Caledon, Ontario

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Caledon
Town (lower-tier)
Town of Caledon
Highway 10 through Caledon
Highway 10 through Caledon
Official logo of Caledon
Logo
Caledon is located in Southern Ontario
Caledon
Caledon
Caledon's location within southern Ontario
Coordinates: 43°52′N 79°52′W / 43.867°N 79.867°W / 43.867; -79.867Coordinates: 43°52′N 79°52′W / 43.867°N 79.867°W / 43.867; -79.867
Country  Canada
Province  Ontario
Regional municipality Peel Region
Established January 1, 1974
Government
 • Type Town
 • Mayor Allan Thompson (List)
 • Governing Body Caledon Town Council
 • MP David Tilson (CPC)
 • MPP Sylvia Jones (PC)
Area[1]
 • Land 688.15 km2 (265.70 sq mi)
Highest elevation[2] 485 m (1,591 ft)
Lowest elevation[3] 221 m (725 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 59,460
 • Density 86.4/km2 (224/sq mi)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Forward sortation area L7C, L7K
Area code(s) 905, 519
Website www.caledon.ca

Caledon (2011 population 59,460) is a town in the Regional Municipality of Peel in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada. In terms of land use, Caledon is a developing urban area although it remains primarily rural. It consists of an amalgamation of a number of urban areas, villages, and hamlets; its major urban centre is Bolton, located on its eastern side adjacent to York Region.

Caledon is one of three municipalities of Peel Region. The town is located just northwest of the city of Brampton. At over 688 square km, Caledon is the largest city or town by area in the Greater Toronto Area.

Maclean's magazine has named Caledon the safest town in Canada to live in for two years running.[4]

History[edit]

The Town of Caledon was established on January 1, 1974 in conjunction with the creation of regional government. Representing an amalgamation of the former County of Peel townships of Albion, Caledon and the northern half of Chinguacousy, as well as the Villages of Bolton and Caledon East, the Town of Caledon forms the northern municipality of the present Region of Peel. The name 'Caledon' was chosen through public referendum in 1973; the other choices on the ballot were 'Albion' and 'Cardwell', the latter being an historic electoral district from 1867-1908 that encompassed the Town of Orangeville and four neighbouring townships.

The County of Peel was created in 1805 following the purchase by the British Crown of the southern part of the Mississauga Tract on the shore of Lake Ontario. The former townships of Albion, Caledon and Chinguacousy were established as part of the 'New Survey' of the County of Peel, which greatly extended the northern boundary of the county following purchase of the remainder of the Mississauga Tract in 1818. The lot and concession grid pattern of the 'New Survey' was distinct from that of the 'Old Survey', with a different orientation of concessions and lot dimensions. The 200 acre lots of the 'New Survey' were typically granted in square 100 acre parcels, a configuration intended to facilitate farming and access to transportation corridors.

Surveyed in 1818-1819, the townships of Albion, Caledon and Chinguacousy were opened for settlement in 1820. Albion Township comprised eleven concessions laid out west to east. In Caledon and Chinguacousy townships, six concessions were laid out on either side of Hurontario Street, then also known as Centre Road, and currently part of Provincial Highway 10. As this centre baseline duplicated the numbering of the concessions, concessions in these two townships were further denoted by 'West of Hurontario Street' (WHS) or 'East of Hurontario Street' (EHS).

Early settlements in the townships developed around water-powered mill sites on the Credit and Humber rivers, and at various crossroads. Records from 1846 indicate that there were three grist-mills and one saw-mill in Caledon township; the population of the entire area was under 2000 people.[5]

The arrival of the Toronto Grey & Bruce, Hamilton & Northwestern and Credit Valley railways in the 1870s spurred further settlements at various junctions. Development was also influenced by the area's major landforms, including the Peel Plain, the Niagara Escarpment and the Oak Ridges Moraine. While some historic hamlets have disappeared over time, Caledon's present-day communities continue to reflect early settlement patterns

Caledon inherited the name from Caledon Township, Ontario, which was likely named by settlers, like Edward Ellis or by public voting.[6] who came from the area around Caledon, County Tyrone in Northern Ireland. In 1845, the population of the Township was 1,920. There are three grist-mills and a saw-mill.[7]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 Canadian Census,[8] the population of Caledon is 59,460, a 4.2% increase from 2006. The population density is 86.4 people per square km. The median age is 40.4 years old, basically on par with the national median at 40.6 years old. There are 19,649 private dwellings with an occupancy rate of 97.1%. According to the 2011 National Household Survey, the median value of a dwelling in Caledon is $474,087 which is significantly higher than the national average at $280,552. The median household income (after-taxes) in Caledon is $83,454, much higher than the national average at $54,089.

Caledon is mostly made up of persons of European descent. Other ethnic and "racial" make up of Caledon is:

Most of Caledon is either a Christian (77.5%), or affiliates with no religion (18.6%). 2.0% are Muslim, and the remaining 1.9% are of another religion.

Caledon has seen some migration of visible minorities in recent years. 4.97% of Caledon was a visible minority, of which the highest percent was of Blacks 30.74%, South Asians 27.94%, Chinese 8.38%, West Asian 7.19% and Latino 6.79%.[9] Caledon also has small Arab, Japanese, Korean and Filipino populations.

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1981 26,645 —    
1991 34,965 +31.2%
1996 39,893 +14.1%
2001 50,595 +26.8%
2006 57,050 +12.8%
2011 59,460 +4.2%
Source: Statistics Canada
Canada 2006 Census Population  % of Total Population
Visible minority group
Source:[10]
South Asian 1,265 2.2
Chinese 360 0.6
Black 860 1.5
Filipino 215 0.4
Latin American 485 0.9
Southeast Asian 175 0.3
Other visible minority 735 1.3
Total visible minority population 4,095 7.2
Aboriginal group
Source:[10]
First Nations 225 0.4
Métis 100 0.2
Inuit 15 0
Total Aboriginal population 360 0.6
White 52,385 92.2
Total population 56,840 100

Languages[edit]

According to the 2011 Census, 76.8% of the town's population have English as mother tongue; Italian is the mother tongue of 8.1% of the population, followed by Punjabi (1.6%), Portuguese (1.4%), German (1.3%), Polish (1.2%) and Spanish (1.2%).[8]

Mother tongue Population Percentage
English 45,490 76.83%
Italian 4,815 8.13%
Punjabi 975 1.65%
Portuguese 840 1.42%
German 765 1.29%
Polish 740 1.25%
Spanish 725 1.22%
French 580 0.98%
Croatian 310 0.52%
Greek 230 0.39%

Government[edit]

Caledon in the Regional Municipality of Peel

Caledon is divided into five wards represented on town council by:[11]

  • Mayor Allan Thompson
  • Area Councillor Ward 1 Doug Beffort
  • Area Councillor Ward 2 Gord McClure
  • Area Councillor Ward 3 & 4 Nick deBoer
  • Area Councillor Ward 5 Rob Mezzapelli

and on regional council by:[11]

  • Mayor Allan Thompson
  • Regional Councillor Ward 1 Barb Shaughnessy
  • Regional Councillor Ward 2 Johanna Downey
  • Regional Councillor Ward 3 & 4 Jennifer Innis
  • Regional Councillor Ward 5 Annette Groves

Per capita, Caledon has by far the largest representation on Peel Regional Council among the three municipalities.

Climate[edit]

Education[edit]

The Peel District School Board operates secular Anglophone public schools. The Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board operates Catholic Anglophone public schools. The Conseil scolaire Viamonde operates secular Francophone schools serving the area. The Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud operates Catholic Francophone schools serving the area.

School (Location)

  • Allan Drive Middle School (Bolton)
  • Alloa Public School (Caledon)
  • Alton Public School (Alton)
  • Belfountain Public School (Belfountain)
  • Bolton Montessori School (Private)
  • Brampton Christian School (Private)
  • Caledon Central Public School (Caledon Village)
  • Caledon East Public School (Caledon East)
  • Countryside Montessori and Private School
  • Creative Children's Montessori School (Bolton)
  • Credit View Public School (Cheltenham)
  • Ellwood Memorial Public School (Bolton)
  • Herb Campbell Public School (Campbell's Cross)
  • Headwater Hills Montessori School (Private)
  • Holy Family Elementary School (Bolton)
  • Humberview Secondary School (Bolton)
  • Huttonville Public School (Huttonville)
  • King's College School (Private)
  • James Bolton Public School (Bolton)
  • Macville Public School (Bolton)
  • Mayfield Secondary School (Caledon)
  • Palgrave Public School (Palgrave)
  • Pope John Paul II Elementary School (Bolton)
  • Robert F. Hall Catholic Secondary School (Caledon East)
  • SouthFields Village Public School (Southfields Village)
  • St. Cornelius Elementary School (Caledon East)
  • St. John the Baptist Elementary School (Bolton)
  • St. Nicholas Elementary School (Bolton)
  • St Michael Catholic Secondary School (Bolton)

Culture[edit]

Cultural Heritage Preservation Strategy[edit]

In conjunction with its recent Official Plan update, the Town of Caledon has developed general policies on September 17, 2003, pertaining to cultural heritage preservation, including cultural heritage landscape, and scenic roads, however no comprehensive town-wide inventory has yet been undertaken either for built heritage or cultural landscape resources. Official Plan Amendment (OPA) 173 regarding Cultural Heritage Policies notes that in consideration of new development, cultural heritage landscapes identified by either a Cultural Heritage Landscape Inventory or through a Cultural Heritage Survey may be considered for protection and/or designation under the Ontario Heritage Act. OPA 173 notes the intent to undertake such an inventory, and to develop criteria to assist in defining cultural heritage landscapes. It is within the context of this latter policy statement that the Town has commissioned this study.

The study is not intended to be an exhaustive study on the history of Caledon, or an inventory of cultural heritage landscapes. It does, however, explore the potential themes and historical context of the area through a review of some of the excellent documents and books that have been written on Caledon’s history, including the Cultural Heritage Study of the Town of Caledon (Historica Research Limited, 1993). These themes were used in conjunction with the proposed evaluation process and criteria to identify a number of candidate cultural heritage landscapes, and were applied to two case studies.

The study process included the following key tasks:

Task 1 Current State Analysis[edit]

  • Review of relevant Town background documents and existing policy framework;
  • Review of historical data and settlement patterns in Caledon;
  • Limited field survey of Town noting current conditions, potential sites (representative), and areas of highest probability of having cultural heritage landscapes.

Task 2 Establishing the Framework[edit]

  • Review and summary of cultural heritage landscape definitions and evaluation criteria in use, or proposed in other locales, both locally and internationally.

Task 3 Defining the Cultural Heritage Landscape in Caledon[edit]

  • Development of preliminary written evaluation criteria and review with municipal staff and an Ad Hoc Committee;
  • ‘Testing the criteria,’ through identification of representative cultural heritage landscape sites in Caledon, and detailing of two case studies;

Task 4 Developing Written Criteria for the Identification of Cultural Heritage Landscapes[edit]

  • Documenting process and findings in a summary report, supported by: representative photographic examples, and plan illustrating areas of cultural heritage landscape potential;
  • Identification of next steps in identifying cultural heritage landscapes. Criteria for the Identification of Cultural Heritage Landscapes;

Regional character and context in Caledon[edit]

The Cultural Heritage Landscape (CHL) is the recognizable imprint of human settlement and activities on the land over time. Caledon, a relatively young municipal entity, encompasses a number of diverse regions (which are only touched on in this report), each with their own distinctive character, derived from the interplay of human settlement/activities and the particular landscape upon which the human story has been played out. The distinctive landforms and physiographic regions of Caledon are both the backdrop and main source of the readily distinguishable differences in the character between the various areas that make up the municipality. Although the historical themes and contexts of Caledon’s heritage parallel that of the province as a whole, it is the interaction of its dramatic natural features: the Oak Ridges Moraine, the Escarpment and the Credit and Humber River systems, that have shaped the form and character of its settlement areas and early industries, in a manner that is unique within Ontario.

Following is a brief summary of each of the key regions within the Town and how settlement in the area has both adapted to, and influenced the landscapes that are present today.

Physiographic Regions[edit]

The dolostone capped spine of the Niagara Escarpment is the most prominent feature of the Town, rising abruptly out of the flat and fertile Peel Plain in the southeast and angling across the Town, tending generally north–south. Unarguably, one of Ontario’s most outstanding physiographic features, the Escarpment has been designated a World Biosphere Reserve by United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). As one of only eleven World Biosphere Reserves in Canada, this designation places the Escarpment globally on a par with the Florida Everglades, the Galapagos Islands, and the Serengeti Plains.

The Escarpment ‘bends’ westward at The Forks of the Credit. This ‘bend’ also embraces the westernmost point of the Oak Ridges Moraine. An interlobate moraine (formed approximately 13,000 years ago between two receding lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet), the sand and gravel hills of the Moraine extend across most of the northeast portion of the Town and typically form the height of land across Southern Ontario, east to the Trent River. From just below the Grange Sideroad north to Mono Mills, these two significant landforms run ‘side by side’ with the hummocky hills of the Moraine extending up to the ‘scarp’ face. Criteria for the Identification of Cultural Heritage Landscapes

The high hills of the Moraine, composed largely of glacially deposited sand and gravel, are a natural catchment area for precipitation, giving rise to many springs along its lower edges. A number of these springs become the headwaters of significant streams. This is the origin of the Humber River, now designated a ‘Canadian Heritage River’ based on its outstanding human heritage and recreational values, and the contribution it has made to the development of Canada. The Humber’s broad watershed dominates the eastern section of the Town. The Credit River, from its source in the northwest of the Town, has cut its way over time through the limestone bedrock of the Escarpment, creating a deep gorge. The Credit, a pool and riffle stream with a mostly rocky bottom, is a sharp contrast to the slower, meandering Humber. The lower reaches of the Town are characterized by the flat to slightly undulating lands of the Peel Plain which extends across the lower reaches of the Town, sloping gradually toward Lake Ontario. This extensive plain which encompasses the central portions of the Regional Municipalities of Halton, Peel and York and the northwestern portion of the City of Toronto, consists of a glacial till rich in shale and limestone, topped by a veneer of relatively impervious clays. These major landscape features have always had, and continue to have, implications for the form and nature of human use and settlement of the area presenting various opportunities and constraints in response to such essential human concerns as the range and extent of potential wild food sources, access to potable water, potential for cultivation, ease of travel, nature of building materials, health and safety of encampments and permanent settlements, potential for industry (especially 19th century and beyond), and aesthetic and spiritual satisfaction.

Early Human Habitation[edit]

The Oak Ridges Moraine was one of the earliest areas in southern Ontario to be free of ice and thus is likely to have been one of the first to support human habitation (Oak Ridges Study p. 9). The area appears to have been continuously occupied from that time on with sites documented which span the full period of pre-historic settlement. On Mount Wolfe, the highest point in the northeast with creeks and wetlands along its slopes, three sites are known, including a Huron village and burying ground. It has been suggested that the location of the village site was determined relative to a long distance trail across the Moraine. Like the Humber valley, the Moraine is considered one of the significant travelways of aboriginal people (researchers have estimated as many as five trails).

Throughout the reaches of the Humber, a key transportation corridor as well as a rich source of food and dry, accessible campsites, many archaeological sites have been identified. The confluence of the Humber River and Centreville Creek is considered particularly rich. No systematic survey has been undertaken of the Credit and its tributaries and consequently relatively few sites are known, but the potential is considered High to Very High given that proximity to water is the major indicator for the location of indigenous sites. While First Nations’ modifications to the natural landscape were relatively modest in European terms, research has shown that they still could be quite significant in their own right (e.g. the burning of the forest understorey).

Euro-Canadian Settlement: The ‘Grid’[edit]

With the spread of Euro-Canadian settlement, which began slowly as in most hinterland regions, the rigid survey grid was overlaid on this diverse and occasionally dramatic natural landscape. The current Town of Caledon is a relatively modern entity (1974) comprising the northern part of the Township of Chinguacousy as well as the Townships of Caledon and Albion. These Townships were surveyed over 1818-1819 and laid out in the double front system, relatively new at the time. In this system the common unit of concession, the half-lot, was almost square and 100 acres in size. Each half of a 200 acre-lot fronted on a different concession line road. Side roads generally intersected the concession roads every five full lots, or 1000 acres. This system established the pattern of settlement discernable to the present day. Field size, house, drive and outbuilding placement, property boundary demarcation by fence and/or tree-line, all relate to the original survey and the roadways remain, for the most part, the historic concession roads and side roads. Of course the roads, which were laid out straight on the idealized plan, had to be modified in construction to deal with the actual topography, particularly at the Escarpment which was not readily amenable to road building. A number are, in fact, almost ‘switchbacks’ as they deal with a terrain of rocky ridges and gorges. Anomalies between the surveys of the original townships are still discernible in the offset of side roads at the former junction between Albion and Caledon townships (now Airport Road), and the placement of Boston Mills Road only two lots south of Old Baseline, the former boundary between Caledon and Chinguacousy townships, (much closer than the typical five lot allowance). The roads were renamed following the municipal reorganization that created the present Town of Caledon. Despite names chosen for their historical associations, most long time area residents still refer to the roads by concession numbers and the township of origin.

Farming the Peel Plain[edit]

The Peel Plain is a remarkably flat landscape relative to the upland character of so much of the Town. The soils of this area are classified as Class1, among the best in the Province, and the farms of those who settled here prospered and expanded. A large part of this area was once part of Chinguacousy Township and the southern part of Albion Township (south of the Moraine). While land clearing was a struggle, the soils were stable, much less susceptible to erosion than the sandy soils to the northeast and able to support a variety of crop types. It was initially wheat farming that brought prosperity to the farmers of the area. Wheat prices skyrocketed in the mid 19th century, pushed by a chain of events which began with the gold rush of 1849 and peaked in 1854-1855 when the crop failed in Europe at the same time as the Crimean War cut off the supply of Russian wheat. It was with the wealth generated in this period that many of the area farmers built their ‘second’ homes, most often choosing the combination of red brick with buff brick detailing which is now considered a characteristic of the architecture of the area. While some residents built all new in brick, others bricked over existing frame and log structures. Beginning in this same period, the signing of the Reciprocity Treaty with the U.S.A. (1854-1865) and the arrival of the railway encouraged farmers to diversify, including an increase in livestock. This diversification in turn changed agricultural outbuilding requirements. The modest English two bay hay barn was no longer adequate in itself, leading to the construction either of a second barn or the raising of the existing barn on a stone foundation with livestock at that ground storey and hay in the loft above. Thus it was in this period that the barn became the dominant feature of the Peel Plain landscape. The flatness of the Peel Plain means that it was almost solely the survey grid which established the form of settlement, a tapestry of fields with the occasional woodlot, wetland and/or creek. Except at its northern and western margins where the buildings are framed by the highlands beyond, the dominant features on the skyline are the barn and the silo along with windrow trees and/or mature front yard shade trees. Many of the properties now have a modern bungalow adjacent to the brick farmhouse where several generations remain on the land. Working farms have had to adopt modern practices and to some extent, scales of operation, with an accompanying affect on the historic landscape. More seriously, the ease of construction afforded by this flat, cleared land and its proximity to already-established suburban and commercial/industrial enterprises to the south continues to present a strong lure to development.

Albion Hills: A Contrasting Case[edit]

Settlement in the more northerly Albion Hills contrasts that of the Peel Plain. Here the farmhouse, barn and fields are set within a rolling, hummocky landscape with hills rising to the north behind the structures. The snake fences, which typically define the properties, appear to undulate with the terrain. While the sandy soils of the Moraine initially provided reasonable yields, merciless soil erosion began to occur as land clearing increased and too great a percentage of tree cover was lost (90% by 1900). Initially undermining the quality of farming (after one generation), erosion culminated eventually in virtual dust bowl conditions with the remaining soil simply blowing away. The farmers of the area, many of Irish descent, rarely had the surplus funds to allow for the building of a ‘second’ house in brick or even bricking over their first frame or log house. Thus a number of early examples of log homes survive in this area. This is true also of barn and outbuilding improvements. Still, the branches and tributaries of the Humber run through the area and provided many potential mill seats. The mills of Robert Campbell became the focal point for the community which later became Palgrave. The Palgrave millpond, which is the ‘gateway’ into the village from the north, remains one of its most distinctive features. The well-wooded, shaded environment that now characterizes much of this area is derived largely from the attempt in the latter half of the 20th century to stabilize the soils and diminish flooding, and bears little resemblance to the exposed and denuded landscape of the late 19th century.

Early Industry along the Credit[edit]

The area dominated by the Escarpment was generally too rocky and rugged to support agriculture except in pockets at its margins. Still, from its initial discovery the Credit River was considered one of the best streams for milling in all of southern Ontario. The many industries which developed around this power source -originally, as elsewhere, saw and grist mills, and later such enterprises as textile mills, distilleries, bottling plants and hydro plants spawned communities all along the river valley, typically tucked close to the Escarpment. The dolostone, sandstone and limestone, exposed as outcrops and/or often close to the surface which made farming so difficult, was found to be excellent building stone with the red whirlpool sandstone particularly prized for major public buildings in Toronto and other urban centres. Quarrying and lime burning became key industries along the Credit particularly between Cataract and Inglewood. Toward the south, in former Chinguacousy Township, outcrops of red Queenston shale provided the basis for brick and terra cotta manufacture at Cheltenham and Terra Cotta. It is the gullying of these shales due to lack of vegetation which created the striking landscape feature known as the ‘badlands’. While each riverside community is distinct, there are characteristics which are shared by many. Bordered by the Escarpment and the river most have a Mill Street, a mill pond (though Cataract ‘Lake’ disappeared with the removal of the dam), a combination of typical housing types (from workers’ housing to that of the mill and/or quarry owner), the prevalence of local stone as a building material and at least some streets which wind with the river.

The railway, key to the development of many hinterland areas, played a particularly important role in the success of the industries along the Credit. The origin and development of Inglewood derived directly from its being the junction of both the Hamilton and Northwestern Railway and the Credit Valley Railway. The former CVR railway, although little used now, still runs through the center of the village and remains a dominant feature. This is true as well at The Forks of the Credit where the trestle traversing the stream echoes the monumental wooden trestle originally built for that location, much of which remains embedded in the existing embankments. While agricultural development in the Escarpment area was very difficult, farming did take place in pockets, occasionally with some success. These farms often eventually had a farmhouse, barn foundation and outbuildings of local stone. As well, stone gateposts and fieldstone fences leveled with cedar shingles were distinctive elements of this area.

Recreation and Nature Conservation[edit]

The scenic features, dramatic terrain and fresh waters of the Town of Caledon have long made it an attractive area for nature enjoyment. The Town is home to a number of public and private recreation sites whose origins are rooted in its history. The Belfountain Conservation Area site has a lengthy history of recreational pursuits dating to the late 1800s when it was the private estate of a wealthy and prominent local businessman. The Caledon Mountain Trout Club is an exclusive members-only sporting facility, operating on a site that has been a fish and game area since the mid-1800s. Formalized in 1903 as a weekend and Criteria for the Identification of Cultural Heritage Landscapes summer retreat, the club still operates today from its historic clubhouse in much the same way as it did one hundred years ago. Albion Hills Conservation Area was the first conservation area in Ontario. Established in the mid 1950s, not long after Hurricane Hazel wreaked destruction on the region, represented new responsibilities for the (then) Humber River Conservation Authority, toward the provision of public recreation, in conjunction with its mandate for flood control and environmental conservation. Caledon’s physiographic features, which transcend municipal boundaries, have given rise in more recent decades to a regional network of trails that represent trends toward environmental conservation and personal nature enjoyment, and demonstrate the spirit and strength of grass-roots movements. The Bruce Trail extends the length of the Niagara Escarpment, some 300 kilometres, to its terminus at Tobermory. The Caledon section, which has been in existence for over thirty years, spans the Credit River, Humber River and Nottawasaga Creek watersheds, passing by notable area features such as the Cheltenham Badlands, Caledon Mountain at the Devil's Pulpit, and The Forks of the Credit Provincial Park. The Caledon Trailway, which also forms a segment of the Bruce Trail, is located along the bed of the old Hamilton and Northwestern Railway, built in the 1870s to transport stone, brick, timber and agricultural goods. The trail is one of the earliest designated routes of the Trans Canada Trail, and the first TCT pavilion was built on the trail in Caledon East. The Humber Valley Heritage Trail follows pre-historic travel routes along the Humber valley north from Bolton to join with the Bruce Trail and the Caledon Trailway, and is to be eventually linked southward to the lower sections of the trail which terminate at Lake Ontario. The Oak Ridges Moraine Trail extends from the Albion Hills Conservation Area and the Bruce Trail to the eastern boundary of the Town of Caledon, and beyond. The Elora Cataract Trailway runs 47 km from Elora to Cataract, along a branch route of the Credit Valley Railway (CVR) which was constructed in 1879 between Toronto and Orangeville, in direct competition with the Toronto, Grey & Bruce Railway. In 1883, the CVR was incorporated into the Ontario and Quebec Railway, an affiliate company of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). A year later it was leased to the Canadian Pacific Railway. The original CVR line is now abandoned by CPR, although the segment from Streetsville to Orangeville was acquired in recent years by the Town of Orangeville and operates as a shortline for freight.

Pioneer Cemeteries[edit]

The Town of Caledon maintains 25 pioneer cemeteries, dating back to the 1830s. Both large and small, these early cemeteries provide a fascinating link to the community's early settlers. An inventory of Caledon's pioneer cemeteries, together with headstone transcriptions, is held by the Heritage Resource Office. In 2007, the Town initiated a multi-year restoration program to repair individual monuments and cairns.

Private Cemeteries[edit]

There are a number of active cemeteries within Caledon operated by private boards.

Media[edit]

Established in 1888 as the Cardwell Observer,[13] The Caledon Enterprise is published weekly from Bolton by Metroland Media.[14] Also based out of Bolton is The Caledon Citizen, established in 1982. A MELINIUM paper, it is published by Caledon Publishing Ltd.[15] A third newspaper was launched by Rick and Shelly Sargent in 2010: The Regional, published monthly in Bolton. In November 2012, this paper was acquired by Caledon Publishing and ceased publication. The Sargents began working with the Caledon Citizen.

A short-lived student-run newspaper, The Caledon Underground, existed as of 2010.

There are no television stations in Caledon, which is located with the broadcast area of stations in Greater Toronto Area and Hamilton.

Key Porter Books and parent H.B. Fenn are both headquarters in Bolton. Broadcast radio stations CJFB-FM and CFGM-FM.

History and trails[edit]

  • Brick Work Ruins (Caledon)
  • Bruce Trail (Caledon)
  • Caledon Trailway (Caledon)
  • Canadian Heritage Humber River (Caledon)
  • Elora-Cataract Trail (Caledon)
  • Grand Valley Trail (Caledon)
  • Great War Flying Museum (Caledon)
  • Humber Valley Trail (Caledon)
  • Andrew's Treasure Trail (Caledon)
  • Oak Ridges Trail (Caledon)
  • Hair Pin Turn (Beside the Credit River)
  • Caledon Central Public School

Organizations[edit]

Protected areas[edit]

Caledon Lake lies in the Headwaters of Credit River

Sports and recreation[edit]

Junior hockey teams include the Caledon Golden Hawks and Caledon Canadians, the latter defunct.

Minor Hockey Teams include the Caledon Hawks and Caledon Coyotes

Lacrosse in the Town of Caledon is represented by the Caledon Vaughan Minor Lacrosse Association which operates Minor Field and both Minor and Junior C. Box Teams

Mike Fox, the winner of the 2007 Queen's Plate, was foaled in Caledon, while Peaks and Valleys currently stands there.

Caledon Equestrian Park in Palgrave will host the equestrian events of the 2015 Pan American Games.[16]

Caledon Centre for Recreation and Wellness, located in Bolton, Ontario.

Communities[edit]

Cheltenham, a community in Caledon, on the Twinning Post in Cheltenham Township, Pennsylvania, United States.[17][18][19][20]

The primary administrative and commercial centre of Caledon is the community of Bolton, which the municipal government estimated as having a population of 26,478 in 2006.[21]

Smaller communities in the town include Albion, Alloa, Alton, Belfountain, Boston Mills, Brimstone, Caledon, Caledon East, Caledon village, Campbell's Cross, Castlederg, Cataract, Cedar Meadows, Cedar Mills, Cheltenham, Claude, Coulterville, Ferndale, Forks of the Credit, The Grange, Humber, Humber Grove, Inglewood, Kilmanagh, Lockton, Mayfield West, Macville, Melville, McLeodville, Mono Mills, Mono Road, New Glasgow, Palgrave, Queensgate, Rockside, Rosehill, Sandhill, Silver Creek, Sleswick, Sligo, Snelgrove, Stonehart, Taylorwoods, Terra Cotta, Tormore, Valleywood and Victoria. The region is otherwise very sparsely populated with farms being the only residential centres.

Infrastructure[edit]

2015 was a year of milestone accomplishments for Caledon. The Town of Caledon completed a Town-wide broadband gap analysis, in keeping with the Council priority to expand Caledon’s high-speed internet infrastructure. The Town of Caledon also established strategic direction for the build out of high-speed internet services in Caledon. We implemented Public WiFi at landmark facilities around Town.

Caledon is actively funding and replacing $13M (in 2015) worth of aging infrastructure, such as road-ways, traffic signals, culverts, bridges, cellular phone coverage and other projects relating to infrastructure.

Water and Waste Water[edit]

Water and waste water services for the Town of Caledon are operated and maintained by the Region of Peel.

Water Storage[edit]

Water storage sources such as culverts, catch basins and ditches are all maintained by the Town of Caledon's Public Works Department.

Catch basins[edit]

Usually located along the edge of the roadway or ditch, storm water is directed through the steel grate covering the catch basin structure. Please do not dump waste into these drains. The storm water is then conveyed from the catch basin through to a sewer system which outlets into our lakes, streams or rivers. The heavier suspended particles are collected in the bottom of the catch basin, stopping them from travelling into the water supply. Catch basins are vacuum cleaned every 1–2 years.

Culverts[edit]

All culverts within the Town's right-of-way are installed and maintained by the Town, as stated in Town by-law 93-05.

Ditches[edit]

Roadside ditches perform four primary functions:

  • Drain water from the road base and sub grade; they are not intended to drain adjacent properties (but in many cases, they may).
  • Carry collected water to a sufficient outlet.
  • Stop the uncollected sheet of surface water coming from outside the road allowance from getting on the road.
  • Assist in winter snow clearing operations by providing snow storage below the elevation of the road surface.
  • Standing water is common during the spring and after heavy precipitation periods.

Emergency services[edit]

The town runs its own fire services through the composite full-time firefighters of the Town of Caledon Fire & Emergency Services, which has nine stations.

Ambulance services are run by the regional government's Peel Regional Paramedic Services, with three stations.

Despite being part of Peel Region, policing in Caledon is conducted by a detachment of the Ontario Provincial Police rather than Peel Regional Police.

Transportation[edit]

GO Transit operates two bus routes in Caledon;

It additionally has storage and service facilities in the town.

Brampton Transit recently extended Route 30 Airport Road into the Tullamore Industrial Area within the Town of Caledon, with a total of six trips per day.

The town currently has no government-supported local public transit system. However, growing population prompted former local resident Darren Parberry[22] to start a trial bus service with two routes, called Métis Transit, which ran briefly in 2006. Caledon Township also ran a commercial bus operations in 1999 under the name Caledon Transit Incorporated,[23] but it ceased operations due to low ridership.

Transit services for the elderly, disabled, and infirm are provided by Caledon Community Services Transportation and Transhelp (run by Peel Region).

Taxi service is also available in the Bolton, Ontario area.

The highways in the municipality are:

Intensification Strategy[edit]

Section 3.4.2.2 of the Town of Caledon Official Plan encourages all forms of residential intensification in parts of the Town's built up areas that have sufficient existing or planned infrastructure. As part of the Town's housing policies, intensification is one way of providing a full range of housing types, tenure and affordability. Specifically, Section 5.10.3.14 states residential intensification will generally be permitted in settlements where:

a.) The site or building can accommodate the form of development being proposed including appropriate consideration for environment, heritage resources and compatibility with the surround community; and

b.) The existing and planned services can support additional households

Section 5.10.4.5.2.8 also indicates that residential intensification development for underdeveloped or undeveloped lands would be permitted within Rural Service Centres. Finally, OPA 226, the Town's Provincial Conformity amendment, adopted by Town Council September 2012 (subject to an Ontario Municipal Board hearing) includes section 4.2.1.3.2, which states that the Town will prepare an intensification strategy.

Purpose of the Town of Caledon Intensification Strategy[edit]

The main purpose of the Intensification Strategy is to assist the Town to meet the policy framework described above on a consistent basis. The Town of Caledon Intensification Strategy will identify opportunities for future development, redevelopment and infill within the Town's delineated built up area and designated Greenfield areas to 2031 and to 2041. The Intensification Strategy will guide the Town in meeting current and future targets as assigned by the Region of Peel Official Plan and Town of Caledon Official Plan. Part of the work in developing the Intensification Strategy is to include a discussion about the differences between residential intensification and infill, the opportunities and constraints of intensification and how intensification will fit within the character of areas in the Town of Caledon. Public participation is a key component of this process especially in developing a "made in Caledon" approach.

This work is being conducted by a team of qualified consultants, The MBTW Group, engaged through RFP 2013-39: Consulting Services for an Intensification Strategy for the Town of Caledon.

Key Components:

The Intensification Strategy will be conducted in 4 phases and consist of the following key components: 1.Background Research: Review and assess background information such as Official Plans, policies, Zoning By-law, reports, trends in development, building typology, etc. and generate a vacant land inventory 2.Analysis of data: Develop criteria to evaluate potential sites for intensification; and create an illustrative public information package 3.Identify and evaluate: Look at opportunities and challenges to prioritize potential sites for intensification; prepare urban design guidelines relating to each intensification type 4.Policy Formulation: Develop policies for the Official Plan and Zoning By-law as well as a process to monitor intensification into the future

Notable people[edit]

Travel Region[edit]

Caledon is part of the Hills of Headwaters Tourism Association and Central Counties of Ontario, two tourism related associations.

In popular culture[edit]

Caledon is the main setting in 1999, a well-known creepypasta (an Internet urban legend).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Statistics Canada: 2012
  2. ^ 43° 51' 44" N, 80° 8' 13" W, as per Google Earth
  3. ^ 43° 49' 15" N, 79° 43' 34" W, as per Google Earth
  4. ^ "Where you can't get away with anything". Macleans.ca - Canada - Features. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  5. ^ Smith, Wm. H. (1846). SMITH'S CANADIAN GAZETTEER - STATISTICAL AND GENERAL INFORMATION RESPECTING ALL PARTS OF THE UPPER PROVINCE, OR CANADA WEST: (PDF). Toronto: H. & W. ROWSELL. p. 8. 
  6. ^ http://www.caledon.ca/en/townhall/resources/Heritage.RB1h.2013-6-10.pdf
  7. ^ Smith, Wm. H. (1846). SMITH'S CANADIAN GAZETTEER - STATISTICAL AND GENERAL INFORMATION RESPECTING ALL PARTS OF THE UPPER PROVINCE, OR CANADA WEST: (PDF). Toronto: H. & W. ROWSELL. p. 27. 
  8. ^ a b NHS Profile of Caledon: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=3521024&Data=Count&SearchText=Caledon&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&A1=All&B1=All&Custom=&TABID=1
  9. ^ [1].
  10. ^ a b "Pickering, Ontario (City) Census Subdivision". Community Profiles, Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. 
  11. ^ a b http://www.caledon.ca/en/townhall/council.asp
  12. ^ "Albion Field Centre". 1981-2010 Canadian Climate Normals. Environment Canada. Retrieved 2016-05-12. 
  13. ^ Heyes, Esther (1968). The Story of Albion (PDF) (2 ed.). Bolton ON: Bolton Enterprise. p. 323. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  14. ^ "Caledon Enterprise". Metroland Media. Mississauga ON. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  15. ^ http://www.caledoncitizen.com/common/Misc/Contact_Info.html
  16. ^ http://www.toronto2015.org/lang/en/the-games/sports-program-and-venue-plan/caledon-equestrian-park.html
  17. ^ Cheltenham Twinning Association
  18. ^ Cheltenham Town Council: Other Cheltenhams
  19. ^ Other Cheltenhams
  20. ^ Cheltenham Township Twinning
  21. ^ [2]
  22. ^ http://transit.toronto.on.ca/archives/data/200601070815.shtml
  23. ^ http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~wyatt/alltime/a2b-on.html

External links[edit]