Melanocyte-inhibiting factor

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Melanocyte-inhibiting factor
MIF-1 structure.png
Clinical data
MedlinePlus a605038
Routes of
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100% (injected)
Metabolism plasma protease enzymes
Excretion N/A
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ECHA InfoCard 100.016.276
Chemical and physical data
Formula C13H24N4O3
Molar mass 284.355 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Melanocyte-inhibiting factor (also known as Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2, Melanostatin, MSH release–inhibiting hormone or MIF-1) is an endogenous peptide fragment derived from cleavage of the hormone oxytocin, but having generally different actions in the body.[1][2] MIF-1 produces multiple effects, both blocking the effects of opioid receptor activation,[3][4][5][6][7][8] while at the same time acting as a positive allosteric modulator of the D2 and D4 dopamine receptor subtypes,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] as well as inhibiting release of other neuropeptides such as alpha-MSH,[18][19][20] and potentiating melatonin activity.[21]

This complex mix of actions produces a profile of antidepressant,[22][23][24] nootropic,[25][26][27][28] and anti-Parkinsonian effects when MIF-1 is administered,[29][30][31] and it has been investigated for various medical uses. MIF-1 is unusually resistant to metabolism in the bloodstream,[32] and crosses the blood–brain barrier easily,[33][34] though it is poorly active orally and is usually injected. Several other closely related peptides with important actions in the body include Tyr-MIF-1 and endomorphin-1 and -2.[35][36][37][38][39]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Celis ME, Taleisnik S, Walter R (July 1971). "Regulation of formation and proposed structure of the factor inhibiting the release of melanocyte-stimulating hormone". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 68 (7): 1428–33. doi:10.1073/pnas.68.7.1428. PMC 389210Freely accessible. PMID 5283931. 
  2. ^ Petersson M, Uvnäs-Moberg K (December 2004). "Prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide shares some effects with oxytocin but decreases oxytocin levels". Physiology & Behavior. 83 (3): 475–81. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.08.034. PMID 15581670. 
  3. ^ Chiu S, Mishra RK (January 1979). "Antagonism of morphine-induced catalepsy by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide". European Journal of Pharmacology. 53 (2): 119–25. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(79)90156-0. PMID 32058. 
  4. ^ Dickinson SL, Slater P (1980). "Opiate receptor antagonism by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide, MIF-I". Peptides. 1 (4): 293–9. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(80)90006-6. PMID 6117839. 
  5. ^ Contreras PC, Takemori AE (June 1984). "Effect of prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on levorphanol-induced analgesia, tolerance and dependence". Life Sciences. 34 (26): 2559–66. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(84)90041-9. PMID 6146083. 
  6. ^ Ehrensing RH, Kastin AJ, Michell GF (December 1984). "Antagonism of morphine analgesia by prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide (MIF-1) in humans". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 21 (6): 975–8. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(84)80083-0. PMID 6151672. 
  7. ^ Galina ZH, Kastin AJ (December 1986). "Existence of antiopiate systems as illustrated by MIF-1/Tyr-MIF-1". Life Sciences. 39 (23): 2153–9. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(86)90391-7. PMID 2878336. 
  8. ^ Bocheva A, Dzambazova-Maximova E (November 2004). "Antiopioid properties of the TYR-MIF-1 family". Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 26 (9): 673–7. doi:10.1358/mf.2004.26.9.872564. PMID 15632952. 
  9. ^ Kostrzewa RM, Spirtes MA, Klara JW, Christensen CW, Kastin AJ, Joh TH (1976). "Effects of L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycine amide (MIF-I) on dopaminergic neurons". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 5 (Suppl 1): 125–7. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(76)90340-3. PMID 13412. 
  10. ^ Singhal RL, Rastogi RB (February 1982). "MIF-1: effects on norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin metabolism in certain discrete brain regions". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 16 (2): 229–33. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(82)90153-8. PMID 6122214. 
  11. ^ Chiu P, Rajakumar G, Chiu S, Johnson RL, Mishra RK (1985). "Mesolimbic and striatal dopamine receptor supersensitivity: prophylactic and reversal effects of L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG)". Peptides. 6 (2): 179–83. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(85)90036-1. PMID 2863809. 
  12. ^ Xu DL, Yu WC, Pan GB, Chen SD (1987). "Mechanism of action of L-leucyl-glycinamide and its effect on Parkinson's disease". Advances in Neurology. 45: 587–90. PMID 2881450. 
  13. ^ Verma V, Mann A, Costain W, Pontoriero G, Castellano JM, Skoblenick K, Gupta SK, Pristupa Z, Niznik HB, Johnson RL, Nair VD, Mishra RK (December 2005). "Modulation of agonist binding to human dopamine receptor subtypes by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide and a peptidomimetic analog". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 315 (3): 1228–36. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.091256. PMID 16126839. 
  14. ^ Fisher A, Mann A, Verma V, Thomas N, Mishra RK, Johnson RL (January 2006). "Design and synthesis of photoaffinity-labeling ligands of the L-prolyl-L-leucylglycinamide binding site involved in the allosteric modulation of the dopamine receptor". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 49 (1): 307–17. doi:10.1021/jm050644n. PMC 2533518Freely accessible. PMID 16392815. 
  15. ^ Vartak AP, Skoblenick K, Thomas N, Mishra RK, Johnson RL (December 2007). "Allosteric modulation of the dopamine receptor by conformationally constrained type VI beta-turn peptidomimetics of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 50 (26): 6725–9. doi:10.1021/jm070895r. PMC 2529021Freely accessible. PMID 18052024. 
  16. ^ Raghavan B, Skoblenick KJ, Bhagwanth S, Argintaru N, Mishra RK, Johnson RL (April 2009). "Allosteric modulation of the dopamine D2 receptor by Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 peptidomimetics constrained in either a polyproline II helix or a type II beta-turn conformation". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (7): 2043–51. doi:10.1021/jm801575w. PMC 2712934Freely accessible. PMID 19271750. 
  17. ^ Mann A, Verma V, Basu D, Skoblenick KJ, Beyaert MG, Fisher A, Thomas N, Johnson RL, Mishra RK (September 2010). "Specific binding of photoaffinity-labeling peptidomimetics of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 to the dopamine D2L receptor: evidence for the allosteric modulation of the dopamine receptor". European Journal of Pharmacology. 641 (2-3): 96–101. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.05.018. PMC 2907365Freely accessible. PMID 20639138. 
  18. ^ Scimonelli T, Celis ME (1982). "Inhibition by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone release from hypothalamic slices". Peptides. 3 (6): 885–9. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(82)90055-9. PMID 6132363. 
  19. ^ McCullen RK, Peiffer RL, Jennes L, Hernandez DE (1988). "Inhibition by MIF-I of alpha-MSH induced increase of intraocular pressure and miosis in rabbits". Neuropeptides. 12 (4): 213–7. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(88)90057-1. PMID 2907121. 
  20. ^ Caballero C, Celis ME (May 1993). "The effect of the blockade of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on LH release in the rat". The Journal of Endocrinology. 137 (2): 197–202. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1370197. PMID 8100849. 
  21. ^ Sandyk R (May 1990). "MIF-induced augmentation of melatonin functions: possible relevance to mechanisms of action of MIF-1 in movement disorders". The International Journal of Neuroscience. 52 (1-2): 59–65. doi:10.3109/00207459008994244. PMID 1979968. 
  22. ^ Pignatiello MF, Olson GA, Kastin AJ, Ehrensing RH, McLean JH, Olson RD (March 1989). "MIF-1 is active in a chronic stress animal model of depression". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 32 (3): 737–42. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(89)90027-0. PMID 2568001. 
  23. ^ Kostowski W, Danysz W, Dyr W, Jankowska E, Krzaścik P, Pałejko W, Stefański R, Płaźnik A (1991). "MIF-1 potentiates the action of tricyclic antidepressants in an animal model of depression". Peptides. 12 (5): 915–8. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(91)90037-p. PMID 1686934. 
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  30. ^ Katzenschlager R, Jackson MJ, Rose S, Stockwell K, Tayarani-Binazir KA, Zubair M, Smith LA, Jenner P, Lees AJ (April 2007). "Antiparkinsonian activity of L-propyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide or melanocyte-inhibiting factor in MPTP-treated common marmosets". Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society. 22 (5): 715–9. doi:10.1002/mds.21256. PMID 17373723. 
  31. ^ Castellano JM, Batrynchuk J, Dolbeare K, Verma V, Mann A, Skoblenick KJ, Johnson RL, Mishra RK (October 2007). "MIF-1 and its peptidomimetic analogs attenuate haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements and modulate apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats". Peptides. 28 (10): 2009–15. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2007.07.026. PMID 17766011. 
  32. ^ Kastin AJ, Hahn K, Erchegyi J, Zadina JE, Hackler L, Palmgren M, Banks WA (February 1994). "Differential metabolism of Tyr-MIF-1 and MIF-1 in rat and human plasma". Biochemical Pharmacology. 47 (4): 699–709. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(94)90133-3. PMID 7907473. 
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  39. ^ Dyck B, Guest K, Sookram C, Basu D, Johnson R, Mishra RK (January 2011). "PAOPA, a potent analogue of Pro-Leu-glycinamide and allosteric modulator of the dopamine D2 receptor, prevents NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801)-induced deficits in social interaction in the rat: implications for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research. 125 (1): 88–92. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2010.09.025. PMC 3010311Freely accessible. PMID 21036015.