Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome (also termed "Miescher-Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome"), is a rare neurological disorder characterized by recurring facial paralysis, swelling of the face and lips (usually the upper lip), and the development of folds and furrows in the tongue.:799 Onset is in childhood or early adolescence. After recurrent attacks (ranging from days to years in between), swelling may persist and increase, eventually becoming permanent. The lip may become hard, cracked, and fissured with a reddish-brown discoloration. The cause of Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome is unknown, but there may be a genetic predisposition. It has been noted to be especially prevalent among certain ethnic groups in Bolivia. It can be symptomatic of Crohn's disease or sarcoidosis.
Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome may recur intermittently after its first appearance. It can become a chronic disorder. Follow-up care should exclude the development of Crohn's disease or sarcoidosis.
The NINDS supports research on neurological disorders such as Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome. Much of this research is aimed at increasing knowledge of these disorders and finding ways to treat, prevent, and ultimately cure them.
^Melkersson, E. (1928). "Ett fall av recidiverande facialispares i samband med ett angioneurotiskt ödem". Hygiea (Stockholm) 90: 737–741.
^Rosenthal, C. (1931). "Klinisch-erbbiologischer Beitrag zur Konstitutionspathologie. Gemeinsames Auftreten von Facialislähmung, angioneurotischem Gesichtsödem und Lingua plicata in Arthritismus-Familien". Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie131: 475–501. doi:10.1007/bf02865984.