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From 1805 to 1814 Mellau belonged to Bavaria but then again to Austria. After the Second World War the municipality was in the French zone of occupation for 10 years. In 1870 there was a great fire in Mellau. The church, the school, the rectory and 18 other houses were razed.
The coat of arms was designed by Hubert Dietrich, a well-known artist, in 1962. It shows an uprooted fir tree which symbolises the affiliation to the Bregenz Forest and three crosses which remind the population of the plague.