia's largest: ASI". The Times of India. 15 April 2015. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  12. ^ Dikshit 2013, p. 132, 131.
  13. ^ Mani 2008, p. 237.
  14. ^ a b Dikshit 2013, p. 129.
  15. ^ Dikshit 2013, p. 130.
  16. ^ a b c Gangal, Sarson & Shukurov 2014.
  17. ^ Singh 2016, p. 5.
  18. ^ Parpola 2015, p. 17.
  19. ^ a b Jean-Francois Jarrige Mehrgarh Neolithic Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Paper presented in the International Seminar on the "First Farmers in Global Perspective," Lucknow, India, 18–20 January 2006
  20. ^ a b c d Singh 2016.
  21. ^ Possehl GL (1999) Indus Age: The Beginnings. Philadelphia: Univ. Pennsylvania Press.
  22. ^ a b Jarrige JF (2008) Mehrgarh Neolithic. Pragdhara 18: 136–154
  23. ^ Costantini L (2008) The first farmers in Western Pakistan: the evidence of the Neolithic agropastoral settlement of Mehrgarh. Pragdhara 18: 167–178
  24. ^ Fuller DQ (2006) Agricultural origins and frontiers in South Asia: a working synthesis. J World Prehistory 20: 1–86
  25. ^ Petrie, CA; Thomas, KD (2012). "The topographic and environmental context of the earliest village sites in western South Asia". Antiquity. 86 (334): 1055–1067. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00048249. S2CID 131732322.
  26. ^ Goring-Morris, AN; Belfer-Cohen, A (2011). "Neolithization processes in the Levant: the outer envelope". Curr Anthropol. 52: S195–S208. doi:10.1086/658860. S2CID 142928528.
  27. ^ Jarrige C (2008) The figurines of the first farmers at Mehrgarh and their offshoots. Pragdhara 18: 155–166
  28. ^ a b Harris DR (2010) Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia: An Environmental-Archaeological Study. Philadelphia: Univ. Pennsylvania Press.
  29. ^ a b Hiebert FT, Dyson RH (2002) Prehistoric Nishapur and the frontier between Central Asia and Iran. Iranica Antiqua XXXVII: 113–149
  30. ^ Kuzmina EE, Mair VH (2008) The Prehistory of the Silk Road. Philadelphia: Univ. Pennsylvania Press
  31. ^ Alizadeh A (2003) Excavations at the prehistoric mound of Chogha Bonus, Khuzestan, Iran. Technical report, University of Chicago, Illinois.
  32. ^ Dolukhanov P (1994) Environment and Ethnicity in the Ancient Middle East. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  33. ^ Quintana-Murci, L; Krausz, C; Zerjal, T; Sayar, SH; Hammer, MF; et al. (2001). "Y-chromosome lineages trace diffusion of people and languages in Southwestern Asia". Am J Hum Genet. 68 (2): 537–542. doi:10.1086/318200. PMC 1235289. PMID 11133362.
  34. ^ Quintana-Murci, L; Chaix, R; Spencer Wells, R; Behar, DM; Sayar, H; et al. (2004). "Where West meets East: the complex mtDNA landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian corridor". Am J Hum Genet. 74 (5): 827–845. doi:10.1086/383236. PMC 1181978. PMID 15077202.
  35. ^ Brian E. Hemphill, John R. Lukacs, K.A.R. Kennedy, Biological Adaptations and Affinities of Bronze Age Harappans. Archived 24 July 2022 at the Wayback Machine Chapter 11 of Harappa Excavation Reports 1986-1990
  36. ^ a b c Coningham & Young 2015, p. 114.
  37. ^ Kivisild 1999, p. 1331.
  38. ^ a b Kivisild 1999, p. 1333.
  39. ^ a b c Gallego Romero 2011, p. 9.
  40. ^ a b "Rob Mitchum (2011), Lactose Tolerance in the Indian Dairyland, ScienceLife". Archived from the original on 6 December 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  41. ^ Gallego Romero 2011, p. 12.
  42. ^ Jean-Francois Jarrige (2006), Mehrgarh Neolithic Archived 15 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine; paper presented in the International Seminar on the "First Farmers in the Global Perspective", Lucknow India 18–20 January 2006. Published in 2008 as Mehrgarh Neolithic, Pragdhara 18:136-154; see page 151.
  43. ^ Shaffer, J.G.; Thapar, B.K. "Pre-Indus and Early Indus Cultures of Pakistan and India" (PDF). UNESCO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  44. ^ Mukhtar Ahmed, Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History. Archived 9 July 2022 at the Wayback Machine Volume II: A Prelude to Civilization. Amazon, 2014 ISBN 1495941302 p. 387
  45. ^ Coppa, A. et al. 2006. "Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry: Flint tips were surprisingly effective for drilling tooth enamel in a prehistoric population." Archived 27 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine Nature. Volume 440. 6 April 2006.
  46. ^ a b c d e f Sharif, M; Thapar, B. K. (1999). "Food-producing Communities in Pakistan and Northern India". In Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson (ed.). History of civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 128–137. ISBN 978-81-208-1407-3. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  47. ^ Vidale, Massimo, et al., (2017). "Early Evidence of Bead-Making at Mehrgarh, Pakistan: A Tribute to the Scientific Curiosity of Catherine and Jean-François Jarrige" Archived 22 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine, in Alok Kumar Kanungo (ed.), Stone Beads of South and Southeast Asia: Archaeology, Ethnography and Global Connections, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar, p. 234.
  48. ^ Mukhtar Ahmed, Ancient Pakistan - An Archaeological History. Archived 25 March 2022 at the Wayback Machine Volume II: A Prelude to Civilization. 2014 ISBN 1495941302 p392
  49. ^ Ute Franke (2015), Central Baluchistan in the 4th Millennium BCE. Archived 9 July 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ a b Maisels, Charles Keith. Early Civilizations of the Old World. Routledge. pp. 190–193.
  51. ^ Wood, Michael (2005). In Search of the First Civilizations. BBC Books. p. 257. ISBN 978-0563522669. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  52. ^ Vidale, Massimo, (15 March 2021). "A Warehouse in 3rd Millennium B.C. Sistan and Its Accounting Technology" Archived 22 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine, in Seminar "Early Urbanization in Iran".
  53. ^ Possehl, Gregory L. 1996. "Mehrgarh". Oxford Companion to Archaeology, edited by Brian Fagan. Oxford University Press
  54. ^ Meadow, Richard H. (1996). David R. Harris (ed.). The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia. Psychology Press. pp. 393–. ISBN 978-1-85728-538-3. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  55. ^ Thoury, M.; et al. (2016). "High spatial dynamics-photoluminescence imaging reveals the metallurgy of the earliest lost-wax cast object". Nature Communications. 7: 13356. Bibcode:2016NatCo...713356T. doi:10.1038/ncomms13356. PMC 5116070. PMID 27843139.
  56. ^ "MET". Archived from the original on 18 October 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  57. ^ Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. pp. 130–. ISBN 9788131711200. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  58. ^ Sarah M. Nelson (February 2007). Worlds of gender: the archaeology of women's lives around the globe. Rowman Altamira. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-0-7591-1084-7. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  59. ^ Sharif, M; Thapar, B. K. (January 1999). "Food-producing Communities in Pakistan and Northern India". History of civilizations of Central Asia. pp. 254–256. ISBN 9788120814073. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  60. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art". Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  61. ^ a b Upinder Singh (1 September 2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 103–105. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0. Archived from the original on 28 July 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  62. ^ Dibyopama, Astha; et al. (2015). "Human Skeletal Remains from Ancient Burial Sites in India: With Special Reference to Harappan Civilization". Korean J Phys Anthropol. 28 (1): 1–9. doi:10.11637/kjpa.2015.28.1.1.


Further reading[edit]


Indus Valley Civilization[edit]

South Asia[edit]

South Asia paleoanthropology[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Global history[edit]



External links[edit]