Meju

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Meju
Meju (fermented soybean).jpg
Air-drying meju, tied with rice straws
Place of origin Korea
Associated national cuisine Korean cuisine
Main ingredients Soybeans
Cookbook: Meju  Media: Meju
Korean name
Hangul 메주
Revised Romanization meju
McCune–Reischauer meju
IPA [me.dʑu]

Meju (메주) is a brick of dried fermented soybeans.[1] While not consumed on its own, it serves as the basis of several Korean condiments, such as doenjang (soybean paste), ganjang (soy sauce), and gochujang (chili paste).[1] Meju is produced by pounding, kneading, and shaping cooked soybeans, and undergoes fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae and/or Bacillus subtilis.[1][2]

Etymology[edit]

The word meju (메주) is derived from Middle Korean myejo (몌조), which is itself derived from myeoju (며주), as recorded in the 1527 book, Collection of Characters for Training the Unenlightened.[3][4] Earlier forms transcribed using hanja (Chinese characters) include miljeo (밀저; 蜜沮) as recorded in Things on Korea, a 12th-century book on Korea written by a Song scholar.[5]

History[edit]

The custom of fermenting soybeans is assumed to have begun prior to the era of the Three Kingdoms (57 BCE to 668 CE).[6]

The Records of the Three Kingdoms, a Chinese historical text written and published in the 3rd century, mentions that "Goguryeo people are good at brewing fermented soy beans." in the section titled Eastern foreigners, in the Book of Wei.[7][8] Jangdoks (pots) used for soy sauce brewing are found in the mural paintings of Anak Tomb No.3 from the 4th century Goguryeo.[9]

In Historical Record of the Three Kingdoms, meju was reported to be one of the wedding presents offered by King Sinmun in February 683.[10][11] According to History of Korea, citing the New Book of Tang, meju was also a local specialty of Balhae's Chaekseong region.[12]

The Treatise on Food and Money, a section from the History of Goryeo, recorded that ganjang and doenjang were included in the relief supplies in 1018, after a Khitan invasion, and in 1052, when a famine occurred.[13][14] Joseon texts such as Concise Reference for Famine Relief and Revised and Augmented Farm Management contain the detailed procedures on how to make meju for good quality ganjang and doenjang.[6][15][16]

Preparation[edit]

Meju is usually made between October and December, typically around ipdong in early November.[17] However, the specific time and the process followed when making meju varies across regions, and depends on which food it will be used to make. Meju for Korean royal court cuisine was made around the fourth month of the lunar calendar, while meju made for home cooking was made around the tenth or twelfth month of the lunar calendar.[17] In Sunchang, meju for gochujang was made around August and September.[17] Traditionally, meju for ganjang and doenjang (which are produced together) are made entirely of fermented soybeans, while meju for gochujang are made using soybeans mixed with rice, barley, or wheat. If wheat is used, the ratio between soybeans and wheat is 6:4; if glutinous rice is used, the ratio between soybeans and glutinous rice is 5:2.[17]

Soybeans are washed, soaked overnight, and cooked.[17] They are usually boiled in a gamasot (cauldron), but can also be steamed in a siru (steamer), for at least three to four hours and usually five to eight hours.[17] Cooked beans are drained in a sokuri (bamboo basket) and pounded in a jeolgu (mortar) while still hot.[17] About 1.8–3.6 litres (0.40–0.79 imp gal; 0.48–0.95 US gal) of pounded soybeans are chunked, compressed, and shaped into a cube or a sphere to form meju.[17] The meju bricks are then dried in a cool shaded area until firm.[17] When the bricks harden, they are tied with rice straws to the eaves of the house for air-drying, during which the rice stalks transfer Bacillus subtilis bacteria to meju bricks.[17][18] Bacteria, mainly Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis, are responsible for the fermentation of meju.[2] Well fermented meju bricks are washed and sun-dried for later use.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "meju" 메주. Korean-English Learners' Dictionary. National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Lee, Cherl-Ho (1999). "Cereal Fermentations in Countries of the Asia-Pacific Region". In Haard, Norman F.; Odunfa, S.A.; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Quintero-Ramírez, R.; Lorence-Quiñones, Argelia; Wacher-Radarte, Carmen. Fermented cereals. A global perspective. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 91. ISBN 92-5-104296-9. ISSN 1010-1365. 
  3. ^ "meju" 메주. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  4. ^ Choe, Sejin (in Middle Korean). Hunmong jahoe 훈몽자회(訓蒙字會) [Collection of Characters for Training the Unenlightened]. Joseon Korea: Wikisource. 
  5. ^ Sūn, Mù (in Literary Chinese). Jīlín lèishì 雞林類事 [Things on Korea]. Song China: Wikisource. 
  6. ^ a b 강, 명기 (20 October 2006). "항암효과가 탁월한 우리의 구수한 된장". Dailian (in Korean). Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  7. ^ 황, 광해 (9 January 2013). "바람이 말리고 세월이 삭힌 깊은 맛". Hankook Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  8. ^ Koo, Chun-Sur (Spring 2004). "Ganjang and Doenjang: Traditional Fermented Seasonings" (PDF). Koreana. 18 (1). The Korea Foundation. Retrieved 7 June 2017. 
  9. ^ 신, 동민 (9 November 2015). "행복을 부르는 맛 '간장'…집에서 만든 만능간장소스 하나면 OK". Maeil Business Newspaper (in Korean). Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  10. ^ 하, 상도 (11 January 2016). "신라시대에 왕비 폐백품목에도 있었던 식품은?". The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  11. ^ Busik, Gim (1145) (in Literary Chinese). Samguk sagi 삼국사기(三國史記) [History of the Three Kingdoms]. Goryeo Korea: Wikisource. 
  12. ^ Ōuyáng, Xiū; Sòng, Qí (in Literary Chinese). Xīn Tángshū 新唐書 [New Book of Tang]. Song China: Wikisource. 
  13. ^ 김, 성윤 (19 January 2012). "정월에 담근 장이 가장 맛있다는데…". The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  14. ^ Gim, Jongseo (1451). Goryeosa 고려사(高麗史) (in Literary Chinese). Joseon Korea. 
  15. ^ Unknown (1554). Guhwang chwaryo 구황촬요(救荒撮要) [Concise Reference for Famine Relief] (in Literary Chinese). Joseon Korea: Jinhyulcheong. 
  16. ^ Yu, Jungrim; Hong, Manseon (1766). Jeungbo sallim gyeongje 증보산림경제(增補山林經濟) [Revised and Augmented Farm Management] (in Literary Chinese). Joseon Korea. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k 정, 현미. "메주 쑤기". Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Culture (in Korean). National Folk Museum of Korea. Retrieved 4 November 2016. 
  18. ^ Rodbard, Matt (22 November 2016). "Journey to the Home of Korea's Mother Sauces". Saveur. Retrieved 17 June 2017.