Malacca

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This article is about the Malaysian state. For other uses, see Malacca (disambiguation).
Malacca
Melaka
ملاك
State
Malacca City.JPG
Flag of Malacca
Flag
Coat of arms of Malacca
Coat of arms
Motto: "Bersatu Teguh" (Firmly United)
Anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya (Successful Malacca)
Map showing the location of the state of Malacca within Malaysia
   Malacca in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 2°12′N 102°15′E / 2.200°N 102.250°E / 2.200; 102.250Coordinates: 2°12′N 102°15′E / 2.200°N 102.250°E / 2.200; 102.250
Capital Malacca City
Government
 • Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob
 • Chief Minister Idris Haron (UMNO)
Area[1]
 • Total 1,664 km2 (642 sq mi)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Total 830,900
 • Density 500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
HDI
 • 2010 0.742 (high) (4th)
Postal code 75xxx to 78xxx
Calling code 06
Vehicle registration M
Malacca Sultanate 15th century
Portuguese control 24 August 1511
Dutch control 14 January 1641
British control 17 March 1824
Japanese occupation 15 January 1942
Accession into the Federation of Malaya 1948
Independence as part of the Federation of Malaya 31 August 1957
Website www.melaka.gov.my

Malacca (Malay: Melaka), dubbed "The Historic State", is the third smallest Malaysian state after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Straits of Malacca and Muar the Royal City. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the south. The capital is Malacca City, which is 148 kilometres (92 miles) south east of Malaysia's capital city Kuala Lumpur, 235 kilometres (146 miles) north west of Johor's largest city Johor Bahru, and 95 km (59 miles) north west of Johor's second largest city, Batu Pahat. This historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.

Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, the local monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511. The head of state is the Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor, rather than a Sultan.

History[edit]

Timeline
Incorporated into Date
Malacca Sultanate approx. 1400
Portuguese Empire 1511
Dutch Empire 1641
British Empire 1824
Straits Settlements 1826
Crown Colony 1867
Japanese occupation 15 January 1942
Malayan Union 1 April 1946
Federation of Malaya 31 January 1948
Malaysia 16 September 1963

Sultanate of Malacca[edit]

Main article: Malacca Sultanate

Before the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a fishing village inhabited by local Malays known as Orang Laut. Malacca was founded by Parameswara, also known as Iskandar Shah or Sri Majara, the last Raja of Singapura (present day Singapore) following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca around 1400 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.[3]

According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river during a hunt, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided then and there to found an empire on that very spot. He named it 'Melaka' after the tree where he had just taken shelter at, the Melaka tree (Malay: Pokok Melaka).[4]

Prominent Malaysian artist, Syed Thajudeen, visually depicted the epic tale of the founding of Malacca on canvas. The Beginning, a 4 panel painting measuring 183 x 512cm is now a permanent collection at Galeri Petronas.

The Beginning: Founding of Malacca by Syed Thajudeen

In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut), the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as an international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade.[3]

Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He's fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, according to local folklore a daughter of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married locals and settled mostly in Bukit Cina.[5]

"In the 9th month of the year 1481 envoys arrived with the [......] Malacca again sent envoys to China in 1481 to inform the Chinese that, while Malaccan envoys were returning to Malacca from China in 1469, the Vietnamese attacked the Malaccans, killing some of them while castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was in control of Champa and also sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back, because they did not want to fight against another state that was a tributary to China without permission from the Chinese. They requested to confront the Vietnamese delegation to China which was in China at the time, but the Chinese informed them since the incident was years old, they could do nothing about it, and the Emperor sent a letter to the Vietnamese ruler reproaching him for the incident. The Chinese Emperor also ordered the Malaccans to raise soldiers and fight back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked them again.[6][7]

Colonial era[edit]

1630 map of the Portuguese fort and the city of Malacca

In April 1511, Alfonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[8] They conquered the city on 24 August 1511. After seizing the city Afonso de Albuquerque spared the Hindu, Chinese and Burmese inhabitants but had the Muslim inhabitants massacred or sold into slavery.[9]

It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not also mean they controlled Asian trade centred there. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties.[10] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.[10]

Dutch Malacca, c. 1750

The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546, and 1549. In 1641, the Dutch defeated the Portuguese in an effort to capture Malacca, with the help of the Sultan of Johore.[11] The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) on Java as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark, better known as the Stadthuys or Red Building.

Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was under the rule of the British, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. Malacca went briefly under the rule of Empire of Japan in 1942-1945 during World War II.

Post colonial era[edit]

After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union in 1946, which later became the Federation of Malaya in 1948. The declaration of independence was made by the first Prime Minister of Malaya Tunku Abdul Rahman at Padang Pahlawan on 20 February 1956, which eventually led to the independence of Malaya on 31 August 1957. In 1963, Malaysia was formed with the merger of Malaya with Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, and Malacca became part of it. On 15 April 1989, Malacca was declared a historical city. It was then also listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.[12]

Geography[edit]

The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,664 km2 (642 sq mi).[1] It sits upon the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east. Malacca is situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the west coast, 148 km (92 mi) south of Kuala Lumpur and 245 km (152 mi) north of Singapore and commands a central position on the Straits of Malacca. With the exception of some of its small hills, Malacca is generally a lowland area with average elevation below 50 meters above sea level.[13]

The Malacca River roughly runs through the center line of the state from north to south. Kesang River acts as the eastern border of Malacca with Johor. The offshore Besar Island, Upeh Island and Undan Island are part of Malacca which are accessible by jetty from Malacca mainland. The exclave Cape Rachado is also parts of Malacca. Malacca has several beautiful beaches edged with palm trees which has brought a number of resorts along the coast. Famous beaches are Tanjung Bidara Beach, Klebang Beach, Puteri Beach and Pengkalan Balak Beach.[14]

The man-made Malacca Island is connected to the mainland and it is the first phase of the development of Malacca Gateway offshore development, expected to be completed by 2025.

Climate[edit]

The climate of Malacca is hot and humid throughout the year with rainfall occurs mostly between October and March. Temperature ranges generally between 30-35°C during day time and between 27-29°C during night time.[15]

Government[edit]

Seri Negeri complex, which houses the office of Malacca Chief Minister and Malacca State Legislative Assembly.
Party composition in the State Legislative Assembly after the 2013 general election:      BN (21),      DAP (6) and      PAS (1).

Malacca's state parliament is called the State Legislative Assembly and the party in power forms the Executive Committee. The assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The State Executive Council is responsible to the assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Yang di-Pertua Negeri who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia. The current Yang di-Pertua Negeri is Mohd Khalil Yaakob.

The State Government is headed by the Chief Minister. The minister is appointed by Yang di-Pertua Negeri from among the State Legislative Assembly members. The Chief Minister shall preside over a meeting of State Executive Council ministers which meet weekly at the Chief Minister's office. The Chief Minister's Department is responsible for the overall administration of the state, as well as its political interest. The current Chief Minister is Idris Haron of United Malays National Organisation.

The administrative complex is located at Seri Negeri complex in Ayer Keroh. It houses the Chief Minister's office, State Legislative Assembly and State Secretariat office. For administrative purposes, Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:

  • Malacca Central District and Land Office
  • Alor Gajah District and Land Office
  • Jasin District and Land Office

Districts and Local Authorities[edit]

Malacca is divided into 3 districts and 4 local authorities.

Rank District Area (km2) Population (2010)[16] District Seat Local Government
1 Central Malacca 279.85 503,127 Malacca City
Ayer Keroh
Historical Malacca City Council
Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council
2 Alor Gajah 660.00 182,666 Alor Gajah Town Alor Gajah Municipal Council
3 Jasin 676.07 135,317 Jasin Town Jasin Municipal Council
Alor Gajah Municipal Council
Jasin Municipal Council

Towns[edit]

Besides Malacca City, other major Malacca townships include Alor Gajah, Asahan, Ayer Keroh, Batang Melaka, Batu Berendam, Bemban, Bukit Katil, Cheng, Durian Tunggal, Hang Tuah Jaya, Jasin, Klebang, Kuala Sungai Baru, Lendu, Lubuk China, Machap Baru, Malacca Pindah, Masjid Tanah, Merlimau, Naning, Nyalas, Pulau Sebang, Ramuan China, Selandar, Serkam, Simpang Ampat, Sungai Rambai, Sungai Udang, Tampin, Tanjung Kling, Telok Mas and Umbai.

Economy[edit]

See also: PANTAS
Serkam industrial area

Despite being located in a land without any significant natural resources, the economy of Malacca has been dated back more than 500 years ago due to its strategic location as the center for spice trade and its importance which influence the colonial countries to engage wars to control it.[17]

Malacca started to open up itself to foreign investors since the early 1970s which has been successful. By 1997, the state has registered a total investment of over MYR16 billion. In 2014, a total MYR4.4 billion worth of investment was achieved by the state, in which MYR1.8 billion came from foreign investors.[18]

In 2013, Malacca had a GDP of MYR22,646 million with GDP per capita of MYR34,109. It had 3.2% GDP growth in 2013. Inflation rate in 2012 was 1.6%. As of 2015, the Malacca State Government has an outstanding MYR861.7 million of loan to the federal government. In 2014, the state government's reserve amounted to MYR206.61 million.[19] The unemployment rate in 2014 was 0.9% or around 3,500 people.[20]

As of 2012, service sector contributes to the largest share of economy in Malacca accounted for 46.9%, followed by manufacturing (43.5%), agriculture (6.5%), construction 2.9%) and mining (0.1%).[21]

On 21 October 2010 an event was held to announce that Malacca had met the benchmark of 'Developed State' as set out by OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and a declaration of "Melaka Maju 2010" was made by Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Abd Razak.[22]

Currently there are 23 industrial areas which are centered along the edges of the city proper in suburbs which include Ayer Keroh, Batu Berendam, Cheng, Taman Tasik Utama and Tanjung Kling. While outside Malacca City, industrial areas include Alor Gajah and Sungai Udang. There are around 500 factories in the state which come from Germany, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, United States etc. For small and medium-sized enterprises, a number of estates have been established by the state government.[23][24]

The Malacca International Trade Centre in Ayer Keroh which was opened on June 2003 is the leading commercial center and the center for meetings, incentives, convention and exhibitions which plays an important role in the development of trade in Malacca.[25]

Sungai Udang houses the PETRONAS Malacca Refinery Complex consisting two refining trains, established in 1994 and 1999 and owned by PETRONAS Penapisan (Melaka) Sdn. Bhd. and Malaysian Refining Company Sdn. Bhd. respectively. The total capacity of the refinery is 270,000 barrels of oil per day.[26][27]

Culture[edit]

Religion in Malacca - 2010 Census
religion percent
Islam
  
66.1%
Buddhism
  
24.2%
Hinduism
  
5.7%
Christianity
  
3.0%
Chinese Ethnic Religion
  
0.2%
Other
  
0.6%
No religion
  
0.2%

Culture in Malacca began around 15th century in which various ethnic customs and traditions blended perfectly. Each group upholds their tradition and it is reflected in their food, religion customs, festivals, culture, design, application, jewellery and handicrafts.[28]

Demographics[edit]

Chitty Village

Malacca has an estimated population of 860,000 as of 2014 with an average annual population growth of 1%.[29][2] The ethnic composition of Malacca is Malays (63%), Chinese and Peranakan (25.3%), Indians and Chitty (6%) and the minority Kristang and Dutch Eurasians community.

Malay community in Malacca is generally divided into two, which are the Temenggong custom and the Pepatih custom. The remaining traditional Malay village in Malacca City is the Morten Village.[30]

The Chinese community consists of Hokkien, Cantonese, Hakka, Teochow and Hainanese group of people. Jonker Walk is the Chinatown area of Malacca. The Peranakan people in Malacca show unique features, such as furniture, porcelain, crockery, style and food. Their culture is showcased at the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum.

Indians in Malacca are the Tamil people in which many of them used to work at the rubber plantation. However, many of them now work in the jewellery, fabrics, retailers, merchants and money lender sectors. Many of them reside in Little India. There is also Chitty Village for the minority Chitty people which houses the Chitty Museum.

A sizable number of Sikhs residing in Malacca, and Sikhs from Malacca and abroad congregate in the gurdwara (Sikh temple) situated in Jalan Temenggong during the last weekend of May, to commemorate the death of its former priest, Sant Baba Sohan Singh Ji, who was elevated to a saint upon passing away.[citation needed] They celebrate the Guru Nanak's birthday and Vasakhi new year annually.

A population of Portuguese descent, who speak a Portuguese creole, are the descendants of colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries.[31] Even to this day, many of the traditions originating with the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. "Intrudu" from Portuguese word "Entrudo" (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), "branyu" (traditional dance), "Santa Cruz" (a yearly Festival of street celebrations). Many of them settle down around the Portuguese Settlement area, which has a population of about 1,200 residents.[32] The Portuguese colonists contributed dishes like Devil's Curry and Portuguese egg tarts to the town's cuisine.[citation needed]

The indigenous people of Malacca is relatively small. They generally reside in rural settlements, the edge of the woods and along the coast facing Malacca Strait. Malacca houses the Aborigines Museum in Ayer Keroh.[28]

Language[edit]

Malay is the official language of Malacca and is used in the government and public sectors. English is widely used in business and tourism sectors. Chinese, Tamil and Kristang languages are also spoken.[33]

Sports[edit]

Sports-related affairs of Malacca is governed by the Malacca State Sports Council (Malay: Majlis Sukan Negeri Melaka) under the Malacca State Government.[34] Another governing body about sports in Malacca is the Department of Youth and Sports (Malay: Jabatan Belia dan Sukan Negeri Melaka).

Malacca houses several football stadiums, such as Hang Jebat Stadium, Hang Tuah Stadium and Tun Fatimah Stadium. Built in 1954, Hang Tuah Stadium is the oldest stadium in Malacca.[35] Established under the Malacca Stadium Corporation Enactment 2004, the Malacca Stadium Corporation is the entity that manages stadiums in Malacca which started its operation on 16 September 2004.[36]

There is also a motorsport racetrack in Ayer Keroh, the Malacca International Motorsport Circuit. Ayer Keroh also houses the Malacca International Bowling Centre. With 52 lanes, it is the largest bowling center in Malaysia.[37]

There are four golf courses in Malacca, namely Ayer Keroh Golf and Country Club, Orna Golf and Country Club and Tiara Malacca Golf and Country Club in Ayer Keroh and A'Famosa Golf Resort in Simpang Ampat.[38]

Malacca was the host venue for the 2010 Sukma Games held on 10-19 June 2010.

Education[edit]

Secondary education[edit]

Ayer Keroh National High School

Malacca has two boarding schools, Sekolah Menengah Sains Muzaffar Syah (MOZAC) and Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Selandar (SBPIS). The Ministry of Education of Malaysia enrolls students based on their Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) and Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR).

A centre for juvenile convicts, Henry Gurney Prisoners School, is in Telok Mas, Malacca. Established in 1949 as High Moral School, it was renamed School of Henry Gurney on May 15th, 1950. This centre runs rehabilitation programs for male juvenile offenders.

Malacca has two international schools, the Melaka International School, which caters to expatriate and local communities; and KYS International School, staffed by expatriate teachers, which specialises in teaching Cambridge International A Levels.

Higher education[edit]

There is a public university located in Malacca called Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). Malacca also hosts three Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) campuses that are located at Lendu, Malacca City and Jasin.

The establishment of the Malacca Manipal Medical College in Bukit Baru is the foremost institution for medical education in the state.

Malacca also serves as a centre for international education in the region. Multimedia University (MMU) at Bukit Beruang plays a major role in attracting students from all over the world.[citation needed]

There are several institutions that offer nursing education: Institut Kesihatan Sains & Kejururawatan Pantai, Institut Sains Kesihatan Dan Kejururawatan Mahkota, Kolej Kejururawatan & Kesihatan Nilam, and Kolej Perubatan Komplementari Melaka. Institut Kesihatan Sains & Kejururawatan Pantai is linked to Pantai Hospital at Ayer keroh while Institut Sains Kesihatan Dan Kejururawatan Mahkota is linked to Mahkota Medical Centre.

The Institut Skill Tech in Machap provides training in agriculture. It has a branch in Taman Tasik Utama, Ayer Keroh.

Working adults who desire to pursue their education part-time can study at Open University Malaysia (OUM), while those who wish to obtain an academic diploma can enroll at University of Malaya Centre for Continuing Education (UMCCE) at Sinar College.

Malacca provides opportunities to youth in training to be marine professionals via Malaysian Maritime Academy (ALAM) at Kuala Sungai Baru.

Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) lectures and examinations are provided at Sinar College at Malacca City. Sinar College is the only institution in the state that offers complete accounting education. Sinar College is the only approved training centre for tourism courses. From a tourist guide course to a diploma in tourism, it offers wide range of qualification for students and professionals. Other well known academic institutions include International College of Yayasan Melaka (KYM), Melaka International College of Science and Technology (MiCoST).

The state government of Malacca provides financial assistance mainly in the form of loans to local citizens via Melaka Education Trust Fund (TAPEM). Among the facilities provided by TAPEM are Higher Education Loan, Minor Scholarship/Incentive Scholarship for Secondary School, and School Assistance to Primary School Students.

Public libraries[edit]

Malacca Public Library main building at Bukit Baru.

The very first library in Malacca was the Khutub Khanah Malacca, established in 1881 and was located at the Stadthuys. After the independence of Malaya in 1957 and formation of Malaysia in 1963, the library was moved to Hang Tuah Hall in 1966. In 1975, the Malacca Public Library Corporation was enacted to establish the Malacca Public Library. The corporation was then established 2 years later in 1977 located at Hang Tuah Hall. In 1993, the Malacca Public Library Enactment (Amendment) Act 1993 went in force. The library was finally moved to its current location at Bukit Baru and inaugurated on 4 November 1996.[39]

At district level, the Jasin branch of the library was established in 1986 at JKR Building, which then later moved to a new building in 1999. The Alor Gajah branch of the library was established in 1988 at UMNO Building, which then later moved to a new building in 1998. The Central Malacca branch of the library was established in 1996 at Hang Tuah Mall after the main library moved to Bukit Baru, which then later changed to Higher Education Institute Resource Center Library in 2001.

At town and village level, library branches are Masjid Tanah branch established in 1992 and 2005; Air Tawar Village Library, Felda Kemendore Village Library, Selandar Village Library and Kuala Linggi Village Library branches established in 1993; Rantau Panjang Village Library branch established in 1994; Merlimau branch established in 1994 and moved to a new building in 2003; Pulau Sebang Village Library branch established in 1997; Japerun Sungai Rambai Library, Japerun Serkam Library, Japerun Durian Tunggal Library and Ayer Molek Darat Village Library branches established in 1999; Felda Bukti Senggeh Village Library and Felda Bukit Sedanan Village Library branches established in 2000; Kampung Padang Village Cyber Library branch established in 2001; Japerun Air Panas Library, Bertam Hulu Village Library, Japerun Bukit Asahan Library, Tangga Batu Village Library and Paya Rumput Village Library branches established in 2002; Ilmu Air Limau Cyber Library and Ilmu Chenderah Cyber Library branches established in 2003; Menggong Village Library branch established in 2004; Klebang Village Cyber Library established in 2005; Telok Mas Town Library and Telok Gong Village Library established in 2006; Bukit Bulat Village Library established in 2008; Malacca Planetarium Community Library and ÆON Community Library branches established in 2010; Sungai Rambai Village 1Malaysia Library established in 2012.

Health care[edit]

Malacca houses a number of government and private hospitals and health clinics, as well as hundreds of private clinics. The location of medical institutions are located all over the state of Malacca, either in urban or rural areas, providing uniform and equitable healthcare to the residents. Health-related affairs in Malacca is governed by Malacca State Health Department by providing basic health service to the residents and oversee all government health facilities in the state among hospitals, community polyclinic, rural health clinics and clinics.[40]

Medical tourism[edit]

Malacca is also a popular place for health care and medical tourism for Indonesian people from Sumatra due to its close proximity to the state, followed by Singapore.[41][42] In 2014, Malacca received over 500,000 tourists for medical tourism-related purpose.[43]

List of hospitals[edit]

Government hospitals in Malacca are Malacca General Hospital and Jasin District Hospital, while private hospitals are Putra Hospital, Pantai Hospital Ayer Keroh, Mahkota Medical Centre and Oriental Melaka Straits Medical Centre.

Energy and environment[edit]

Power generations[edit]

Malacca houses three power stations, namely the 330 MW Tanjung Kling Power Station in Tanjung Kling and 440 MW Telok Gong Power Station 1 and 720 MW Telok Gong Power Station 2 in Telok Gong, with a total installed generation capacity of 1,490 MW.[44]

Green energy[edit]

On 16 December 2013, the Malacca State Government unveiled the draft 8,000 hectares special area called the Malacca World Solar Vallery in Rembia, Alor Gajah applying solar energy as the primary alternative in all municipal activity sectors.[45][46]

Water supply[edit]

Water supply-related matters in Malacca is administered by the Malacca Water Company Ltd. (Malay: Syarikat Air Melaka Berhad) which is headquartered at Malacca City. It was established on 1 July 2006 after it was upgraded from its predecessor Malacca Water Corporation (Malay: Perbadanan Air Melaka). The company is also responsible for the maintenance and delivery infrastructure of clean water in the state.[47]

Currently, there are three dams located in Malacca supplying its residents with water, which are Durian Tunggal Dam in Alor Gajah, Jus Dam and Asahan Dam in Jasin. The fourth dam, Jernih Dam, will be constructed in Taboh Naning in Alor Gajah and expected to be completed by 2018.[48] There are three major retention basins in the state, which are Kesang Satu Lake, Kesang Dua Lake and Ayer Keroh Lake. Raw water is supplied from the Malacca River, Kesang River and Gerisik River.[49]

Daily water consumption for Malacca is 500 million litres and each resident consumes 220 litres per day, higher than the national average of 180 litres per day. The Malacca State Government signed an agreement with Johor State Government on a water supply agreement in 1993 and additional water supply agreement in 2013.[50][51] Another water supply agreement is planned to be signed with Negeri Sembilan in the future.[52]

Environmental campaign[edit]

Malacca adopted a campaign slogan of Don't Mess with Malacca since 2014 to reduce littering in the state after the local authorities found that cleanliness levels had dropped. The slogan was adopted from the Don't Mess with Texas campaign held in Texas, United States, launched in 1986. The idea came from Chief Minister Idris Haron when he was still studying at the University of Texas at El Paso in the late 1980s.[53]

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is a booming industry in Malacca which leads to the benefit of the business communities, such as hotels, cafes, restaurants, bars and shops. It is a popular travel destinations for Singaporeans during the weekends. Malacca has adopted as its slogan, "Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia" ("Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia").[54]

Tourist visitors to Malacca in 2014 was 15.4 million people, with 26% were foreign tourists.[55] In 2011, top five foreign tourists coming to Malacca were from Mainland China (222,999 people), Singapore (185,277 people), Indonesia (168,190 people), Taiwan (108,128 people) and Hong Kong (57,241 people).[56]

Tourist attractions[edit]

Malacca has numerous historical places and buildings. In order to preserve those sites, numerous museums have been built to preserve those legacies. Most of the museums in the state are managed by Malacca Museum Corporation (PERZIM; Malay: Perbadanan Muzium Melaka).[57] Museums in Malacca are Aborigines Museum, Agricultural Museum, Al-Quran Museum, Malaysia Architecture Museum, Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum, Beauty Museum, Cheng Ho Cultural Museum, Chitty Museum, Customs Department Museum, Democratic Government Museum, Education Museum, Forestry Museum, Governor's Museum, History and Ethnography Museum, Islamic Museum, Kite Museum, Literature Museum, Magic Art 3D Museum, Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum, Malay and Islamic World Museum, Maritime Museum, Navy Museum, People's Museum, Prison Museum, Pulau Besar Museum, Stamp Museum, Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum, Submarine Museum, Toy Museum, Tradition and Custom Museum, UMNO Museum, World's Bees Museum and Youth Museum.

The other historical buildings and structures are A Famosa, Alor Gajah British Graveyard, Bastion Middleburg, Dutch Graveyard, Hang Jebat Mausoleum, Hang Kasturi Mausoleum, Hang Li Poh's Well, Hang Tuah Mausoleum, Hang Tuah's Well, Malacca Light, Malacca Warrior Monument, Portuguese Well, Proclamation of Independence Memorial, Ruins of Saint Paul's Church, Saint John's Fort, Stadthuys, Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba Memorial and Tun Teja Mausoleum.

There are also galleries displaying various aspects of life in Malacca, which are Batang Tiga Police Station Gallery, Bee Gallery Malacca, Chief Minister’s Gallery, Demang Abdul Ghani Gallery, Folks Art Gallery, Malacca Gallery, Gallery of Admiral Cheng Ho, Jehan Chan Art Gallery, Macau Gallery, Malacca Art Gallery, Malacca Craft Centre, Malacca Golf Gallery, Malacca House and Prison Products Gallery.

Theme parks, education centres, resorts and zoos in Malacca are A' Famosa Resort, Al-Khawarizmi Astronomy Complex, Malacca Bird Park, Malacca Butterfly and Reptile Sanctuary, Malacca Crocodile Farm, Malacca Planetarium, Malacca Wonderland, Malacca Zoo, Mini Malaysia and ASEAN Cultural Park, Pirate Park and Taming Sari Tower.

Malacca boosts some of beautiful natural-related tourism, such as Ayer Keroh Lake, Bukit Batu Lebah Recreational Forest, Cape Rachado, Garden of Thousand Flowers, Klebang Beach, Malacca Botanical Garden, Malacca River, Malacca Tropical Fruit Farm, Paya Laut Linggi Recreational Forest, Pengkalan Balak Beach, Puteri Beach, Saint Paul's Hill and Sungai Udang Recreational Forest. Malacca has also hot springs, namely Gadek Hot Spring and Jasin Hot Spring.

Malacca is a multi-religious society, therefor various worshiping places can be found around the state, namely Cheng Hoon Teng Temple, Chinese Mosque, Christ Church, Kampung Hulu Mosque, Kampung Kling Mosque, Poh San Teng Temple, Saint Francis Xavier Church, Saint Peter's Church, Straits Mosque, Sri Poyatha Moorthi Temple, State Mosque and Tranquerah Mosque.

Public squares in Malacca are 1Malaysia Square, Alor Gajah Square, Ayer Keroh Square and Jasin Square.

Some famous night markets can be found along Jonker Walk in Chinatown during weekends evening and along Puteri Beach in Tanjung Kling. In total, there are around 87 night markets around Malacca.[58] During the Islamic fasting month, special night markets are opened along many major roads throughout the month.[59]

International relations[edit]

Cultural exchanges[edit]

China[edit]

In June 2012, the Macau Gallery Malacca was opened at Bukit Peringgit, Malacca under the government of Macau. In April 2015, the Malacca State Government decided to built the MYR300 million Malacca Information Centre which will be located in Zhuhai, Guangdong.[60]

Cuba[edit]

In June 2007, the Casa Cuba was opened at Bukit Peringgit, Malacca.

Indonesia[edit]

In February 2013, the Malacca Gallery in Jakarta, Indonesia was officiated by Jakarta Governor Joko Widodo and Malacca Chief Minister Mohd Ali Rustam.[61][62][63][64]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Malacca is twinned with:

Rank Sister Cities Country Region
1 Pekanbaru Indonesia Riau
2 Lisbon[65][66] Portugal Lisbon Region
3 Saarbrücken Germany Saarland
4 Temuco Chile Araucanía Region
5 Guayaquil Ecuador Guayas Province

Transportation[edit]

Ferry from Malacca to Indonesia.
Heavily decorated cycle rickshaw in Malacca.

Air[edit]

The Malacca International Airport in Batu Berendam mainly serves Subang, chartered flights from around the region and to Pekanbaru and Medan in Indonesia. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysian Flying Academy. Malacca is also accessible by road from Kuala Lumpur International Airport located in the neighboring state of Selangor.[67]

Railway[edit]

There are currently two Keretapi Tanah Melayu railway stations in Malacca, which are the Pulau Sebang/Tampin Station in Pulau Sebang, Alor Gajah and Batang Melaka Station in Batang Melaka, Jasin.

There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca City before World War II, but these were dismantled by the Japanese for the construction of the Burmese Death Railway. It was never rebuilt after the war, though traces of the line remain.[citation needed]

Launched in October 2010, the 1.6-km line of Malacca Monorail served the route along the Malacca River. Due to several technical glitches months into its operation, the system was left idle in 2011. However, in June 2015 the Malacca State Government decided to revive the project.[68]

Water[edit]

Daily ferries run from Malacca to the Indonesian cities of Bengkalis, Dumai and Pekanbaru departing from Harbour Master's Jetty.[69] Regular boat services to Big Island depart from mainland Malacca in Umbai. Several jetties around the state, such as in Merlimau, are used by fishermen.[70]

The Malacca River Cruise is a regular sightseeing boat trip serving along the Malacca River through most of the old town area of Malacca from Muara Jetty up to Taman Rempah Jetty.[71]

Two existing container ports in Malacca are the Port of Kuala Sungai Linggi and Port of Tanjung Bruas.[72]

Road[edit]

The Melaka Sentral bus station, combined with taxi terminal, serves cities around Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.[73] The Panorama Melaka bus is the public bus serving Malacca City and major landmarks.[74]

The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South Expressway is the main entry to Malacca, connected by Ayer Keroh highway to Malacca City. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits. The Syed Abdullah Aziz Road roughly connects the western and eastern sides of Malacca separated by the Malacca River through the Malacca Coastal Bridge.

Many of the heavily decorated cycle rickshaws (Malay: beca) equipped with sound system can be seen on the streets in Malacca. Most of them are used to bring tourist around the town for sightseeing. The average size can accommodate two average adult with probably a child.[75]

Popular culture[edit]

Part of the 1999 Entrapment movie was shot at Malacca River.[76]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  4. ^ Origin of Malacca
  5. ^ Jin, Shaoqing (2005). Office of the People's Government of Fujian Province, ed. Zheng He's voyages down the western seas. Fujian, China: China Intercontinental Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-7-5085-0708-8. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  6. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost (1887). Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1. LONDON: Trübner & Co. p. 252. Retrieved 9 January 2011. report that the envoys of their country, who had returned from China in 1469. had been driven by a storm on the coast of Annam, where many of their people were killed; the rest had been made slaves, and the younger ones had further undergone castration. They also told that the Annamese now occupied Champa, and that they wanted to conquer their country too, but that Malacca, remembering that they all were subjects of the emperor, hitherto had abstained from reciprocating these hostilities. "At the same time the envoys with the tribute of Annam arrived also, and the envoys of Malacca requested permission to argue the question with them before the court, but the Board of War submitted that the affair was already old, and that it was of no use to investigate it any more. When therefore the envoys of Annam returned, the emperor gave them a letter in which their king was reproved, and Malacca received instructions to raise soldiers and resist by force, whenever it was attacked by Annam. 
  7. ^ Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 28 June 2010. Other reports condemned Annamese alleged violation of an Asian "diplomatic protocol" as they killed and enslaved several Southeast Asian envoys who carried tributary missions to China in 1469. Older members of the mission were all killed while younger members were castrated and sold into slavery 
  8. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 23. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  9. ^ Power Over Peoples: Technology, Environments, and Western Imperialism, 1400 to the present, Daniel R. Headrick, page 63, 2010
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  16. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/malaysia-admin.php?adm1id=04
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  18. ^ http://www.thesundaily.my/news/1343115
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  22. ^ Proud Day For Malacca, The Star, 21 October 2010.
  23. ^ http://www.mphtj.gov.my/en/kawasan-perindustrian
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  25. ^ http://www.mphtj.gov.my/en/melaka-international-trade-centre
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  36. ^ Super User. "Profile". stadiummelaka.gov.my. 
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References[edit]

  • Borschberg, Peter, "The Seizure of the Santa Catarina Revisited: The Portuguese Empire in Asia, VOC Politics and the Origins of the Dutch-Johor Alliance (c. 1602–1616)", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 33.1 (2002): 31–62. (This article can be downloaded free of charge at www.cambride.org, doi:10.1017/S0022463402000024)
  • Borschberg, Peter, ed., (2004). Iberians in the Singapore-Melaka Area and Adjacent Regions (16th to 18th Centuries). Germany: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-05107-8. 
  • Borschberg, Peter (2010). The Singapore and Melaka Straits. Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the Seventeenth Century. Singapore: NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-464-7. 
  • De Witt, Dennis (2010). Melaka from the Top. Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 978-983-43519-2-2. 
  • De Witt, Dennis (2007). History of the Dutch in Malaysia. Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 978-983-43519-0-8. 
  • "Popular History of Thailand" by M.L. Manich Jumsai, C.B.E., M.A.
  •  This article incorporates text from Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost, a publication from 1887 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost, a publication from 1887 now in the public domain in the United States.

External links[edit]