Melchor Liñán y Cisneros

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Most Reverend
Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros
Archbishop of Lima
Melchor de Linan y Cisneros.jpg
Church Catholic Church
Diocese Archbishop of Lima
Predecessor Juan de Almoguera
Successor Antonio de Zuloaga
Orders
Consecration 1665
by Antonio Sanz Lozano
Personal details
Born December 19, 1629
Madrid, Spain
Died June 28, 1708
Nationality Spanish
Previous post Archbishop of La Plata o Charcas (1672-1675)
Bishop of Popayán (1667-1672)
Bishop of Santa Marta (1664-1668)

Melchor Liñán y Cisneros (sometimes Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros) (December 19, 1629, Madrid—June 28, 1708, Lima, Peru) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Lima (1677-1708), Archbishop of La Plata o Charcas (1672-1675), Bishop of Popayán (1667-1672), and Bishop of Santa Marta (1664-1668).[1][2][3] He also served as Viceroy of Peru from July 7, 1678 to November 20, 1681.[1]

Biography[edit]

Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros was born in Madrid, Spain.[1] He studied theology in the University of Alcalá de Henares, where he took his doctorate. Thereafter he was chaplain in Buitrago. He was also calificador (censor) of the Holy Office of the Inquisition. On October 6, 1664, Pope Alexander VII, appointed him Bishop of Santa Marta.[1] In 1665, he was consecrated bishop by Antonio Sanz Lozano, Bishop of Cartagena.[1] On January 26, 1668, Pope Clement IX, appointed him Bishop of Popayán.[1]

In 1671, he was sent as visitador (inspector) to Nuevo Reino de Granada in what is now Colombia because of the inaction of Diego de Villalba y Toledo, president of the Audiencia. He replaced Villabla in that position on June 2, 1671. At the same time he served as interim governor and captain general of Nuevo Reino de Granada. On February 8, 1672, Pope Clement X, appointed him Archbishop of La Plata o Charcas.[1] On June 14, 1677, Pope Innocent XI appointed him Archbishop of Lima.[1] On July 7, 1678, he was appointed viceroy of Peru serving until to November 20, 1681. As viceroy, he improved the fortifications of the port of Callao to defend against attacks by Dutch filibusters. He repressed rebellions of the clergy, who were opposed to the nomination of prelates from Spain — the Franciscans in Cuzco and the Dominicans in Quito.

On the death of the Peruvian astronomer Doctor Francisco Ruiz Lozano, Viceroy Liñán y Cisneros (with the approval of the Crown) gave mathematics a permanent position in the University of San Marcos. Mathematics was attached to the chair of cosmography. Doctor Juan Ramón Koening, a Belgian by birth, was named to the chair.[2]

As a reward for his services, the Spanish Crown granted Liñán y Cisneros the title of conde de la Puebla de los Valles. He wrote Ofensa y defensa de la libertad eclesiástica (Offense and Defence of Ecclesiastical Liberty). He died in Lima in 1708.

Episcopal succession[edit]

While bishop, he was the principal consecrator of:[1]

References[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
Baltasar de la Cueva Enríquez
Viceroy of Peru
1678 – 1681
Succeeded by
Melchor de Navarra y Rocafull
Religious titles
Preceded by
Francisco de la Trinidad Arrieta
Bishop of Santa Marta
1664-1668
Succeeded by
Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita
Preceded by
Vasco Jacinto de Contreras y Valverde
Bishop of Popayán
1667-1672
Succeeded by
Cristóbal Bernardo de Quiros
Preceded by
Bernardo de Izaguirre de los Reyes
Archbishop of La Plata o Charcas
1672-1675
Succeeded by
Cristóbal de Castilla y Zamora
Preceded by
Juan de Almoguera
Archbishop of Lima
1677-1708
Succeeded by
Antonio de Zuloagas