Mellified man

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Mellified Man (artistic impression)

Mellified man, or human mummy confection, was a legendary medicinal substance created by steeping a human cadaver in honey. The concoction is mentioned only in Chinese medical sources, most significantly the Bencao Gangmu of the 16th-century Chinese medical doctor and pharmacologist Li Shizhen. Relying on a second-hand account, Li reports a story that some elderly men in Arabia, nearing the end of their lives, would submit themselves to a process of mummification in honey to create a healing confection.[1]

This process differed from a simple body donation because of the aspect of self-sacrifice; the mellification process would ideally start before death. The donor would stop eating any food other than honey, going as far as to bathe in the substance. Shortly, his feces (and even his sweat, according to legend) would consist of honey. When this diet finally proved fatal, the donor's body would be placed in a stone coffin filled with honey.[2]

After a century or so, the contents would have turned into a sort of confection reputedly capable of healing broken limbs and other ailments. This confection would then be sold in street markets as a hard to find item with a hefty price.

Origins[edit]

The first record of mellified man is found in Li Shizhen's 1596 classic Chinese pharmacopeia Bencao Gangmu (section 52, "Man as medicine") under the entry for munaiyi (木乃伊 "mummy"). Li quotes the c. 1366 Chuogeng lu (輟耕錄 "Talks while the Plough is Resting") by the Yuan dynasty scholar Tao Zongyi (陶宗儀) or Tao Jiucheng (陶九成).

According to [Tao Jiucheng] in his [Chuogenglu], in the lands of the Arabs there are men 70 or 80 years old who are willing to give their bodies to save others. Such a one takes no more food or drink, only bathing and eating a little honey, till after a month his excreta are nothing but honey; then death ensues. His compatriots place the body to macerate in a stone coffin full of honey, with an inscription giving the year and month of burial. After a hundred years the seals are removed and the confection so formed used for the treatment of wounds and fractures of the body and limbs—only a small amount taken internally is needed for cure. Although it is scarce in those parts the common people call it "mellified man" [miren 蜜人], or, in their foreign speech, "mu-nai-i". Thus Mr. [Tao], but I myself do not know whether the tale is true or not. In any case I append it for the consideration of the learned. [3]

According to the historians of Chinese science Joseph Needham and Lu Gwei-djen, this content was Arabic, but the story got mixed up with a Burmese custom of preserving the bodies of abbots and high monks in honey, so that "the Western notion of a drug made from perdurable human flesh was combined with the characteristic Buddhist motif of self-sacrifice for others".[4] In her book Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers, writer Mary Roach observes that Li Shizhen "is careful to point out that he does not know for certain whether the mellified man story is true."[1]

Etymology[edit]

Li calls the concoction miren (蜜人), translated as "honey person" or "mellified man". Miziren (蜜漬人 "honey-saturated person") is a modern synonym. The place it comes from is tianfangguo (天方國 "divine square [Kaaba] countries"), an old name for Arabia or the Middle East"). The Chinese munaiyi (木乃伊), along with "mummy" loanwords in many languages, derives through Arabic mūmīya (mummy) from Persian mūm "wax".

Mellification is a mostly obsolete term for the production of honey, or the process of honeying something, from the Latin mellificāre (“to make honey”), or mel (“honey”).

Physical properties of honey[edit]

Honey has been used in funerary practices in many different cultures. Burmese priests have the custom of preserving their chief abbots in coffins full of honey.[5] Its reputation both for medicinal uses and durability is long established. For at least 2,700 years, honey has been used by humans to treat a variety of ailments through topical application, but only recently have the antiseptic and antibacterial properties of honey been chemically explained. Because of its unique composition and the complex processing of nectar by the bees which changes its chemical properties, honey is suitable for long-term storage and is easily assimilated even after long preservation. History knows examples of honey preservation for decades, centuries and even millennia.[6]

Antibacterial properties of honey are the result of the low water activity causing osmosis, hydrogen peroxide effect,[7] and high acidity.[8] The combination of high acidity, hygroscopic, and antibacterial effects have led to honey's reputation as a plausible way to mummify a human cadaver, despite lack of concrete evidence.

Similar medicine practices[edit]

Two apothecary vessels for axungia hominis (human fat), approx. 17th or 18th century.

Both European and Chinese pharmacopeias employed medicines of human origin such as urine therapy, or even other medicinal uses for breast milk. In her book, Roach says the medicinal use of mummies, and the sale of fake ones, is "well documented" in chemistry books of 16th to 18th centuries in Europe, "but nowhere outside Arabia were the corpses volunteers".[9][10][11][12]

Mummies were a common ingredient in the Middle Ages until at least the eighteenth century, and not only as medicine, but as fertilizers and even as paint. The use of corpses and body parts as medicine goes far back—in the Roman Empire the blood of dead gladiators was used as treatment for epilepsy.[13]

In his book, Bernard Read suggests a connection between the European medieval practices and those of the Middle East and China:

The underlying theories which sustained the use of human remedies, find a great deal in common between the Arabs as represented by Avicenna, and China through the [Bencao]. Body humors, vital air, the circulations, and numerous things are more clearly understood if an extended study be made of Avicenna or the Europeans who based their writings on Arabic medicine. The various uses given in many cases common throughout the civilized world, [Nicholas] Lemery also recommended woman's milk for inflamed eyes, feces were applied to sores, and the human skull, brain, blood, nails and "all the parts of man", were used in sixteenth-century Europe.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Roach, Mary (2008). Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers. Paw Prints. ISBN 978-1-4352-8742-6. Retrieved 9 October 2010. 
  2. ^ Salopek, Paul. "In Ancient Burial, Embalming With Honey | Out Of Eden Walk". outofedenwalk.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2015-05-17. 
  3. ^ Needham, Joseph and Lu Gwei-djen (1974), Science and Civilization in China. Vol. 5., Part 2. Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Part II. Spagyrical Discovery and Invention: Magisteries of Gold and Immortality, Cambridge University Press, p. 76.
  4. ^ Needham and Lu 1974: 76.
  5. ^ http://www.myanmars.net/myanmar-culture/myanmar-monk-cremation.htm
  6. ^ The Science Behind Honey's Eternal Shelf Life, Smithsonian Magazine, August 22, 2013, retrieved August 30, 2013 
  7. ^ Wahdan H (1998). "Causes of the antimicrobial activity of honey". Infection. 26 (1): 26–31. doi:10.1007/BF02768748. PMID 9505176. 
  8. ^ Honey as an Antimicrobial Agent, Waikato Honey Research Unit, November 16, 2006, retrieved June 2, 2007 
  9. ^ Le Fèvre, Nicolas (1664). A Compleat Body of Chymistry, tr. Traicté de la chymie. Readex Microprint. 
  10. ^ Pomet, Pierre (1737). A Compleat History of Druggs. London. 
  11. ^ Wootton, A. C. (1910). Chronicles of Pharmacy. Macmillan. 
  12. ^ Thompson, C. J. S. (1929). The Mystery and Art of the Apothecary. Lippincott. 
  13. ^ Bethge, Philip (30 January 2009). "Europe's 'Medicinal Cannibalism': The Healing Power of Death". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 25 October 2012. 
  14. ^ Read, Bernard Emms (1932). Chinese Materia Medica: Animal Drugs. Peking Natural History Bulletin. Retrieved 9 October 2010.