Melliferous flower

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A melliferous flower is a plant which produces substances that can be collected by insects and turned into honey. Many plants are melliferous, but only certain examples can be harvested by honey bees, because of their physiognomy (body size and shape, length of proboscis, etc.). Apiculture classifies a plant as melliferous if it can be harvested by domesticated honey bees.

The table below lists some of the known melliferous plants, and indicates the flowering period, as well as the resources harvested by bees (nectar, pollen, propolis, and honeydew). Each plant does not produce the same quantity or quality of these resources, and even among species the production can vary due to region, plant health, climate, etc.

Plant table[edit]

Plains plants[edit]

Image Common name Latin name Flowering months Nectar Pollen Propolis Honeydew
Robinia Pseudoacacia flower.JPG Black locust Robinia pseudacacia 05–06 X X . .
Papaver rhoeas mak polny small.jpg Corn poppy Papaver rhoeas 04–05 . X . .
Cornus sanguinea0.jpg Common dogwood Cornus sanguinea 05–06 X X . .
Ribes sanguineum blossom (aka).jpg Ribes Ribes rubrum 04–05 X X . .
Hulst.jpg European holly Ilex aquifolium 05–06 X X . .
Starr 010419-0021 Hedera helix.jpg European ivy Hedera helix 09–10 X X X .
Senf bluete.jpg White mustard Sinapis alba 05–09 X X . .
Hazel Catkins aka.jpg Hazel Corylus avellana 01–03 . X . X
Taraxacum 2005 spring 001.jpg Dandelion Taraxacum officinale 05–06 X X . .
Salix caprea8.jpg Goat willow Salix caprea 02–04 X X . .
Trefle3.jpg White clover Trifolium repens 05–07 X X . .
Coltsfoot close-up aka.jpg Coltsfoot Tussilago farfara 02–04 . X . .

Mediterranean plants[edit]

Image Common name Latin name Flowering months Nectar Pollen Propolis Honeydew
Almond Prunus dulcis 02–04 X X . .
Arbutus unedo b.JPG Strawberry tree Arbutus unedo 10–01 X . . .
Buisfleurs.jpg Buxus Buxus sempervirens 04–05 X X . .
MHNT Viburnum tinus.jpg Viburnum tinus Viburnum tinus 02–06 X X . .
ChristianBauer flowering rosemary.jpg Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis 11–04 X X . .
Thymus vulgaris0.jpg Thyme Thymus vulgaris 04–09 X . . .

Mountain plants[edit]

Image Common name Latin name Flowering months Nectar Pollen Propolis Honeydew
Gewone engelwortel R0012882 bloem.JPG Garden angelica Angelica sylvestris 07–08 X X . .
Arnica montana.JPG Wolf's bane Arnica montana 07–08 X X . .
Erica cinera0.jpg Erica Erica cinerea 07–09 X X . .
Calluna vulgaris (flower closeup).jpg Calluna Calluna vulgaris 08–10 X X . .
Chestnut flowers.jpg Sweet chestnut Castanea sativa 06–07 X X . X
Silybum marianum 2003-04-07.jpg Milk thistle Silybum marianum 07–08 X X . .
Epilobum augustifolium Aug2003.jpg Fireweed Epilobium angustifolium 07–09 X X . .
Acer pseudoplatanus Inflorescence BavariaMay2005.jpg Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus 03–04 X X X X
Noorse esdoorn bloeiwijze (Acer platanoides inflorescens).jpg Norway maple Acer platanoides 05–06 X X . X
Raspberry-flower-2.jpg Raspberry Rubus idaeus 06–07 X X . .
Gentiana lutea 090705a.jpg Great yellow gentian Gentiana lutea 07–08 X X . .
Helleborus niger Rax 1.jpg Hellebore Helleborus niger 01–04 X X . .
LyciumBarbarum-bloem-hr.jpg Boxthorn Lycium barbarum 07–08 X X . .
Vaccinum myrtillus 020503.jpg Blueberry Vaccinium myrtillus 05–06 X X . .
Snowdrop closeup 2005 01.jpg Snowdrop Galanthus nivalis 01–03 X X . .
Rhododendron.jpg Rhododendron Rhododendron ferrugineum 06–08 X X . .
Abies alba - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-001.jpg Silver fir Abies alba 05 . X . X
Satureja montana0.jpg Savory Satureja montana 07–08 X . . .
Thymus serpyllum1.jpg Wild thyme Thymus serpyllum 06–09 X . . .
Filipendula ulmaria10.jpg Rowan Sorbus aucuparia 05–06 X X X .

Cultured plants[edit]

Image Common name Latin name Flowering months Nectar Pollen Propolis Honeydew
Sonnenblume.jpg Sunflower Helianthus annuus 07–08 X X . .
Single lavendar flower02.jpg Lavender Lavandula intermedia 06–07 X X . .