Dust jacket of 1926–1927 edition
|Genre||Autobiography, Political theory|
|18 July 1925|
Published in English
|13 October 1933 (abridged)
|Followed by||Zweites Buch (unpublished)|
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
Part of Jewish history
Mein Kampf (pronounced [maɪ̯n kampf], "My Struggle") is an autobiographical manifesto by National Socialist leader Adolf Hitler, in which he outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926. The book was edited by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess.
Hitler began dictating the book to Hess while imprisoned for what he considered to be "political crimes" following his failed Putsch in Munich in November 1923. Although Hitler received many visitors initially, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book. As he continued, Hitler realized that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume scheduled for release in early 1925. The governor of Landsberg noted at the time that "he [Hitler] hopes the book will run into many editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial."
- 1 Title
- 2 Contents
- 3 Analysis
- 4 Popularity
- 5 Contemporary observations
- 6 German publication history
- 7 English translations
- 8 Sales and royalties
- 9 Current availability
- 10 Sequel
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Hitler originally wanted to call his forthcoming book Viereinhalb Jahre (des Kampfes) gegen Lüge, Dummheit und Feigheit, or Four and a Half Years (of Struggle) Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice. Max Amann, head of the Franz Eher Verlag and Hitler's publisher, is said to have suggested the much shorter "Mein Kampf" or "My Struggle".
The arrangement of chapters is as follows:
- Volume One: A Reckoning
- Chapter 1: In the House of my Parents
- Chapter 2: Years of Study and Suffering in Vienna
- Chapter 3: General Political Considerations Based on my Vienna Period
- Chapter 4: Munich
- Chapter 5: The World War
- Chapter 6: War Propaganda
- Chapter 7: The Revolution
- Chapter 8: The Beginning of my Political Activity
- Chapter 9: The "German Workers' Party"
- Chapter 10: Causes of the Collapse
- Chapter 11: Nation and Race
- Chapter 12: The First Period of Development of the National Socialist German Workers' Party
- Volume Two: The National Socialist Movement
- Chapter 1: Philosophy and Party
- Chapter 2: The State
- Chapter 3: Subjects and Citizens
- Chapter 4: Personality and the Conception of the Völkisch State
- Chapter 5: Philosophy and Organization
- Chapter 6: The Struggle of the Early Period – the Significance of the Spoken Word
- Chapter 7: The Struggle with the Red Front
- Chapter 8: The Strong Man Is Mightiest Alone
- Chapter 9: Basic Ideas Regarding the Meaning and Organization of the Sturmabteilung
- Chapter 10: Federalism as a Mask
- Chapter 11: Propaganda and Organization
- Chapter 12: The Trade-Union Question
- Chapter 13: German Alliance Policy After the War
- Chapter 14: Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy
- Chapter 15: The Right of Emergency Defense
In Mein Kampf, Hitler used the main thesis of "the Jewish peril", which posits a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership. The narrative describes the process by which he became increasingly antisemitic and militaristic, especially during his years in Vienna. He speaks of not having met a Jew until he arrived in Vienna, and that at first his attitude was liberal and tolerant. When he first encountered the anti-semitic press, he says, he dismissed it as unworthy of serious consideration. Later he accepted the same anti-semitic views, which became crucial in his program of national reconstruction of Germany.
Mein Kampf has also been studied as a work on political theory. For example, Hitler announces his hatred of what he believed to be the world's two evils: Communism and Judaism. The new territory that Germany needed to obtain would properly nurture the "historic destiny" of the German people; this goal, which Hitler referred to as Lebensraum (living space), explains why Hitler aggressively expanded Germany eastward, specifically the invasions of Czechoslovakia and Poland, before he launched his attack against the Soviet Union. In Mein Kampf Hitler openly states that the future of Germany "has to lie in the acquisition of land in the East at the expense of Russia."
During his work, Hitler blamed Germany's chief woes on the parliament of the Weimar Republic, the Jews, and Social Democrats, as well as Marxists, though he believed that Marxists, Social Democrats, and the parliament were all working for Jewish interests. He announced that he wanted to completely destroy the parliamentary system, believing it to be corrupt in principle, as those who reach power are inherent opportunists.
While historians diverge on the exact date Hitler decided to forcibly emigrate the Jewish people to Madagascar, few place the decision before the mid 1930s. First published in 1925, Mein Kampf shows the ideas that crafted Hitler's personal grievances and ambitions for creating a New Order.
The racial laws to which Hitler referred resonate directly with his ideas in Mein Kampf. In his first edition of Mein Kampf, Hitler stated that the destruction of the weak and sick is far more humane than their protection. Apart from his allusion to humane treatment, Hitler saw a purpose in destroying "the weak" in order to provide the proper space and purity for the "strong".
Although Hitler originally wrote this book mostly for the followers of National Socialism, it grew in popularity. He accumulated a tax debt of 405,500 Reichsmark (very roughly in 2015 €1.4 million or US$ 1.5 million) from the sale of about 240,000 copies by the time he became chancellor in 1933 (at which time his debt was waived).
After Hitler rose to power, the book gained a large amount of popularity. (Two other books written by party members, Gottfried Feder's Breaking The Interest Slavery and Alfred Rosenberg's The Myth of the Twentieth Century, have since lapsed into comparative literary obscurity, and no translation of Feder's book from the original German is known.) The book was in high demand in libraries and often reviewed and quoted in other publications. Hitler had made about 1.2 million Reichsmarks from the income of his book in 1933, when the average annual income of a teacher was about 4,800 Mark. During Hitler's years in power, the book was given free to every newlywed couple and every soldier fighting at the front . By 1939 the book had sold 5.2 million copies in 11 languages. By the end of the war, about 10 million copies of the book had been sold or distributed in Germany.
Following becoming chancellor of Germany in 1933, Hitler began to distance himself from the book and dismissed it as "fantasies behind bars" that were little more than a series of articles for the Völkischer Beobachter and later told Hans Frank that "If I had had any idea in 1924 that I would have become Reich chancellor, I never would have written the book."
There are currently six e-book versions of Mein Kampf available for sale. In 2014 two of these version reached the 12th and 15th spots on the iTunes Politics and Current Events section. The same year a digital version of the book reached number one on the Amazon Propaganda and Political Psychology chart.
Mein Kampf, in essence, lays out the ideological program Hitler established for the German revolution, by identifying the Jews and "Bolsheviks," as racially and ideologically inferior and threatening, and "Aryans" and National Socialists as racially superior and politically progressive. Hitler's revolutionary goals were limited to expulsion of the Jews from Greater Germany and the unification of German-speaking peoples into one Greater Germany. Hitler desired to restore German lands to their greatest historical extent, real or imagined.
Due to its racist content and the historical effect of Nazism upon Europe during World War II and the Holocaust, it is considered a highly controversial book. Criticism has not come solely from opponents of Nazism. Italian Fascist dictator and Nazi ally Benito Mussolini was also critical of the book, saying that it was "a boring tome that I have never been able to read" and remarked that Hitler's beliefs, as expressed in the book, were "little more than commonplace clichés".
One direct opponent of National Socialism, Konrad Heiden, observed that the content of Mein Kampf is essentially a political argument with other members of the Nazi Party who had appeared to be Hitler's friends, but whom he was actually denouncing in the book's content – sometimes by not even including references to them.
The American literary theorist and philosopher Kenneth Burke wrote a rhetorical analysis of the work, The Rhetoric of Hitler's "Battle", which revealed its underlying message of aggressive intent.
German publication history
While Hitler was in power (1933–1945), Mein Kampf came to be available in three common editions. The first, the Volksausgabe or People's Edition, featured the original cover on the dust jacket and was navy blue underneath with a gold swastika eagle embossed on the cover. The Hochzeitsausgabe, or Wedding Edition, in a slipcase with the seal of the province embossed in gold onto a parchment-like cover was given free to marrying couples. In 1940, the Tornister-Ausgabe was released. This edition was a compact, but unabridged, version in a red cover and was released by the post office, available to be sent to loved ones fighting at the front. These three editions combined both volumes into the same book.
A special edition was published in 1939 in honour of Hitler's 50th birthday. This edition was known as the Jubiläumsausgabe, or Anniversary Issue. It came in both dark blue and bright red boards with a gold sword on the cover. This work contained both volumes one and two. It was considered a deluxe version, relative to the smaller and more common Volksausgabe.
The book could also be purchased as a two-volume set during Hitler's reign, and was available in soft cover and hardcover. The soft cover edition contained the original cover (as pictured at the top of this article). The hardcover edition had a leather spine with cloth-covered boards. The cover and spine contained an image of three brown oak leaves.
The first English translation was an abridgement by Edgar Dugdale who started work on it in 1931, at the prompting of his wife, Blanche. When he learned that the London publishing firm of Hurst & Blackett had secured the rights to publish an abridgement in the United Kingdom, he offered it for free in April 1933. However, a local Nazi Party representative insisted that the translation be further abridged before publication, so it was held back until 13 October 1933, although excerpts were allowed to run in The Times in late July. It was published by Hurst & Blackett as part of "The Paternoster Library".
In America, Houghton Mifflin secured the rights to the Dugdale abridgement on 29 July 1933. The only differences between the American and British versions are that the title was translated My Struggle in the UK and My Battle in America; and that Dugdale is credited as translator in the US edition, while the British version withheld his name. Both Dugdale and his wife were active in the Zionist movement; Blanche was the niece of Lord Balfour, and they wished to avoid publicity.
Reynal and Hitchcock translation
Houghton and Mifflin licensed Reynal & Hitchcock the rights to publish a full unexpurgated translation in 1938. The book was translated from the two volumes of the first German edition (1925 and 1927), with notations appended noting any changes made in later editions, which were deemed "not as extensive as popularly supposed." The translation, made by a committee from the New School for Social Research headed by Dr. Alvin Johnson, was said to have been made with a view to readability rather than in an effort to rigidly reproduce Hitler's sometimes idiosyncratic German form.
The text was heavily annotated for an American audience with biographical and historical details derived largely from German sources. As the translators deemed the book "a propagandistic essay of a violent partisan" which "often warps historical truth and sometimes ignores it completely," the tone of many of these annotations reflected a conscious attempt to provide "factual information which constitutes an extensive critique of the original." The book appeared for sale on 28 February 1939.
One of the first complete English translations of Mein Kampf was by James Murphy in 1939. It was the only English translation approved by the Third Reich. The version published by Hutchison & Co. in association with Hurst & Blackett, Ltd (London) in 1939 of the combined volumes I and II is profusely illustrated with many full page drawings and photographs. The opening line, "It has turned out fortunate for me to-day that destiny appointed Braunau-on-the-Inn to be my birthplace," is characteristic of Hitler's sense of destiny that began to develop in the early 1920s. Hurst & Blackett ceased publishing the Murphy translation in 1942 when the original plates were destroyed by German bombing, but it is still published and available in facsimile editions and also on the Internet. An audio reading of volume one is also available online.
Stackpole translation and controversy
The small Pennsylvania firm of Stackpole and Sons released its own unexpurgated translation by William Soskin on the same day as Houghton Mifflin, amid much legal wrangling. The Second Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in Houghton Mifflin's favour that June and ordered Stackpole to stop selling their version, but litigation followed for a few more years until the case was finally resolved in September 1941.
Among other things, Stackpole argued that Hitler could not have legally transferred his right to a copyright in the United States to Eher Verlag in 1925, because he was not a citizen of any country. Houghton Mifflin v. Stackpole was a minor landmark in American copyright law, definitively establishing that stateless persons have the same copyright status in the United States that any other foreigner would. In the three months that Stackpole's version was available it sold 12,000 copies.
Cranston translation and controversy
Houghton Mifflin's abridged English translation left out some of Hitler's more anti-Semitic and militaristic statements. This motivated Alan Cranston, an American reporter for United Press International in Germany (and later a U.S. Senator from California), to publish his own abridged and annotated translation. Cranston believed this version more accurately reflected the contents of the book and Hitler's intentions. In 1939, Cranston was sued by Hitler's publisher for copyright infringement, and a Connecticut judge ruled in Hitler's favour. By the time the publication of Cranston's version was stopped, 500,000 copies had already been sold. Today, the profits and proceeds are given to various charities.
Houghton Mifflin published a translation by Ralph Manheim in 1943. They did this to avoid having to share their profits with Reynal & Hitchcock, and to increase sales by offering a more readable translation. The Manheim translation was first published in the United Kingdom by Hurst & Blackett in 1969 amid some controversy.
In addition to the above translations and abridgments, the following collections of excerpts were available in English before the start of the war:
|Year||Title||Translator||Publisher||# of pages|
|1936||Central Germany, 7 May 1936 – Confidential- A Translation of Some of the More Important Passages of Hitler's Mein Kampf (1925 edition)||British Embassy in Berlin||12|
|Germany's Foreign Policy as Stated in Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler FOE pamphlet n.38||Duchess of Atholl||Friends of Europe|
|1939||Mein Kampf: An Unexpurgated Digest||B. D. Shaw||Political Digest Press of New York City||31|
|1939||Mein Kampf: A New Unexpurgated Translation Condensed with Critical Comments and Explanatory Notes||Notes by Sen. Alan Cranston||Noram Publishing Co. of Greenwich, Conn.||32|
Official Nazi translation
A previously unknown English translation was released in 2008, which was prepared by the official Nazi printing office, the Franz Eher Verlag. In 1939, the Nazi propaganda ministry hired James Murphy to create an English version of Mein Kampf, which they hoped to use to promote Nazi goals in English-speaking countries. While Murphy was in Germany, he became less enchanted with Nazi ideology and made some statements that the Propaganda Ministry disliked. As a result, they asked him to leave Germany immediately. He was not able to take any of his notes but later sent his wife back to obtain his partial translation. These notes were later used to create the Murphy translation. The Nazi government did not abandon their English translation efforts. They used their own staff to finish the translation and it was published in very small numbers in Germany. At least one copy found its way to a British/American POW camp. It is the only official English translation produced by the Nazi government and printed on Nazi printing presses.
Sales and royalties
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2014)|
Sales of Dugdale abridgment in the United Kingdom.
|Year||On Hand||Editions||Printed||Sold||Gross Royalties||Commission||Tax||Net Royalties|
|1934||1,275||9–10||3,500||4,695||£7.1.2||£15.4.4||£58.5.6/ RM 715|
|1938*||16,442||19–22||25,500||53,738||£1,037.23||£208||£193.91||£635.68 /RM 7410|
- In 1938, 8,000 copies were sold in the United States.
Sales of the Houghton Mifflin Dugdale translation in America.
The first printing of the U.S. Dugdale edition, the October 1933 with 7,603 copies, of which 290 were given away as complimentary gifts.
|6 mon. ending||Edition||Sold|
The royalty on the first printing in the U.S. was 15% or $3,206.45 total. Curtis Brown, literary agent, took 20%, or $641.20 total, and the IRS took $384.75, leaving Eher Verlag $2,180.37 or RM 5668.
The January 1937 second printing was c. 4,000 copies.
|6 mon. ending||Edition||Sold|
There were three separate printings from August 1938 to March 1939, totaling 14,000; sales totals by 31 March 1939 were 10,345.
The Murphy and Houghton Mifflin translations were the only ones published by the authorised publishers while Hitler was still alive, and not at war with Britain and America.
There was some resistance from Eher Verlag to Hurst and Blackett's Murphy translation, as they had not been granted the rights to a full translation. However, they allowed it de facto permission by not lodging a formal protest, and on 5 May 1939, even inquired about royalties. The British publishers responded on the 12th that the information they requested was "not yet available" and the point would be moot within a few months, on 3 September 1939, when all royalties were halted due to the state of war existing between Britain and Germany.
Royalties were likewise held up in the United States due to the litigation between Houghton Mifflin and Stackpole. Because the matter was only settled in September 1941, only a few months before a state of war existed between Germany and the U.S., all Eher Verlag ever got was a $2,500 advance from Reynal and Hitchcock. It got none from the unauthorised Stackpole edition or the 1943 Manheim edition.
At the time of his suicide, Hitler's official place of residence was in Munich, which led to his entire estate, including all rights to Mein Kampf, changing to the ownership of the state of Bavaria. As per German copyright law, the entire text is scheduled to enter the public domain on 1 January 2016, 70 years after the author's death. The government of Bavaria, in agreement with the federal government of Germany, refuses to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany, and opposes it also in other countries but with less success. Owning and buying the book is legal. Trading in old copies is legal as well, unless it is done in such a fashion as to "promote hatred or war", which is generally illegal. In particular, the unmodified edition is not covered by §86 StGB that forbids dissemination of means of propaganda of unconstitutional organisations, since it is a "pre-constitutional work" and as such cannot be opposed to the free and democratic basic order, according to a 1979 decision of the Federal Court of Justice of Germany. Most German libraries carry heavily commented and excerpted versions of Mein Kampf. In 2008, Stephan Kramer, secretary-general of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, not only recommended lifting the ban, but volunteered the help of his organization in editing and annotating the text, saying that it is time for the book to be made available to all online.
Restrictions on sale or special circumstances regarding the book in other countries:
Though Mein Kampf (ISBN 0-395-07801-6) is available in Canada, Heather Reisman, owner of the Chapters/Indigo chain of bookshops (Canada's largest and only national book chain) has decided not to carry the book.
In the Russian Federation, Mein Kampf has been published at least three times since 1992; the Russian text is also available on websites. In 2006 the Public Chamber of Russia proposed banning the book. In 2009 St. Petersburg's branch of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs requested to remove an annotated and hyper-linked Russian translation of the book from a historiography web site. On 13 April 2010, it was announced that Mein Kampf is outlawed on grounds of extremism promotion.
It has been reprinted several times since 1945; in 1970, 1992, 2002 and 2010. In 1992 the Government of Bavaria tried to stop the publication of the book, and the case went to the Supreme Court of Sweden which ruled in favour of the publisher, stating that the book is protected by copyright, but that the copyright holder is unidentified (and not the State of Bavaria) and that the original Swedish publisher from 1934 had gone out of business. It therefore refused the Government of Bavaria's claim. The only translation changes came in the 1970 edition, but they were only linguistic, based on a new Swedish standard.
Mein Kampf was widely available and growing in popularity in Turkey, even to the point where it became a bestseller, selling up to 100,000 copies in just two months in 2005. Analysts and commentators believe the popularity of the book to be related to a rise in nationalism, anti-U.S. and antisemitic sentiment "because of what is happening in the Middle East, the Israeli-Palestinian problem and the war in Iraq". Dogu Ergil, a political scientist at Ankara University, said both left-wingers, the far-right and Islamists, had found common ground—"not on a common agenda for the future, but on their anxieties, fears and hate".
In the United States the book can be found at almost any community library and can be bought, sold and traded in bookshops. The U.S. government seized the copyright during the Second World War under the Trading with the Enemy Act and in 1979, Houghton Mifflin, the U.S. publisher of the book, bought the rights from the government pursuant to 28 C.F.R. 0.47. More than 15,000 copies are sold a year.
In 1999, the Simon Wiesenthal Center documented that major Internet booksellers such as Amazon.com and Barnesandnoble.com sell Mein Kampf to Germany. After a public outcry, both companies agreed to stop those sales to addresses in Germany. The book is currently available through both companies online. It is also available in various languages including German at the Internet Archive.
Republication in Germany after 2015
On 3 February 2010, the Institute of Contemporary History (IfZ) in Munich announced plans to republish an annotated version of the text, for educational purposes in schools and universities, in 2015, when the copyright currently held by the Bavarian state government expires (2016). This would be the book's first publication in Germany since 1945. A group of German historians argued that a republication was necessary to get an authoritative annotated edition by the time the copyright runs out, which will open the way for neo-Nazi groups to publish their own versions. "Once Bavaria's copyright expires, there is the danger of charlatans and neo-Nazis appropriating this infamous book for themselves," Wolfgang Heubisch said. The Bavarian government opposed the plan, citing respect for victims of the Holocaust. The Bavarian Finance Ministry said that permits for reprints would not be issued, at home or abroad. This would also apply to a new annotated edition. The republished book might be banned as Nazi propaganda. Even after expiration of the copyright, the Bavarian government emphasised that "the dissemination of Nazi ideologies will remain prohibited in Germany and is punishable under the penal code".
On 12 December 2013 the Bavarian government cancelled its financial support for an annotated edition. The Institute of Contemporary History (IfZ) in Munich, which is preparing the translation, announced that it intended to proceed with publication.
The IfZs edition of "Mein Kampf" is scheduled for release in 2016.
After the party's poor showing in the 1928 elections, Hitler believed that the reason for his loss was the public's misunderstanding of his ideas. He then retired to Munich to dictate a sequel to Mein Kampf to expand on its ideas, with more focus on foreign policy.
Only two copies of the 200-page manuscript were originally made, and only one of these was ever made public. The document was neither edited nor published during the Nazi era and remains known as Zweites Buch, or "Second Book". To keep the document strictly secret, in 1935 Hitler ordered that it be placed in a safe in an air raid shelter. It remained there until being discovered by an American officer in 1945.
The authenticity of the document found in 1945 has been verified by Josef Berg (former employee of the Nazi publishing house Eher Verlag) and Telford Taylor (former Brigadier General U.S.A.R. and Chief Counsel at the Nuremberg war-crimes trials).
In 1958, the Zweites Buch was found in the archives of the United States by American historian Gerhard Weinberg. Unable to find an American publisher, Weinberg turned to his mentor – Hans Rothfels at the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich, and his associate Martin Broszat – who published Zweites Buch in 1961. A pirated edition was published in English in New York in 1962. The first authoritative English edition was not published until 2003 (Hitler's Second Book: The Unpublished Sequel to Mein Kampf, ISBN 1-929631-16-2).
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- LTI - Lingua Tertii Imperii
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... scholars have heavily annotated the 2016 edition, turning the Nazi leader's infamous manifesto into an "anti-Hitler" text.
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- Hitler, A., et al. (1974). Hitler's Letters and Notes. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-012832-1.
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|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Mein Kampf|
- A review of Mein Kampf by George Orwell, first published in March 1940
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Online versions of Mein Kampf
- 1936 edition (172.-173. printing) in German Fraktur script (71.4 Mb)
- German version as an audiobook, human-read (27h 17m, 741 Mb)
- Murphy translation at archive.org (pdf)
- Murphy translation at Gutenberg
- Murphy translation at greatwar.nl (pdf, txt)
- Complete Dugdale abridgment at archive.org
- 1939 Reynal and Hitchcock translation at archive.org.
- Mein Kampf ebook in your Pocket PC, Palm and Windows in TomeRaider format
- Bulgarian: Translation at archive.org
- Dutch: Mein Kampf-Nederlandstalige Bewerking at archive.org
- French: Mon Combat
- Italian: La Mia Battaglia (Second Volume only) at archive.org
- Polish: Moja Walka at archive.org
- Portuguese: Minha Luta at archive.org
- Russian: Моя борьба
- Slovak: Slovak translation
- Spanish: Mi Lucha Abridged Spanish translation