Melancholia (2011 film)

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Melancholia
Melancholia (2011 film poster).png
Danish theatrical release poster
Directed byLars von Trier
Written byLars von Trier
Produced by
Starring
CinematographyManuel Alberto Claro
Edited byMolly Malene Stensgaard
Production
companies
Distributed by
  • Nordisk Film (Scandinavia)
  • Les films du losange (France)
  • Concorde Filmverleih (Germany)
  • BIM Distribuzione (Italy)
Release dates
  • 18 May 2011 (2011-05-18) (Cannes)
  • 26 May 2011 (2011-05-26) (Denmark)
  • 27 May 2011 (2011-05-27) (Sweden)
  • 10 August 2011 (2011-08-10) (France)
  • 6 October 2011 (2011-10-06) (Germany)
Running time
130 minutes[1]
Countries
  • Denmark
  • Sweden
  • France
  • Germany
LanguageEnglish
Budget$9.4 million[2]
(c. US$9.4 million (2010))
Box office$21.8 million[3][4]

Melancholia is a 2011 apocalyptic drama art film written and directed by Lars von Trier and starring Kirsten Dunst, Charlotte Gainsbourg, and Kiefer Sutherland, with Alexander Skarsgård, Brady Corbet, Cameron Spurr, Charlotte Rampling, Jesper Christensen, John Hurt, Stellan Skarsgård, and Udo Kier in supporting roles. The film's story revolves around two sisters, one of whom marries just before a rogue planet is about to collide with Earth.

On 18 May 2011, Melancholia premiered at the 64th Cannes Film Festival, where it was received with critical acclaim and was considered one of Trier's finest works.[5] Dunst received the festival's Best Actress Award for her performance, which was a common area of praise among critics. Although it has detractors, many critics and film scholars have considered the film to be a personal masterpiece; it has since been featured in multiple listings of the best films of 2011, the best films of the 2010s, and the best films of the 21st century.[6][7]

Plot[edit]

Melancholia's first approach and final collision with Earth, as described (and shown briefly in a similar diagram) in the film.

A dream sequence showcases slow motion shots of the main characters, a collapsing horse, falling birds, and images of the Earth colliding with a rogue planet.[8]

Part One: Justine[edit]

The dream belongs to Justine, who weds Michael in a castle owned by her brother-in-law John and her sister Claire. Justine and Michael are late for the reception due to their stretch limousine's difficulty traversing the narrow and winding rural road. Upon their arrival, Justine sees a star in the sky shining particularly brightly. John, an astronomy enthusiast, explains it is the star Antares. The festivities are less than harmonious; Justine's divorced parents Gaby and Dexter verbally abuse each other in front of the guests, and Justine, to John and Claire's annoyance, keeps wandering away. Justine's employer Jack, who announces her promotion to art director of his advertising firm, expects her to write a slogan for a new campaign during the celebration. Justine finds herself pushed into a role that others have chosen for her and falls back into depression, from which she has been suffering for a long time. Towards the end of the party, which goes on until the early hours of the morning, she quits her job in an argument and calls off her marriage to Michael after cheating on him. Early the following morning, while horseriding with Claire, Justine notices Antares is no longer visible in the sky.

Part Two: Claire[edit]

Justine returns home with Claire, but sinks even further into depression, and is welcomed back to John and Claire's estate, where she struggles to leave her bed and is unable to eat. According to John, Antares's absence is due to the rogue planet "Melancholia". The planet appeared from behind the Sun and has passed in front of Antares. John announces that according to the scientists' calculations, Melancholia will pass in close proximity to Earth, but will not collide with it. Claire looks anxiously at Melancholia's path on the Internet, learning of a predicted collision with Earth. John tries to calm her down, but secretly secures food and gasoline. In view of the approaching planet, Claire increasingly loses her composure, while Justine longs for the end of the world and "sunbathes" naked in the glow of the planet at night.

Strange omens pile up in the days that follow. The electricity in the castle goes out, the butler does not come to work, the horses in the stable are restless, and the weather changes erratically. Melancholia initially flies past Earth, seemingly vindicating John. Melancholia then crosses Earth's orbit a second time, however, now moving directly towards Earth. Upon this discovery, John commits suicide by overdosing on pills. Claire hides his death from the family and attempts to flee with her son Leo, but the cars will not start. Justine declines to spend her final moments with Claire on the terrace by candlelight and wine. Instead, Justine calms Leo down by suggesting that they build a "magic cave" out of branches. Shortly before the collision, Justine, Claire and Leo sit under the "cave" and hold hands. Melancholia finally collides with Earth, engulfing them and everything else in a sea of flames as the earth shatters into a billion pieces.

Cast[edit]

Lead actresses Kirsten Dunst and Charlotte Gainsbourg during the film's presentation at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival.

Production[edit]

Inspiration[edit]

Von Trier's initial inspiration for the film came from a depressive episode he suffered. The film is a Danish production by Zentropa, with international co-producers in Denmark, Sweden, France, and Germany.[9][10]

Filming took place in Sweden. Melancholia prominently features music from the prelude to Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde (1857–1859). It is the second entry in von Trier's unofficially titled "Depression Trilogy", preceded by Antichrist and followed by Nymphomaniac.[11]

Development[edit]

The idea for the film originated during a therapy session Lars von Trier attended during treatments for his depression. A therapist had told von Trier that depressive people tend to act more calmly than others under heavy pressure, because they already expect bad things to happen. Von Trier then developed the story not primarily as a disaster film, and without any ambition to portray astrophysics realistically, but as a way to examine the human psyche during a disaster.[12][13]

"In a James Bond movie we expect the hero to survive. It can get exciting nonetheless. And some things may be thrilling precisely because we know what's going to happen, but not how they will happen. In Melancholia it's interesting to see how the characters we follow react as the planet approaches Earth."

--Trier on his decision to reveal the ending in the beginning of the film[14]

The idea of a planetary collision was inspired by websites with theories about such events. Von Trier decided from the outset that it would be clear from the beginning that the world would actually end in the film, so audiences would not be distracted by the suspense of not knowing. The concept of the two sisters as main characters developed via an exchange of letters between von Trier and the Spanish actress Penélope Cruz. Cruz wrote that she would like to work with von Trier, and spoke enthusiastically about the play The Maids by Jean Genet. As von Trier subsequently tried to write a role for the actress, the two maids from the play evolved into the sisters Justine and Claire in Melancholia. Much of the personality of the character Justine was based on von Trier himself.[14] The name was inspired by the Marquis de Sade novel Justine (1791).[15]

Melancholia was produced by Denmark's Zentropa, with co-production support from its subsidiary in Germany, Sweden's Memfis Film, France's Slot Machine, and Liberator Productions.[16] The production received 7.9 million Danish kroner from the Danish Film Institute, 600,000 euro from Eurimages,and 3 million Swedish kronor from the Swedish Film Institute.[17][18] Additional funding was provided by Film i Väst, DR, Arte France, CNC, Canal+, BIM Italy, Filmstiftung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Sveriges Television, and Nordisk Film & TV-Fond.[16] The total budget was 52.5 million Danish kroner.[2]

Cruz was initially expected to play the lead role, but dropped out when the filming schedule of another project was changed. Von Trier then offered the role to Kirsten Dunst, who accepted it. Dunst had been suggested for the role by the American filmmaker Paul Thomas Anderson in a discussion about the film between him and von Trier.[14][15]

Filming[edit]

Tjolöholm Castle in Halland, Sweden, where exterior scenes were filmed, viewed from above.

Principal photography began 22 July and ended 8 September 2010. Interior scenes were shot at Film i Väst's studios in Trollhättan, Sweden. It was the fourth time Trier made a film in Trollhättan.[19] Exteriors included the area surrounding the Tjolöholm Castle.[20] The film was recorded digitally with Arri Alexa and Phantom cameras.[21] Trier employed his usual directing style with no rehearsals; instead the actors improvised and received instructions between the takes.[19] The camera was initially operated by Trier, and then left to cinematographer Manuel Alberto Claro who repeated Trier's movements. Claro said about the method: "[von Trier] wants to experience the situations the first time. He finds an energy in the scenes, presence, and makes up with the photographic aesthetics."[2] Trier explained that the visual style he aimed at in Melancholia was "a clash between what is romantic and grand and stylized and then some form of reality", which he hoped to achieve through the hand-held camerawork.[14] He feared, however, that it would tilt too much toward the romantic, because of the setting at the upscale wedding, and the castle, which he called "super kitschy".[14][20]

Post-production[edit]

The prelude to Richard Wagner's Tristan und Isolde supplies the main musical theme of the film, and Trier's use of an overture-like opening sequence before the first act is a technique closely associated with Wagner. This choice was inspired by a 30-page section of Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time, where Proust concludes that Wagner's prelude is the greatest work of art of all time. Melancholia uses music more than any film by Trier since The Element of Crime from 1984. In some scenes, the film was edited in the same pace as the music. Trier said: "It's kind of like a music video that way. It's supposed to be vulgar."[12] Trier also pointed out parallels between both the film's usage of Wagner and the film's editing to the music and the aesthetics of Nazi Germany.[12]

Visual effects were provided by companies in Poland, Germany, and Sweden under visual effects supervisor Peter Hjorth. Poland's Platige Image, which previously had worked with Trier on Antichrist, created most of the effects seen in the film's opening sequence; the earliest instructions were provided by Trier in the summer 2010, after which a team of 19 visual effects artists worked on the project for three months.[22]

Release[edit]

In his director's statement, Trier wrote that he had started to regret having made such a polished film, but that he hoped it would contain some flaws which would make it interesting:

"I desired to dive headlong into the abyss of German romanticism ... But is that not just another way of expressing defeat? Defeat to the lowest of cinematic common denominators? Romance is abused in all sorts of endlessly dull ways in mainstream products."[23]

The premiere took place at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, where Melancholia was screened in competition on 18 May.[24] The press conference after the screening gained considerable publicity. The Hollywood Reporter's Scott Roxborough wrote that "Von Trier has never been very P.C. and his Cannes press conferences always play like a dark stand-up routine, but at the Melancholia press conference he took it to another level, tossing a grenade into any sense of public decorum."[25] Trier first joked about working on a hardcore pornographic film that would star Dunst and Gainsbourg.[26] When asked about the relation between the influences of German Romanticism in Melancholia and Trier's own German heritage, the director brought up that he had been raised believing his biological father was a Jew, only to learn as an adult that his actual father was a German. He then made jokes about Jews and Nazis, said he understood Adolf Hitler and admired the work of architect Albert Speer, and jokingly announced that he was a Nazi.[25][27] The Cannes Film Festival issued an official apology for the remarks the same day and clarified that Trier is not a Nazi or an anti-Semite, then declared the director "persona non grata" the following day.[28][29] This meant he was not allowed to go within 100 meters of the Festival Palace, but he did remain in Cannes and continued to give promotional interviews.[30]

On 26 May 2011, the film was released in Denmark through Nordisk Film.[16] Launched on 57 screens, the film entered the box-office chart as number three.[31] A total of 50,000 tickets were eventually sold in Denmark.[32] It was released in the United Kingdom and Ireland on 30 September, in Germany on 6 October and in Italy on 21 October.[33] Magnolia Pictures acquired the distribution rights for North America and it was released on 11 November, with a pre-theatrical release on 13 October as a rental through such Direct TV vendors as Vudu and Amazon.com.[33][34] Madman Entertainment bought the rights for Australia and New Zealand.[35]

Reception[edit]

Critical response[edit]

On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, 80% of 206 critic reviews are positive, and the average rating is 7.5/10. The website's critical consensus states, "Melancholia's dramatic tricks are more obvious than they should be, but this is otherwise a showcase for Kirsten Dunst's acting and for Lars von Trier's profound, visceral vision of depression and destruction."[36] According to Metacritic, the film received "generally favorable reviews", based on an average score of 80/100 from 40 critics.[37] A 2017 data analysis of Metacritic reviews by Gizmodo UK found the film to be the most critically divisive film of recent years.[38]

Kim Skotte of Politiken compared the film with the director's previous work:

"There are images—many images—in Melancholia which underline that Lars von Trier is a unique film storyteller... The choice of material and treatment of it underlines Lars von Trier's originality... Through its material and look, Melancholia creates rifts, but unlike Antichrist I don't feel that there is a fence pole in the rift which is smashed directly down into the meat. You sit on your seat in the cinema and mildly marveled go along in the end of the world."[39]

Berlingske's Ebbe Iversen wrote about the film:

"It is big, it is enigmatic, and now and then rather irritating. But it is also a visionary work, which makes a gigantic impression. From time to time the film moves on the edge of kitsch, but with Justine played by Kirsten Dunst and Claire played by Charlotte Gainsbourg as the leading characters, Melancholia is a bold, uneven, unruly and completely unforgettable film."[40]

Steven Loeb of Southampton Patch wrote:

"This film has brought the best out of von Trier, as well as his star. Dunst is so good in this film, playing a character unlike any other she has ever attempted, that she won the award for Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival this past May. Even if the film itself were not the incredible work of art that it is, Dunst's performance alone would be incentive enough to recommend it."[41]

Sukhdev Sandhu wrote from Cannes in The Daily Telegraph that the film "at times comes close to being a tragi-comic opera about the end of the world," and that, "the apocalypse, when it comes, is so beautifully rendered that the film cements the quality of fairy tale that its palatial setting suggests." About the actors' performances, Sandhu wrote: "all of them are excellent here, but Dunst is exceptional, so utterly convincing in the lead role—troubled, serene, a fierce savant—that it feels like a career breakthrough. Meanwhile, Gainsbourg, for whom the end of the world must seem positively pastoral after the horrors she went through in Antichrist, locates in Claire a fragility that ensures she's more than a whipping girl for social satire." Sandhu brought up one reservation in the review, in which he gave the film the highest possible rating of five stars: "there is, as always with Von Trier's work, a degree of intellectual determinism that can be off-putting; he illustrates rather than truly explore ideas."[42] Peter Bradshaw, writing for The Guardian, stated "Windup merchant Lars von Trier is back with a film about the end of the world – but it's not to be taken entirely seriously", and gave it three stars out of a possible five.[43]

In 2020, amid the COVID-19 pandemic, an Atlantic culture writer found "the perspective of a catastrophe-minded person thrust into a state of actual catastrophe finds perhaps no better creative expression" than in the film.[44] BBC Culture stated that "arguably no film has been more profoundly compassionate in its depiction of a mental crisis".[45]

Accolades[edit]

Dunst received the Best Actress Award at the closing ceremony of the Cannes Film Festival.[46] The film won three awards at the European Film Awards for Best Film, Best Cinematographer (Manuel Alberto Claro), and Best Designer (Jette Lehmann).[47]

The U.S. National Society of Film Critics selected Melancholia as the best picture of 2011 and named Kirsten Dunst best actress.[48] The film was also nominated for four Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts Awards: Best Film – International; Best Direction – International for von Trier, Best Screenplay – International also for von Trier, and Best Actress – International for Dunst.[49]

Film Comment magazine listed Melancholia third on its Best Films of 2011 list.[50] The film also received 12 votes—seven from critics and five from directors—in the British Film Institute's 2012 Sight & Sound poll of the greatest movies ever made, making it one of the few films of the 21st century to appear within the top 250.[7] In 2016, the film was named as the 43rd best film of the 21st century, from a poll of 177 film critics from around the world.[51] In 2019, Time listed it as one of the best films of the 2010s decade,[52] while Cahiers du cinéma named it the eighth best film of the 2010s.[53] That same year, Vulture named Melancholia the best film of the 2010s.[54]

Stage play adaptation[edit]

In 2018, playwright Declan Greene adapted the film into a stage play for Malthouse Theatre in Melbourne, Australia.[55] The cast featured Eryn Jean Norvill as Justine, Leeanna Walsman as Claire, Gareth Yuen as Michael, Steve Mouzakis as John, and Maude Davey as Gaby,[56] while child actors Liam Smith and Alexander Artemov shared the role of Leo.[57] In the adaptation, the character of Dexter, Justine's father is omitted, while Justine's boss, Jack, is combined with John.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "MELANCHOLIA (15)". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Monggaard, Christian (27 July 2010). "Absurd teater med en film i hovedrollen". Dagbladet Information (in Danish). Retrieved 31 July 2010. Han vil opleve situationerne første gang. Han finder en energi i scenerne, nærvær, og gør op med fotoæstetikken.
  3. ^ "Melancholia". The Numbers. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Melancholia". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  5. ^ Lattanzio, Ryan (2 May 2021). "Lars von Trier's 15 Best Feature Films Ranked". IndieWire. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  6. ^ "Best Movies of the Decade". Metacritic.
  7. ^ a b "Melancholia (2011)". British Film Institute. 7 July 2015. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012.
  8. ^ Dargis, Manohla (30 December 2011). "This Is How the End Begins". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  9. ^ "Melancholia (2011) – Lars von Trier". AllMusic. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  10. ^ "Melancholia (2011)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  11. ^ Knight, Chris (20 March 2014). "Nymphomaniac, Volumes I and II, reviewed: Lars von Trier's sexually graphic pairing will titillate, but fails to satisfy". National Post. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  12. ^ a b c Juul Carlsen, Per (May 2011). Neimann, Susanna (ed.). "The Only Redeeming Factor is the World Ending". Film. Danish Film Institute (72): 5–8. ISSN 1399-2813. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  13. ^ "Second Look: Melancholia". birchbarkletter.com. 14 May 2012. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  14. ^ a b c d e Thorsen, Nils (2011). "Longing for the End of All" (PDF). English press kit Melancholia. TrustNordisk. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  15. ^ a b Feinstein, Howard (20 May 2011). "Lars von Trier: 'I will never do a press conference again.'". indieWire. SnagFilms. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  16. ^ a b c "Melancholia". Danish Films. Danish Film Institute. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  17. ^ Fil-Jensen, Lars (22 June 2010). "Støtte til Caroline Mathildes år og Melancholia". dfi.dk (in Danish). Danish Film Institute. Archived from the original on 2 September 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  18. ^ Roger, Susanne (22 June 2010). "Dramerna dominerar produktionsstöden i juni". Filmnyheterna (in Swedish). Swedish Film Institute. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  19. ^ a b Pham, Annika (28 July 2010). "Von Trier's Melancholia Kicks In". Cineuropa. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  20. ^ a b Lumholdt, Jan (19 May 2011). "'I hope I'll say something provocative'". Svenska Dagbladet. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  21. ^ "Technical info". melancholiathemovie.com. Zentropa. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  22. ^ Staff writer (10 May 2011). "Special effects for 'Melancholia'". Platige Image Community. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  23. ^ Trier, Lars von (13 April 2011). "Director's statement- Melancholia" (PDF). English press kit. TrustNordisk. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  24. ^ "Horaires 2011" (PDF). festival-cannes.com (in French). Cannes Film Festival. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  25. ^ a b Roxborough, Scott (18 May 2011). "Lars von Trier Admits to Being a Nazi, Understanding Hitler (Cannes 2011)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  26. ^ Trier subsequently announced production of the film Nymphomaniac, which would contain hardcore sequences and would, indeed, co-star Gainsbourg.
  27. ^ Higgins, Charlotte (18 May 2011). "Lars von Trier provokes Cannes with 'I'm a Nazi' comments". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  28. ^ Staff writer (18 May 2011). "Cannes Film Festival Condemns Lars von Trier's Nazi Comments". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  29. ^ Shoard, Catherine (19 May 2011). "Cannes film festival bans Lars von Trier". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  30. ^ Roxborough, Scott (21 May 2011). "Lars von Trier Accepts Ban; Says if Hitler 'Made a Great Film,' Cannes Should Select It (Cannes 2011)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  31. ^ "Denmark Box Office: May 27–29, 2011". Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  32. ^ Ritzau (22 July 2011). "Boykot af Lars von Trier-film er udeblevet". Berlingske Tidende (in Danish). Retrieved 5 August 2011.
  33. ^ a b Jack, Ian (26 September 2011). "At The Cinema: Melancholia". More Intelligent Life. Economist Group. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  34. ^ Lodderhose, Diana (13 February 2011). "Magnolia takes 'Melancholia'". Variety. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
  35. ^ Foreman, Liza (17 May 2011). "Melancholia close to selling out". Cineuropa. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  36. ^ "Melancholia (2011)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  37. ^ "Melancholia Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  38. ^ O'Malley, James (22 November 2017). "Exclusive: The Most Critically Divisive Films According To Data". Gizmodo UK. Archived from the original on 10 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  39. ^ Skotte, Kim (19 May 2011). "Dom: Trier har skabt et æstetisk originalt overflødighedshorn". Politiken (in Danish). Retrieved 26 May 2011. Der er billeder – mange billeder – i 'Melancholia', som understreger, at Lars von Trier er en unik filmfortæller." "Valget af stof og behandlingen af det understreger Lars von Triers originalitet." "I kraft af sit stof og sit look sætter 'Melancholia' skel, men i modsætning til 'Antichrist' føler jeg ikke, der i skellet er en hegnspæl, der bliver banket direkte ned i kødet. Man sidder på sin række i biografen og følger mildt forundret med i verdens undergang.
  40. ^ Iversen, Ebbe (18 May 2011). "Ebbe Iversen: Triers nye film er mægtig og mærkelig". Berlingske (in Danish). Retrieved 26 May 2011. Den er stor, den er gådefuld, og nu og da er den temmelig irriterende. Men den er også et visionært værk, som gør et gigantisk indtryk." "Undertiden bevæger filmen sig på kanten af kitsch, men med Kirsten Dunst som Justine og Charlotte Gainsbourg som Claire i spidsen er "Melancholia" en dristig, ujævn, uregerlig og helt uforglemmelig film.
  41. ^ Loeb, Steven (15 October 2011). "Review: 'Melancholia' One of 2011's Best Films". Southampton Patch. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  42. ^ Sandhu, Sukhdev (18 May 2011). "Cannes 2011: Melancholia, review". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  43. ^ Bradshaw, Peter (29 September 2011). "Melancholia – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
  44. ^ Rao, Mallika (9 May 2020). "The 'Melancholia' Postulate". The Atlantic. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  45. ^ Kaufman, Sophie Monks (2021). "Is Melancholia the greatest film about depression ever made?". BBC. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  46. ^ Chang, Justin (22 May 2011). "'Tree of Life' wins Palme d'Or". Variety. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  47. ^ Vary, Adam B (3 December 2011). "'Melancholia' wins top prize at European Film Awards". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  48. ^ "US critics reward Lars Von Trier film Melancholia". BBC. 8 January 2012.
  49. ^ "AACTA Awards winners and nominees" (PDF). Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts (AACTA). 31 January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  50. ^ "Film Comment's End Of Year Critics' Poll 2011". Film Comment. January–February 2012.
  51. ^ "The 21st Century's 100 greatest films". 23 August 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  52. ^ Stephanie Zacharek (13 November 2019). "The 10 Best Movies of the 2010s Decade". Time. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  53. ^ "Top 10 des années 2010". Cahiers du cinéma. 6 December 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  54. ^ "Best Movies of the Decade: Top Movies of 2010s". Vulture. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  55. ^ Spunde, Nikki (20 July 2018). "Melancholia". Australian Stage Online.
  56. ^ D'urso, Sandra (24 July 2018). "Melancholia artfully brings the end of the world to the stage". The Conversation.
  57. ^ Byrne, Tim (23 July 2018). "Melancholia review". Time Out.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Heikkilä, Martta (2017). "The Ends of the World in Lars von Trier's Melancholia". In Schuback, Marcia Sá Cavalcante; Lindberg, Susanna (eds.). The End of the World: Contemporary Philosophy and Art. London: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 187–199. ISBN 978-1-78660-261-9.
  • Wilker, Ulrich (2014). "Liebestod ohne Erlösung. Richard Wagners Tristan-Vorspiel in Lars von Triers Film Melancholia". In Börnchen, Stefan; Mein, Georg; Strowick, Elisabeth (eds.). Jenseits von Bayreuth. Richard Wagner Heute: Neue Kulturwissenschaftliche Lektüren. Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink. pp. 263–273. ISBN 978-3-7705-5686-1.

External links[edit]