Mekere Morauta

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Sir Mekere Morauta, KCMG (born 12 June 1946)[1] is a Papua New Guinean economist and political figure. He was Prime Minister from 1999-2002.

Sir Mekere was born in 1946 in Kukipi, a coastal village east of Kerema in the Gulf Province of Papua New Guinea, and was educated at local primary schools and at Kerema High and Sogeri National High. He went on to study at the University of Papua New Guinea, where he obtained a Bachelor of Economics in 1970. He was also an exchange student at Flinders University in South Australia.

After graduating from university he worked as an economist in both the public and private sectors. In 1975 he was the first Papua New Guinean to be appointed Secretary of the Department of Finance, a position which he held until 1982. Other positions he has held include Managing Director of the government's commercial bank, the Papua New Guinea Banking Corporation (1983–1992), and Governor of the Bank of Papua New Guinea (1992–1993), PNG's central bank. Morauta was also a successful businessman after he retired from governing the central bank.[2] From 1994 to 1997, he was executive chairman of Morauta Investments, Ltd. (Delta Seafoods and Morauta and Associates). After entering politics he withdrew from actively managing the firm and his wife Lady Roslyn Morauta took over the management of the firm.[3] Sir Mekere was a member of the so-called "Gang of Four", a group of influential young civil service chiefs who played a leading role in holding together public administration and public policy in the formative decade or so after Papua New Guinea's independence in 1975.[4] The other members of the group were Charles Lepani, Sir Rabbie Namaliu and Sir Anthony Siaguru. Namaliu also later went on to become Prime Minister. Morauta maintained from that period on a strong professional and warm personal relationship with the Australian economist Ross Garnaut.[5][6]

Political career[edit]

Sir Mekere entered the national parliament in July 1997 as the member for Moresby North-West. He was in 1998/99 Minister for Fisheries in the government of Bill Skate that emerged from the 1997 elections.[7] The Skate government did not cope with the economic and political crises that beset PNG then and the government was defeated in a vote of no confidence. Sir Mekere was then elected by parliament as Prime Minister with a huge majority in July 1999: 99 votes for Sir Mekere and 5 votes for his challenger.[8] His government was a reforming government and developed policies to deal with the crises.[9] Sir Mekere was reelected in Moresby North West in 2002 and 2007. However he was manoeuvered out of government by Sir Michael Somare after the 2002 elections.,[10][11] His National Alliance Party (NA) was the biggest party with 19 out of the 109 seats as compared to 12 for Mekere's People's Democratic Movement. Somare excluded Morauta in the coalition building after the elections and Morauta became leader of the opposition.However he was also deposed from that post by a coup within his party and spent 2004-2207 on the government bench. This is in PNG distinct from being in government.[12] He was in government again in the period of the 2011–2012 Papua New Guinean constitutional crisis. Moauta was then Minister for Public Enterprises in the Peter O’Neill/Belden Namah cabinet that was formed in 2011 after a vote of no confidence made an end to the Somare/Abal government.[13] In May 2012 he announced that, after fifteen years in Parliament, he would not stand for re-election and so left the Parliament in June 2012 However, he became during the O’Neil/Leo Dion government in the period 2012–2017 a player in major controversies. There were also calls on him to stand again.[14] He decided therefore to give in to major pressures and stood again successfully in Moresby North-West in 2017.[15]

Party identification[edit]

He joined parliament in 1997 as a member of the People's Democratic Movement (PDM). PDM was founded by Paias Wingti who lost his seat in the 1997 election and Morauta became the party leader.[16] During his time as Prime Minister, between 1999 and 2002, Morauta was also leader of the PDM. When Michael Somare took over as Prime Minister after the 2002 general elections, it was expected that Morauta would be leader of the opposition. However, he was challenged from within his own part by John Muingnepe, the deputy leader of the party. Muingnepe dismissed Morauta as leader of the party in favor of Paias Wingti. Wingti had succeeded to return to parliament. PDM split then into two groups. After being deposed as leader he left to form his own party, the Papua New Guinea Party. Morauta had advocated already a change of name of PMD to make a fresh start. Morauta was installed as leader of the opposition after a successful appeal to the Registrar of Political Parties and the Ombudsman Commission against the actions of Muingnepe.[17] He did however not manage to gain acceptance among his colleagues in the opposition and he joined the government bench. After the 2007 election, he became again leader of the opposition until he joined the O'Neill/Namah government in 2011.[18] He stood as an independent in the 2017 election. Morauta then joined the ranks of the Pangu Pati under the leadership of Sam Basil together with 4 other Independent MP's.[19] This did not last long: the Pangu Pati joined the government bench and Morauta was again an independent. Party identification and formation is not a determinant factor in PNG politics: coalition building is crucial. Morauta is a politician who as a strong regional base in Gulf and Western province because of the economic importance of his fishing interests as well as the benefits brought by the Ok Tedi mine. He has also a solid base in Port Moresby. He as elected four times in the same constituency. However, power eludes him often because of difficulties in forging coalitions.

The Morauta government[edit]

The Morauta government was in office from 14 July 1999 till 5 August 2002 and deployed far reaching initiatives. The most urgent task when coming to power was macro economic stabilization . Morauta looked back with satisfaction in his last budget speech before the election in 2002 on lower interest rates, lower inflation and a more stable currency. This had been achieved with the support of the International Financial Institutions and the Australian government.[20] Second, the financial structure of PNG was reformed. The independence of the Central Bank was restored and reinforced. The government withdrew from the banking sector. Government used to be a major player in the banking sector through the Papua New Guinea Banking Corporation (PNGBC). This bank was privatised. The state owned enterprises (SOES) were brought together under a holding company called the Independent Public Business Corporation (IPBC). This was supposed to be a shell company that refrained as much as possible from direct management of the businesses under its control. Its core function was to stimulate the privatisation of SOES and managing the dividends that came from those enterprises.[21] Thirdly there were major political reforms aimed at strengthening party formation. MPs used to shift allegiances easily and created therefore political instability. The Organic Law on the Integrity of Political Parties and Candidates (OLIPPAC) had as its main provision that MPs had to remain loyal to the Prime Minister they had chosen whether they had supported the PM on a party platform or as independents. It proscribed crossing the floor on virtual all issues. It also laid down a framework for the organisation and registration of political parties. Similarly the electoral system was changed from a First Past the Post system to a system of Limited Preferential Voting. The idea was that candidates under such a system would approach other candidates searching for support in voters casting second or more preferences. This would stimulate cooperation between candidates and encourage stable party formation.[22] Fourthly, government involvement in the natural resources sector was reorganised. Previous governments had involved themselves more and more with managing such resources through equity participation. Orogen Minerals Ltd was the major vehicle to bring government and private investment together in natural resources projects. The Morauta government sold the government's 51% controlling interest in Orogen to Oil Search Ltd. Government withdrew therefore from direct management and was merely drawing dividends from Oil Search. A different vehicle was created for the big Ok Tedi mine in Western Province. BHP was the controlling interest and manager of this mine. A tailings dam broke and BHP was faced with big claims of environmental damages. BHP wanted to avoid these and these were settled by transferring their shares to an entity representing the people of Western Province : the Papua New Guinea Sustainable Development Fund. Income from these shares was used for development projects in Western province and Papua New Guinea as a whole. However, one third of that income was paid in a trust account in Singapore as a reserve for the people in Western Province when the mine would be exhausted. The Mineral Resources Development Corporation (MRDC) remained in existence. It was originally also a vehicle for government equity participation. However, its mission was limited ehen Orogen was established. Its task was to administer the equity interest of landowner groups and provincial governments in natural resources projects.[23]

The Morauta government faced stiff opposition after the first benefits of macro economic stabilization were realized and economic reforms were on the table.. This opposition was primarily directed against austerity and privatization demanded by the International Financial Institutions and the Australian government. Soldiers rebelled when a report was leaked proposing the cutailment of the army and even merging it with the police into a mere paramilitary force. Soldiers protested not only against these plans but also strongly against the terms of retrenchment.[24][25] A widespread protest movement of soldiers, workers and especially students emerged against the influence of the World Bank, IMF and the Australian government. During student protests against the privatizations in 2001, three students were shot dead by police. At a meeting with the parent of a dead student, Sir Mekere referred to the previous loss of his son and he described the events as “the blackest day in our nation's history.[26][27] Morauta entered the elections of 2002 as a highly respected reformer, but this did not find favor with the voters. His PMD party they dropped from 42 seats to 17 seats.[28] The National Alliance Party had fought a hard campaign against privatization and won the largest number of seats and therefore could invite the prime minister.[29] Michael Somare succeeded in bringing together a large coalition of 88 votes in the 106 parliament.[30] The PDM party boycotted this election. Somare put further privatisations on hold but he did not backtrack on the reforms that had already been implemented.[31]

Effects of the reforms by Morauta cabinet[edit]

The long lasting beneficial effects of the reforms by the Morauta cabinet were most clearly felt in the macro economic situation. The Bank of PNG could operate independently of political influence and this was especially felt in debt management.[32] Public debt decreased from 72.3% in 2000 to 25.5% in 2010. External debt fell also spectacularly from over 50% of GDP in 2000 to just 10% in 2010.[33] The decade 2000–2010 was in contrast to the decade of 1990–2000 characterized by a stable currency (kina), low and stable inflation and a sharp decline in interest rates.[34] A fiscally conservative attitude of the Somare government as well as high commodity prices in the second half of the decade were important as well, but his successor, Prime Minister Michael Somare, left the reforms of the Morauta government intact and could benefit from those.[35] The political reforms left a much more mixed legacy. The Somare government that followed the Morauta government was the first PNG government that made a full term. The increased stability in political life seems at first sight to be due to the reforms. However, closer inspection makes this doubtful. The reforms did not lead to a decrease in the number of parties or the emergence of policy driven parties. PNG politics remained dominated by opportunistic diverse coalitions. The ban on switching allegiance to a particular prime minister did not work, if only because the prime minister switched in support base. The increased stability is in the first place due to organizational arrangements in parliament: first, a long grace period during which votes of no-confidence are not allowed and second, scheduling sessions advantageously for the government due to a coalition between the speaker of parliament and the prime minister. Finally, the Supreme Court considered in 2010 the provisions in OLIPAC contrary to the freedoms guaranteed in the constitution.[36][37] The third set of reforms : privatization and regulating income from natural resources became the major issue in the opposition by Sir Mekere. The reorganization of the natural resources sector by the Morauta government led to a stable income from the sector. Rent from Natural Resources provided in the decade 2000–2010 a large share of GDP: on average 45.74% as compared to an average of 28.9% in the whole period 1970–2014.[38] However, the Somare governments returned to increased state intervention in the sector through equity participation. This gave rise to opposition by Morauta. Sir Mekere Morauta gave himself a review of the achievements of that cabinet when departing from politics in 2012.[39]

Mekere Morauta in opposition[edit]

Mekere Morauta had the same two crucial concerns in the variety of political positions he had between 2002 and 2017. Primary and above all, he was concerned about the concentration of power in PNG. He protested against the emasculation of parliament and the rise of politically sanctioned economic power outside parliament. He advocated as much privatisation as possible and when there was government ownership he pleaded for a maximum distance between politics/government and the enterprises involved. There should be as little opportunity as possible for sticky fingers in the government pie.[40] This was linked to his second major concern: the management of PNG's natural resources and especially government participation in such projects.

The power of parliament: Somare proposed immediately after the defeat of Morauta in 2002 an extension of the grace period for the government in power from18 months to 36 months. During the grace period no-confidence motions cannot be tabled. Parliament rejected this proposal twice but government did not relent. Morauta challenged this attempt to ignore parliament before the courts.[41] There were various attempts at votes of no confidence when the grace period of this Somare government ended in 2004. Morauta was not active in these and this has to be seen in the light of being ousted from the post of leader of the opposition.[42] In response to being slighted by the opposition, he joined the government bench. After the elections in 2007 he returned as leader of the opposition and the concentration of power outside parliamentary control became a main theme. He protested against granting IPBC power to raise loans outside the normal controls of the Ministry of finance and the Central Bank.[43] The Minister, Arthur Somare, was securing loans in Abu Dabi just by himself. He strongly objected against further concentration of power when Arthur Somare was appointed as Minister of Finance on top of his appointment as Minister for Public Corporations.[44] When the grace period ended in 2009 Morauta actively proposed a vote of no confidence in 2009. This was blocked by the speaker resorting to procedural matters such as leaving the issue in committee through adjournment. This resistance was overcome in 2011 and the Speaker allowed a no confidence vote. The Abal government was brought down. Abal was a caretaker while Michael Somare was in hospital in Singapore.. Morauta became Minister of Public enterprises in the O’Neil/Namah government that succeeded the Abal government.[45] Morauta charged Arthur Somare, his predecessor, in that position, with bad management, corruption and theft. The loss of parliamentary oversight and ignoring the parliamentary approved legal framework was crucial in these criticisms: “The failure of Public Enterprises to obtain legally required approvals has played a significant role in their financial decline and in substantial costs to the taxpayer. The old IPBC had become a secretive, unaccountable organisation that disregarded due process.” [46]) At the time when Morauta decided to return to politics in 2016/2017, the same criticisms returned: “The National Parliament is in danger of becoming a rubber stamp for the decisions taken by the Prime Minister, surrounded by a small group of unelected advisers, high-priced foreign consultants and vested interests. In recent years the Office of the Prime Minister and those who influence it have come to dominate the structures and processes of decision-making by the Parliament and the Executive,” [47]

The management of natural resources: When Morauta left office in 2012 there was no government holding company specifically for natural resources projects. Morauta's policy was that there should be an arms length distance between the management of enterprises and the government. The independent Public Business Corporation (IPBC) supervised all the enterprises in which the government participated and a minister was in charge of that company. It was definitely not meant to be involved in direct management,[48] Arthur Somare changed that policy when he was Minister of Public Corporations. He established Petromin which was meant to be more than merely a holding company: the management of natural resources moved out of the mere control of IPBC. Government went into business.

The IPIC loan. Arthur Somare, then niminster of public enterprises, wanted to promote government's shareholding in enterprises in line with that policy . This became an urgent concern in the LNG/PNG gas project. Government was facing a cash call, but it had no money. Therefore, he financed the acquisition of equity in LNG/PNG through a loan from the International Petroleum Investment Corporation (IPIC) in Abu Dhabi. Government income therefore became dependent upon profit and a change in taxation led to more dependence upon profit instead of income or output. Arthur Somare only maintained corporation tax -a tax on profits-and waived income tax, GST and withholding tax for LNG. Mekere Morauta as leader of the opposition protested strongly in 2002 against this loss of revenue for the government of PNG, Morauta protested as well against the loan from the Sovereign Wealth Fund of Abu Dhabi (IPIC).[49] The loan from IPIC was secured through the government interest in enterprises under PNG's Independent Public Business Corporation (IPBC). Moreover, IPIC got the option to be repaid by the government shareholding in Oil Search plus the amount that the value of the shares would fall short of the amount loaned at the time of redemption. In the meantime government had to pay interest on the loan. Morauta considered the arrangement risky as government could loose valuable assets and he also considered it unwise as it had to be repaid before the income stream from LNG PNG was available to service the loan. He proved right. The PNG government could not service the loan and the shares plus the difference between the value of the shares and the loan went to IPIC.[50][51]

OkTedi and SNDP Morauta's decision to leave politics in 2012 was stymied by the decision of prime minister O’Neil to nationalise without compensation the Ok Tedi mine and the majority owner of the mine: Papua New Guinea Sustainable Development Program (PNGSDP) The mine was according to O’Neil run for the benefit of foreigners and local people still suffered from the environmental problems under the new ownership that should have tackled these.[52] O’Neill declared as an opening shot the chairman of the Ok Tedi board, the economist Ross Garnaut, a friend of Morauta, a prohibited immigrant.[53] Morauta proposed that the government should pay compensation for the mine to the SNDP. The SNDP was according to him owned by the people of Western Province,[54] O’Neill refused and took possession of the mine.[55] Morauta divested as much as possible the assets of PNGSDF within PNG and distributed this in Western Province,[56] The external fund of PNGDSP to the tune of US$1,5 billion was located in Singapore and therefore out of reach for the O’Neil government. That fund was meant to be used for projects when the mine was exhausted and was under control of Morauta. The fund became subject of protracted legal battles; Morauta as chairman of PNGSDP embarked on a case for arbitration before the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) in Washington. PNGSDP requested a restitution of the shares taken by government, The case was not considered admissible to the court of arbitration because the government of PNG had not assented to the arbitration.[57] The PNGSDP started at the same time a court case at the Supreme Court in Singapore protesting against the government's removal of directors and its chairman, Morauta.[58] The PNG government retaliated with a case in the High Court in Singapore alleging misappropriation of funds in PNGSDP . The claim of misappropriation was thrown out. However the High Court in Singapore gave government representatives as directors the right to inspect the books of PNGSDP. The government appealed.[59] Morauta started two cases within the PNG court system. In one case it sought the rights of PNGSDP to dividends from the OkTedi mine. Morauta has as well started a court case as a private citizen in the Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea challenging the constitutionality of the Act appropriating the OKTedi mine. It was decided that he had no standing in the case: the case had to be brought by the company SDP. That company has been taken over by the government and can therefore not be plaintiff and defendant at the same time[60] Production and profitability at the mine dropped significantly after nationalisation. This is also caused by climatological factors,[61] but for Morauta the cause is in the first place in the management: “They show that a well-managed and very profitable company under PNGSDP’s majority ownership has been turned into a corporate disaster under Mr O’Neill, as I predicted,” Sir Mekere said.[62]

The UBS loan. The government of PNG had thus lost the shares in OilSearch in exchange for shares in LNG/PNG. The PNG government made however an agreement with Oil Search that it could buy shares from an expanded share capital. UBS Australia loaned the government of PNG $A 1.3 billion in 2013 to buy a ten percent share in Oil Search. Oil Search wanted to use that money to buy a participation in the next big gas development, the Elk/Antelope field. The PNG government wanted to service the loan from UBS through the proceeds from the previous gas field, the LNG/PNG project. The loan was secured by a claim on the government's Oil Search shares.[63] Morauta did not comment immediately after the loan was made. However, in October 2015 when maturity of the loan was nearing, he asked together with the ex-prime minister Michael Somare for more transparency and information on the loan. The loan was according to them illegal and posed a danger to the PNG economy.[64] The PNG government failed to repay when the loan matured in mid 2016. When te laon matured, it was refinanced but its ultimate fate was reached in 2017. The government lost in that process the shares in Oil Search and a big sum of money Mekere Morauta as MP asked for a full government enquiry after the termination of the loan agreement: Prime Minister O’Neil and Oil Search Manager Peter Botten should testify.[65]

The hopes on a PNG Sovereign Wealth Fund was essential in Morauta's analysis of the economy. Proceeds from the gas fields should be channelled into a Sovereign Wealth Fund under mixed government and private sector management dedicated to building and maintaining infrastructure. Such hopes appear idle after these debacles.[66]

Sir Mekere Morauta is a highly praised and at the same time controversial politician. It is logical that his political opponents, for example Arthur Somare and Peter O’Neil do not appreciate his ideas. However it is also worthwhile to note that Mao Zeming, who was his deputy prime minister between 1999 and 2002 was highly critical when Morauta reentered politics. Zeming queried the successes of the Morauta government as well as his leadership.[67]

In 1990 Morauta was made a Knight Bachelor.[68] He was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) in the 2009 Queen's Birthday Honours.[69][70]

Sir Mekere is married to Lady Roslyn Morauta, an economist and had a previous marriage with Louise Morauta, an anthropologist. James Morauta, a philosophy lecturer in Adelaide is the surviving son from the first marriage.

References[edit]

  1. ^ International Who's Who 2004
  2. ^ https://www.bankpng.gov.pg/governor/sir-mekere-morauta/
  3. ^ http://www.fisheries.gov.pg/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=T6kh1%2FwGOwQ%3D&tabid=88
  4. ^ ""Man for a Hard Season"". Archived from the original on 25 February 2002. Retrieved 10 June 2005., Time Magazine, 26 July 1999.
  5. ^ https://blogs.unimelb.edu.au/rossgarnaut/files/2016/03/Mekere_on_his_70th_Birthday_Garnaut120616-1kwenbo.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.smh.com.au/environment/weather/bruised-but-unbowed-lunch-with-ross-garnaut-20111028-1mo84.html
  7. ^ New PNG PM Sir Mekere: a man of experience’ in Pacific Islands Report Submitted 07/23/1997 Available at: http://www.pireport.org/articles/1999/07/16/new-png-pm-sir-mekere-man-experience Posted on: 07/23/1997 Accessed: 07/31/2017
  8. ^ Bill Standish, Papua New Guinea: Crisis of Governance Parliament of Australia: Research Paper no. 4 1999–2000 Available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp9900/2000RP04 Accessed: 07/31/2017
  9. ^ Reginald Regani, Sir Mekere Morauta – the great reformer of our times, Available at Malum Nalu: Happenings in Papua New Guinea Available at: http://malumnalu.blogspot.nl/2011/06/sir-mekere-morauta-great-reformer-of.html Posted at: 08/06/2011 Accessed: 07/51/2017; David Kavanmur and Henry Okole, (2004) Understanding reform in Papua New Guinea Port Moresby: Institute of International Affairs. Available at PNG660pdf Accessed: 31/07/2017
  10. ^ "Michael Somare wins second term Papua New Guinea's prime minister", Associated Press (International Herald Tribune)
  11. ^ Mark Forbes,’A sad end as Morauta hands over the reins’ The Age 7/8/20O2 Available at: http://www.the Archived 11 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine age.com/articles/2002/08/06/102815793413 Accessed on 6/08/2017
  12. ^ The Commonwealth: ‘Papua New Guinea: constitution and government’ Available at: http://thecommonwealth.org/our-member-countries/papua-new-guinea/constitution-politics Accessed: 31/07/2017
  13. ^ Solomon Kantha, ‘Papua New Guinea; in ‘Melanesia in Review 2012’ in The Contemporary Pacific 25/2; 402-415 Available at: https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/33588/1/v25n2-403-415-politicalrev.pdf.See for an example of Morauta in office: Message from the Rt Honorable Mekere Morauta minister for Public Enterprises 11/09/2011 https://www.kch.com.pg/enterprises-occassion-independence/ Accessed on 31/07/2017
  14. ^ ‘PNG’s Morauta slams O’Neill on the economy’ Radio New Zealand 04/24/2016 Available at: http://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/304690/png%27s-morauta-slams-o%27neill-on-the-economy Accessed 07/31/2017; ‘Sir Mekere announces nomination’ Posted on 04/25/2017 on https://www.mekeremorauta.net/single-post/2017/04/25/Sir-Mekere-announces-nomination Accessed on: 07/31/2017
  15. ^ Eric Haurupma Sir Mekere Morauta officially declared member elect for Port Moresby North West Available at: http://www.emtv.com.pg/news/2017/07/sir-mekere-morauta-officially-declared-member-elect-for-moresby-north-west/ Posted on: 07/27/2017 Accessed on: 07/31/2017
  16. ^ Give Wingti recognition he deserves in The National November 30, 2015 Available at: http://www.thenational.com.pg/give-wingti-recognition-he-deserves/Accessed on: 28/08/2017
  17. ^ R.J. May, Ray Anere, Nicole Haley, Katherin Weene (eds.) (2011), Election 2007: the Shift to Limited Preferential Voting Canberra: Australian National University Press. Pp. 12-13
  18. ^ Sir Mekere Named Opposition leader in PNG, Radio New Zealand 16/08/2007 Available at: http://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/172033/sir-mekere-morauta-named-opposition-leader-in-png Accessed on: 28/08/2017
  19. ^ http://www.pngfacts.com/news/mekere-joins-pangu
  20. ^ ‘From Reconstruction to Development’ Speech by Rt Hon Sir Mekere Morauta, Kt MP Prime Minister and Treasurer On the occasion of the presentation of the 2002 Budget to Parliament Posted on 23/11/2003 Available at: http://pg.china-embassy.org/eng/bxgk/t46815.htm Accessed on: 11/08/2017
  21. ^ ‘Unfinished Business’, Speech by Rt Hon Mekere Morauta KCMG MP Minister for Public Enterprises, Dinner hosted by IPBC, 12 July 2012 Available at: http://www.kch.com.pg/unfinished-business/ Accessed on: 11/08/2017
  22. ^ Henry Tadap Okole (2012) A critical review of Papua New Guinea’s Organic Law on the integrity of political parties and candidates 2001–2010 Canberra: Australian National University SSGM Discussion paper no. 2012/5. Available at: http://ssgm.bellschool.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/publications/attachments/2015-12/2012_5_0.pdf Accessed on 11/08/2017
  23. ^ Tim Curtin, Chapter 18: Privatization in Ronald James May (ed). (20059 Policy making and implementation: studies from Papua New Guinea Canberra: ANU Press p.96 and 362 Available at: https://books.google.nl/books?redir_esc=y&id=IBv73cgk2egC&q=Orogen#v=snippet&q=Orogen&f=false
  24. ^ ‘Soldiers surrender weapons’ Associated Press, 22/03/2001 ‘ Available at: https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/209-bwi-wto/43293.html Accessed on: 15/08/2017
  25. ^ 'Norm Dixon ‘Why Papua New Guinean Soldiers rebelled against the World Bank’ Green Left Weekly (Australia) Issue #443 April 4, 2001 Available at: http://www.pireport.org/articles/2001/04/06/why-papua-new-guinea-soldiers-rebelled-against-world-bank Accessed on: 15/08/2017
  26. ^ Kevin Rickets, ‘Students killed as Port Moresby police opened fire upon rioters’ Available at: http://www.pireport.org/articles/2001/06/27/students-killed-port-moresby-police-open-fire-rioters Accessed on: 15/08/2017
  27. ^ Mary-Louise O'Callaghan Papua New Guinea Prime Minister Sir Mekere still going strong The Australian 3 July 2001 Available at: http://www.pireport.org/articles/2001/07/05/papua-new-guinea-prime-minister-sir-mekere-still-strong Accessed on: 15/08/2017
  28. ^ Mark Forbes, ‘A sad end as Morauta hands over the reins’ The Age 7 August 2002 Available at: http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2002/08/06/1028157934136.html Accessed on: 15/08/2017
  29. ^ Ung-Ho-Chin (2003)‘Papua New Guinea’ The Contemporary Pacific (15,2) Available at: http://muse.jhu.edu/article/45395 Accessed on: 15/08/2017
  30. ^ ‘PNG founding father Somare elected new PM’ CNN 5 August 2002 Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/auspac/08/05/png.election/ Accessed on 15/08/2017
  31. ^ ‘Somare put stop to privatization in PNG’ 12 August 2002, The AGE. Available at: http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2002/08/06/1028157934136.html Accessed on 15/082017
  32. ^ Asia Development Bank,(2012) Papua New Guinea: Critical Development Constraints p.37 Available at: https://www.adb.org/publications/papua-new-guinea-critical-development-constraints Accessed on: 3/09/2017
  33. ^ Papua New Guinea’s Development performance, edited by Thomas Webster and Linda Duncan (2012) Chapter 1: Satish Chand: Overview p.18 Port Moresby: National Research Institute
  34. ^ (3)Papua New Guinea’s Development performance, edited by Thomas Webster and Linda Duncan (2012 ) Chapter 4: Gae Kauzi: Monetary Policy p.105 Port Moresby: National Research Institute
  35. ^ https://books.google.nl/books?id=IBv73cgk2egC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
  36. ^ Henry Tadap Okole, (2012) A critical review of Papua New Guinea’s Organic Law on the Integrity of Political Parties and Candidates Canberra: Australian National University, SSGM discussion paper 2012/25 Available at: http://ssgm.bellschool.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/publications/attachments/2015-12/2012_5_0.pdf
  37. ^ (6) Ron May, The Ousting of Michael Somare. Canberra: Australian National University, SSGM Briefing 1/2011 p.1 Available at: http://ssgm.bellschool.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/publications/attachments/2015-12/BriefNote_2011_1_May_0.pdf
  38. ^ World Bank figures available at: http://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Papua-New-Guinea/Natural_resources_income/
  39. ^ IPBC: Unfinished Business, Speech by Rt Hon Mekere Morauta KCMG MP Minister for Public Enterprises, Dinner hosted by IPBC, 12 July 2012 Available at: http://www.kch.com.pg/unfinished-business/ Accessed on: 6/11/2017
  40. ^ Managing the mineral boom in PNG, Speech January 2002 Available at: https://www.mekeremorauta.net/single-post/2012/01/02/Managing-the-mineral-boom-in-PNG- Accessed on: 6/11/2017
  41. ^ Somare continues push for PNG “ confidence” From: the National 15/12/2003 Available at: http://www.pireport.org/articles/2003/12/15/somare-continues-push-png-confidence-amendment Accessed on: 6/11/2017
  42. ^ Ruling sought on PNG “confidence” bill From: Papua New Guinea Post Courier 1/12/2003 Available at: http://www.pireport.org/articles/2003/12/01/ruling-sought-png-confidence-bill Posted on 12/01/2003 Accessed on 6/11/2017
  43. ^ Shane McLeod: PNG’s Somare sacks cabinet ministers Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2004/s1110953.htm Posted on: 18/5/2004 Accessed on: 6/11/2017
  44. ^ Steve Marschall: PNG criticized over massive LNG project loan Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2008-11-07/png-criticised-over-massive-lng-project-loan/198216; Bill McGrath, Controversial son becomes finance minister. Available at: http://asopa.typepad.com/asopa_people/2010/07/pm-appoints-controversial-son-as-finance-minister.html Accessed on 6/11/2017
  45. ^ Ron May (2011), Papua New Guinea's “Political Coup”: The Ousting of Sir Michael Somare Discussion Paper: State and Society in Melanesia ANU Available at: http://ssgm.bellschool.anu.edu.au/experts-publications/publications/1426/papua-new-guineas-“political-coup”-ousting-sir-michael-somare Accessed on: 6/11/2017
  46. ^ Speech by the Minister for Public Enterprises Rt Hon. Mekere Morauta, KCMG MP On the occasion of the Second Reading of the IPBC ACT (Amendment) Bill 2012. Available at: https://www.kch.com.pg/ipbc-act-amendments/
    IPBC
    Unfinished Business, Speech by Rt Hon Mekere Morauta KCMG MP
    Minister for Public Enterprises, Dinner hosted by IPBC, 12 July 2012 Available at: http://www.kch.com.pg/unfinished-business/ Accessed on: 6/11/2017
  47. ^ Charles Yapumi: Sir Mekere warns of parliament becoming a rubber stamp for O’Neill Available at: http://www.looppng.com/content/sir-mekere-warns-parliament-becoming-rubber-stamp-o’neill Posted on: 31/05/2016 Accessed on: 6/11/2017
  48. ^ Speech by the Minister for Public Enterprises Rt Hon. Mekere Morauta, KCMG MP On the occasion of the Second Reading of the IPBC ACT (Amendment) Bill 2012. Available at: https://www.kch.com.pg/ipbc-act-amendments/;IPBC: Unfinished Business, Speech by Rt Hon Mekere Morauta KCMG MP Minister for Public Enterprises, Dinner hosted by IPBC, 12 July 2012 Available at: http://www.kch.com.pg/unfinished-business/ Accessed on: 6/11/2017
  49. ^ Steve Marshall: PNG criticized over massive LNG project loan Available at:http://www.abc.net.au/news/2008-11-07/png-criticised-over-massive-lng-project-loan/198216 ; PNG to lose billions in tax From: Post Courier/ Pacnews Posted on: 08/03/2010 Available at: http://www.pina.com.fj/?p=pacnews&m=read&o=14771466144b9416e9adbeb185e8e7 Accessed n: 9/12/2017
  50. ^ Brian Kramer MP, The real story behind the IPIC deal Posted on 2/01/2017 Available at: Part 1 https://www.facebook.com/kramerreportpng/posts/918651614937812:0 Part 2https://www.facebook.com/kramerreportpng/posts/922895774513396:0 Part 3https://www.facebook.com/kramerreportpng/posts/925349004268073:0 Accessed: 8/11/2017
  51. ^ For Arthur Somare's view and especially his conflict with Morauta: Stanley Simpson, how the PNG/LNG was won in Business Melanesia, May 2014 pp. 20-22 http://www.businessmelanesia.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/bussiness_melanesia_may_issue_opt.pdf Accessed on: 9/12/2017
  52. ^ Liam Fox: PNG government takes control of Ok Tedi mine, repeals laws protecting BHP Posted on: 19 Sep 2013. Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-09-19/png-government-takes-control-of-png-ok-tedi-mine/4967004 ; Stephen Howes: The remarkable story of the nationalization of PNG’s largestmine and its second largest development partner, all in one day Posted on 24/09/2013 Available at: http://devpolicy.org/ok-tedi-sdp-20130924/ Accessed on: 9/12/2017
  53. ^ Garnaut 'not welcome' in PNG - The Australian Available at: www.theaustralian.com.au/news/.../garnaut.../88dc6f75e57423092197667a2c63f9b9 Accessed: 8/11/2017
  54. ^ Business Advantage PNG : Morauta accuses government of ‘stealing’ Ok Tedi Mining Posted on: 18/09/2013 Available at : http://www.businessadvantagepng.com/morauta-accuses-government-of-stealing-ok-tedi-mining-ltd/ Accessed on: 9/11/2017
  55. ^ PNG government takes control of Ok Tedi Mine in Sydney Morning Herald 18/9/2013 Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/business/png-government-takes-control-of-ok-tedi-mine-20130918-2tzt4.html Accessed on: 9/11/2017
  56. ^ Business Advantage PNG: PNGSDP divests assets Posted on 12/02/2014 Available at: http://www.businessadvantagepng.com/brief-pngsdp-divests-ok-tedi-assets-new-trade-treaty-australia-bougainville-export-black-gold/ Accessed on: 9/12/2017
  57. ^ Marquita Davis: Unanimous ICSID tribunal dismisses expropriation claim due to Papua New Guinea’s lack of written consent to arbitrate PNG Sustainable Development Program Ltd. v. Independent State of Papua New Guinea, ICSID Case No. ARB/13/33 Posted on: 4/10/2015 Available at: https://www.iisd.org/itn/2015/08/04/png-sustainable-development-program-ltd-v-independent-state-of-papua-new-guinea-icsid-case-no-arb-13-33/ Accessed on 9/11/2017
  58. ^ Ok Tedi battle taken to Singapore's Supreme Court Posted on 30/10/2013 Available at: http://www.pngindustrynews.net/pngindustrynews/news/1108514/ok-tedi-battle-taken-to-singapore-s-supreme-court Accessed on: 9/12/2017
  59. ^ Liam Cochrane PNG government accused of lying about Ok Tedi funds verdict by PNG SDP chairman Sir Mekere Morauta Posted on: 3 Sep 2014 Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-04/png-government-admits-to-inaccuracies-over-court-verdict/5720346 ; Liam Cochrane: PNG government admits to inaccuracies over Singapore court verdict on Ok Tedi funds Posted on: 4 Sep 2014, Available at:http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-04/png-government-admits-to-inaccuracies-over-court-verdict/5720346 ; Independent State of Papua New Guinea v PNG Sustainable Development Program Ltd [2016] SGHC 19 Originating Summons No 234 of 2015 Date of judgement: 12 Feb3uary 2016 Judge: Judith Prakash Available at: http://www.singaporelaw.sg/sglaw/laws-of-singapore/case-law/free-law/high-court-judgments/18364-independent-state-of-papua-new-guinea-v-png-sustainable-development-program-ltd Accessed: 10/11/2017
  60. ^ PNGSDP chairman Sir Mekere Morauta Sacked over OK Tedi Mine Posted in Mining news. Available at: http://mine.onepng.com/2013/10/pngsdp-chairman-sir-mekere-morauta.html ; jkisselpar, Sir Mekere begins legal suit Ok Tedi act Posted on Loop PNG:13/1/2016 Available at: http://www.looppng.com/content/sir-mekere-begins-legal-suit-ok-tedi-act ; Sally Pokiton, Sir Mekere has no standing in PNGSDP , says court. Published on Loop PNG 19/10/2016 Available at: http://www.looppng.com/content/sir-mekere-has-no-standing-pngsdp-case-says-court Accessed: 10/11/2017
  61. ^ Wesley Manuel: Papua New Guinea's Ok Tedi mine suspends production, stands down workforce Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-07-28/ok-tedi-mine-suspends-production-stands-down-workforce/6654806 Accessed 9/12/2017
  62. ^ Ok Tedi Mining Ltd damaged by O'Neill Public statement by Sir Mekere Morauta Posted on 14/06/2017 Available at: https://www.mekeremorauta.net/single-post/2017/06/14/Ok-Tedi-Mining-Ltd-damaged-by-ONeill Accessed on: 9/12/2017
  63. ^ The interpretation of the UBS loan is highly contentious. Two critical views: Charles Yala, Osborne Sanida and Andrew Anton Mako “The Oil Search loan: implications for PNG”. Available at: http://devpolicy.org/the-oil-search-loan-implications-for-png-20140321-2/ Posted on 21/3/2014.; John Garnaut, How Oil Search deal found trouble in Papua New Guinea Posted on 10/10/2015 Available at: http://www.smh.com.au/business/energy/how-oil-search-deal-found-trouble-in-papua-20151008-gk43wn.html ; A pro government view: Government Insider: “Demystifying the UBS Loan”. Available at: https://pnghaus.com/2016/06/12/demystifying-the-ubs-loan/comment-page-1/ Posted on 12/6/2016. Brian Kramer gives a comparison of the IPIC Loan VS UBS Loan Available at: https://masalai.wordpress.com/2014/03/31/brian-kramer-gives-a-comparison-of-the-ipic-loan-vs-ubs-loan All accessed on 14/11/2017
  64. ^ PM told to come clean on UBS loan Posted on: October 12, 2015 Available at: https://www.mekeremorauta.net/single-post/2015/10/12/PM-told-to-come-clean-on-UBS-loan-1 Accessed on 14/11/2017
  65. ^ Mekere Morauta: billions of kina down the drain in illegal oil search share deal debacle. http://asopa.typepad.com/asopa_people/2017/09/billion-kina-down-drain-in-illegal-oil-search-share-deal-debacle.html All accessed on 14/11/2017
  66. ^ IPBC: Unfinished Business, Speech by Rt Hon Mekere Morauta KCMG MPMinister for Public Enterprises, Dinner hosted by IPBC, 12 July 2012 Available at: http://www.kch.com.pg/unfinished-business/ Accessed on: 6/11/2017
  67. ^ Cedric Pajole, Morauta presided over more policy failures: Zeming, Posted on: 17/2/2017 Available at: http://www.looppng.com/elections/morauta-presided-over-more-policy-failures-zeming-52631; Zeming criticises Morauta’s leadership in The National ,17/02/2017 Available at: http://www.thenational.com.pg/zeming-criticises-morautas-leadership/ Accessed on: 9/12/2017
  68. ^ Curriculum vitae of Rt. Hon. Sir Mekere Morauta Archived 20 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine - Website of The National Capital District Commission (NCDC).
  69. ^ "No. 59093". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 June 2009. p. 1.
  70. ^ "Honours: Commonwealth". The Independent. London. 12 June 2009.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Bill Skate
Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea
1999–2002
Succeeded by
Sir Michael Somare
Preceded by
Michael Somare
Leader of the Opposition of Papua New Guinea
2002–2004
Succeeded by
Peter O'Neill
Preceded by
Peter O'Neill
Leader of the Opposition of Papua New Guinea
2007–2011
Succeeded by
Belden Namah