Melvin Van Peebles

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Melvin Van Peebles
Van Peebles in 2015
Melvin Peebles

(1932-08-21)August 21, 1932
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
DiedSeptember 21, 2021(2021-09-21) (aged 89)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Other namesBrer Soul, Block
  • Actor
  • director
  • screenwriter
  • playwright
  • producer
  • composer
Years active1955–2021
SpouseMaria Marx
Children4, including Mario Van Peebles

Melvin Van Peebles (born Melvin Peebles; August 21, 1932 – September 21, 2021) was an American actor, filmmaker, writer, and composer. He worked as an active filmmaker into the 2000s. His feature film debut, The Story of a Three-Day Pass (1967), was based on his own French-language novel La Permission and was shot in France, as it was difficult for a black American director to get work at the time. The film won an award at the San Francisco International Film Festival which gained him the interest of Hollywood studios, leading to his American feature debut Watermelon Man, in 1970. Eschewing further overtures from Hollywood, he used the successes he had so far to bankroll his work as an independent filmmaker.

In 1971, he released his best-known work, creating and starring in the film Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, considered one of the earliest and best-regarded examples of the blaxploitation genre. He followed this up with the musical, Don't Play Us Cheap, based on his own stage play, and continued to make films, write novels and stage plays in English and in French through the next several decades; his final films include the French-language film Le Conte du ventre plein (2000) and the absurdist film Confessionsofa Ex-Doofus-ItchyFooted Mutha (2008). His son, filmmaker and actor Mario Van Peebles, appeared in several of his works and portrayed him in the 2003 biographical film Baadasssss!.

Early life and education[edit]

Born Melvin Peebles[1] in Chicago, Illinois, he was the son of Edwin Griffin and Marion Peebles.[2] In 1953 Peebles graduated with a B.A. in literature from Ohio Wesleyan University and, 13 days later, joined the Air Force, serving for three and a half years.[3] He added "Van" to his name when he lived in the Netherlands in his late 20s.[4]


Early years[edit]

He worked as a cable car gripman in San Francisco, California.[3] Later, he wrote about these experiences. His first book, The Big Heart, credited to Melvin Van, evolved from a small article and a series of photographs taken by Ruth Bernhard.[3]

According to Van Peebles, a passenger suggested that he should become a filmmaker. Van Peebles shot his first short film, Pickup Men for Herrick in 1957 and made two more short films during the same period. About these films, Van Peebles said: "I thought they were features. Each one turned out to be eleven minutes long. I was trying to do features. I knew nothing." As he learned more about the filmmaking process, he found out that "I could make a feature for five hundred dollars. That was the cost of 90 minutes of film. I didn't know a thing about shooting a film sixteen to one or ten to one or none of that shit. Then I forgot you had to develop film. And I didn't know you needed a work print. All I can say is that after I did one thing he would say, 'Well, aren't you gonna put sound on it?' and I would go, 'Oh shit!' That's all I could say."[3]

After Van Peebles completed his first short films, he took them with him to Hollywood to try to find work, but was unable to find anyone who wanted to hire him as a director. Van Peebles decided to move his family to the Netherlands where he planned to study astronomy. On the way to Europe, in New York City, he met Amos Vogel, founder of the avant-garde Cinema 16 who agreed to place two of Van Peebles's shorts in his rental catalog.[5] Vogel screened Van Peebles's Three Pickup Men for Herrick at Cinema 16 on a program with City of Jazz in the spring of 1960 with Ralph Ellison leading a post-film discussion.[6]

When Vogel went to Paris shortly after, he brought Van Peebles's films to show Henri Langlois and Mary Meerson at the Cinémathèque Française. Meanwhile, in the Netherlands, Van Peebles's marriage dissolved and his wife and children went back to the United States. Shortly thereafter, Van Peebles was invited to Paris probably by Mary Meerson and/or Lotte Eisner, founders of the Cinémathèque Française, on the strength of his short films.[7] In France, Van Peebles created the short film Les Cinq Cent Balles (500 Francs) (1961) and then established himself as a writer. He did investigative reporting for France Observateur during 1963–64, during which he profiled, and later became friends with, Chester Himes. Himes got him a job at the anti-authoritarian humor magazine Hara-kiri, where Van Peebles wrote a monthly column and eventually joined the editorial board.[8]


During 1965–66, Mad magazine attempted a French edition and hired Van Peebles as editor-in-chief during its run of only five issues. He began to write plays in French, utilizing the sprechgesang form of songwriting, where the lyrics were spoken over the music. This style carried over to Van Peebles' debut album, Brer Soul.[3]

Van Peebles was a prolific writer in France. He published four novels and a collection of short stories. He completed at least one play, La Fête à Harlem which was also released as a novel, and which he would later make into the musical Don't Play Us Cheap (1970).[9] Roger Blin directed La Fête à Harlem with the Les Griots theatrical troupe for the Festival du jeune théâtre in Liège, Belgium in September 1964.[10] Van Peebles made his first feature-length film, The Story of a Three-Day Pass (La Permission) (1968) based on a novel by the same title. The film caught the attention of Hollywood producers who mistook him for a French auteur after it won an award at the San Francisco International Film Festival as the French entry.[11] Van Peebles's first[citation needed] Hollywood film was the 1970 Columbia Pictures comedy Watermelon Man, written by Herman Raucher. Starring Godfrey Cambridge, the movie tells the story of a casually racist white man who suddenly wakes up black and finds himself alienated from his friends, family, and job.


In 1970, Van Peebles directed filming of the Powder Ridge Rock Festival, which was banned by court injunction.[citation needed] After Watermelon Man, Van Peebles became determined to have complete control over his next production, which became the groundbreaking Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song (1971), privately funded with his own money, and in part by a $50,000 loan from Bill Cosby.[12] Van Peebles not only directed, scripted, and edited the film, but wrote the score and directed the marketing campaign. The film, which in the end grossed $15 million,[13] was, among many others, acclaimed by the Black Panthers for its political resonance with the black struggle. His son Mario's 2003 film BAADASSSSS! tells the story behind the making of Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song; father and son presented the film together as the Closing Night selection for Maryland Film Festival 2004.[citation needed]

Van Peebles wrote the book, music, and lyrics for the stage musical Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death, which opened off-Broadway and then moved to Broadway, running for 325 performances in 1971–72.[14] The show was nominated for seven Tony Awards, including Best Musical, Best Book of a Musical, and Best Original Score.[15]

As his intended follow-up to Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, Van Peebles made the musical film Don't Play Us Cheap.[16] The film was an adaptation of an earlier stage musical of the same name which Van Peebles had created for performances at San Francisco State College in November 1970.[9] At the time of the film's creation in 1971, a Broadway production of the stage musical was not planned, but the failure to find a distubtror for the completed film led to Van Peebles decision to bring the musical to Broadway in 1972 for a production of the play at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre.[16][9] Van Peebles performed the same duties as his previous stage musical, as well as producing and directing. The show ran for 164 performances in 1972, earning Van Peebles another Tony nomination for Best Book of a Musical.[17] The previously shot film version was later released on January 1, 1973.[18]

In 1977, Van Peebles was one of four credited screenwriters on the film Greased Lightning, about the life of pioneering Black NASCAR driver Wendell Scott. He was originally the director of the film as well, but was replaced by Michael Schultz.[19]

Van Peebles was involved with two more Broadway musicals in the 1980s. He was a co-writer on the book for Reggae, which closed after 21 performances in 1980.[20] For Waltz of the Stork, he wrote book, music, and lyrics, as well as producing the show and playing the lead role. It ran for 160 performances in 1982.[21]

In the 1980s, Van Peebles became an options trader on the American Stock Exchange while continuing to work in theater and film.[22][23]

In 1995, he co-starred in the American live-action version of Japanese manga Fist of the North Star, alongside Gary Daniels, Costas Mandylor, Chris Penn, Isako Washio, Malcolm McDowell, Downtown Julie Brown, Dante Basco, Tracey Walter, Clint Howard, Tony Halme, and Big Van Vader.[24]


In 2005, Van Peebles was the subject of a documentary entitled How to Eat Your Watermelon in White Company (and Enjoy It). Also in 2005, Van Peebles was the subject of the documentary Unstoppable: Conversation with Melvin Van Peebles, Gordon Parks, and Ossie Davis, which also featured Ossie Davis and Gordon Parks in the same room. It was moderated by Warrington Hudlin.[25]

In 2005, it was announced that Van Peebles would collaborate with Madlib for a proposed double album titled Brer Soul Meets Quasimoto. However, nothing further was issued about this project from the time that it was first announced.[26]

In 2008, Van Peebles completed the film Confessionsofa Ex-Doofus-ItchyFooted Mutha, which was the Closing Night selection for Maryland Film Festival 2008, and appeared on All My Children as Melvin Woods, the father of Samuel Woods, a character portrayed by his son, Mario.[27][28]

In 2009, Van Peebles became involved with a project to adapt Sweet Sweetback into a musical.[29] A preliminary version of this was staged at the Apollo Theater on April 25–26, 2009. As well, he wrote and performed in a stage musical, Unmitigated Truth: Life, a Lavatory, Loves, and Ladies, which featured some of his previous songs as well as some new material.[30]


In 2011, Van Peebles started doing shows in NYC with members of Burnt Sugar, under the name Melvin Van Peebles wid Laxative.[31] Van Peebles said that the band is called Laxative because they "make shit happen".[32] In November 2011, Melvin Van Peebles wid Laxative performed his song "Love, That's America" at Zebulon Cafe Concert, two weeks after the venue showed the original video for this song involving Occupy Wall Street footage,[33] which was uploaded to YouTube in October 2011.[34][unreliable source?]

Van Peebles in front of his artwork, A Ghetto Mother's Prayer, in 2017

On August 21, 2012, he distributed a new album, on vinyl only, called Nahh... Nahh Mofo.[35][36][37][38] This album was distributed at his birthday celebration at Film Forum.[39] On November 10, 2012, he released a video for the song "Lilly Done the Zampoughi Every Time I Pulled Her Coattail" to go with the album,[40][41] which was announced on his Facebook page.[42][unreliable source?]

On May 5, 2013, he returned to the Film Forum for a screening of Charlie Chaplin's The Kid (1921) and was a judge at the Charlie Chaplin Dress-Alike Contest which was held after the screening. He wore a bowler hat and baggy pants in honor of Chaplin.[citation needed]

In September 2013, Van Peebles made his public debut as a visual artist, as a part of a gallery featured called "eMerge 2.0: Melvin Van Peebles & Artists on the Cusp".[43] It features "Ex-Voto Monochrome (A Ghetto Mother's Prayer)", one of many pieces of art he created to be on display in his home.[43]

In 2017, Methane Momma, a short film directed by Alain Rimbert, featured Van Peebles and his narration of poetic work with accompaniment of music by The Heliocentrics.[44][45][46]

In 2019, Burnt Sugar presented the film Sweetback in Brooklyn while playing their own interpretation of the soundtrack. Van Peebles appeared at the presentation.[47]

Personal life[edit]

Melvin Van Peebles married a German woman, Maria Marx. They lived in Mexico for a period in the late 1950s, where he painted portraits. Their son, actor and director Mario Van Peebles, was born while they resided in Mexico. The family subsequently returned to the United States.[48]

Van Peebles died on September 21, 2021, at his home in Manhattan, New York, at the age of 89.[49][50] He is survived by his sons, Mario and Max, and his daughter Marguerite.[13]

Awards and honors[edit]


  • (As "Melvin Van") The Big Heart, San Francisco: Fearon, 1957. With photographs by Ruth Bernhard, a book about life on San Francisco's cable cars. "A cable car is a big heart with people for blood. The people pump on and off—if you think of it like that it is pretty simple" (p. 21).
  • Un Ours pour le F.B.I. (1964); A Bear for the F.B.I., Trident, 1968.
  • Un Américain en enfer (1965); The True American, Doubleday, 1976.
  • La Reine des Pommes (1965); French translation and illustrations for a graphic novel adaptation of Chester Himes' A Rage in Harlem .[61]
  • Le Chinois du XIVe (1966) (short stories), illustrated by Roland Topor[62]
  • La Fête à Harlem (Harlem Party) (1967) (novel)
  • La Permission (1967)
  • Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, Lancer Books, New York, 1971.
  • Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death, Bantam, New York, 1973.[63]
  • Don't Play Us Cheap: A Harlem Party, Bantam Books, New York, 1973.
  • Just an Old Sweet Song, Ballantine, New York, 1976.
  • Bold Money: A New Way to Play the Options Market, Warner Books, New York, 1986, ISBN 0-446-51340-7 (nonfiction)
  • Melvin and Mario Van Peebles: No Identity Crisis, A Fireside Book, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1990.
  • Panther, Thunder's Mouth Press, 1995.[64]
  • Introduction to the 1998 edition of Chester Himes' Yesterday Will Make You Cry, 1997.[65]
  • Confessions of a Ex Doofus Itchy Footed Mutha, New York: Akashic Books, 2009, ISBN 9781933354866. With illustrations by Caktuz Tree, a graphic novel adaptation of the film with the same title.


Peebles' 1971 film Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song received acclaim from black rights groups for its political resonance with the black struggle and grossed $10 million.
Year Film Credited as Notes
Director Producer Writer Composer
1957 Three Pickup Men for Herrick Yes Yes Yes Yes Short
1957 Sunlight Yes Yes Yes Yes Short
1961 Les cinq cent balles (500 Francs) Yes No Yes Yes Short
1967 The Story of a Three-Day Pass (also known as La Permission) Yes No Yes Yes from his novel La Permission
1969 Slogan No No Yes No Screenwriter, Directed by Pierre Grimblat.
1970 Watermelon Man Yes No No Yes
1971 Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song Yes Yes Yes Yes also actor and editor
1973 Don't Play Us Cheap Yes Yes Yes Yes also editor
1976 Just an Old Sweet Song (also known as Down Home) No No Yes Yes made for television; screenwriter and theme song
1977 Greased Lightning No No Yes No screenwriter
1981 The Sophisticated Gents No Yes Yes No made for television; actor, screenwriter, song "Greased Lightning" and associate producer
1987 The Day They Came to Arrest the Book No No Yes No made for television; screenwriter
1989 Identity Crisis Yes Yes No No Also actor and co-editor
1995 Panther No Yes Yes No based on his novel Panther, also actor
1996 Vrooom Vroom Vroooom Yes Yes Yes Yes later included in Tales of Erotica, also known as Erotic Tales. Also editor
1996 Gang in Blue Yes Yes No No Co-director and also actor
1998 Melvin Van Peebles' Classified X No No Yes No Documentary; screenwriter, actor and executive producer
2000 Le Conte du ventre plein (also known as Bellyful) Yes Yes* Yes Yes *Delegate Producer; based on a short story from 1966 book Le Chinois du XIVe[66]
2008 Confessionsofa Ex-Doofus-ItchyFooted Mutha Yes Yes Yes No based on his own graphic novel

Music videos[edit]

Other writing credits[edit]

As himself[edit]

  • Unstoppable (2005)
  • How to Eat Your Watermelon in White Company (2005)

Other acting-only credits[edit]



Studio albums[edit]


  • X-Rated By an All-White Jury (1997) – including Brer Soul, Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death and As Serious as a Heart-Attack

Soundtrack albums[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Greasley, Philip A., ed. (2001). "Melvin Van Peebles". Dictionary of Midwestern Literature. Volume 1: The Authors. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 505. ISBN 0253108411.
  2. ^ "Corrections: Sept. 25, 2021". The New York Times. September 25, 2021. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 26, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e James, Darius (1995). That's Blaxploitation!: Roots of the Baadasssss 'Tude (Rated X by an All-Whyte Jury). ISBN 0-312-13192-5.
  4. ^ Wiegand, Chris (September 23, 2021). "Melvin van Peebles obituary". The Guardian.
  5. ^ MacDonald, Scott (1997). "Cinema 16: Documents Toward a History of the Film Society". Wide Angle. 19 (1): 3–48. doi:10.1353/wan.1997.0001. ISSN 1086-3354. S2CID 191566024.
  6. ^ Ellison, Ralph (2010). Trading twelves : the selected letters of Ralph Ellison and Albert Murray. Vintage eBooks. ISBN 978-0-307-56074-2. OCLC 681584951.
  7. ^ "Entretein avec Melvin Van Peebles." Cahiers du Cinéma #308. February 1980. pp. 14–16.
  8. ^ Himes, Chester (1976). My Life of Absurdity. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. p. 291.
  9. ^ a b c d e Bernard L. Peterson (1993). "Don't Play Us Cheap!". A Century of Musicals in Black and White: An Encyclopedia of Musical Stage Works By, About, Or Involving African Americans. Greenwood Press. p. 112. ISBN 9780313266577.
  10. ^ "Fête à Harlem – Spectacle – 1964".
  11. ^ "Interview with Melvin Van Peebles – Bay Area Television Archive". Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  12. ^ Kohn, Eric (September 27, 2021). "Mario Van Peebles on His Father's Greatest Legacy: 'He Put Black Power on the Screen for the First Time'". IndieWire. Retrieved January 3, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ a b c Martin, Douglas (September 22, 2021). "Melvin Van Peebles, Champion of New Black Cinema, Dies at 89". The New York Times.
  14. ^ Dagan, Carmel (September 22, 2021). "Melvin Van Peebles, Influential Director, Actor and Writer, Dies at 89". Variety. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  15. ^ a b c "Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death". IBDB. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  16. ^ a b Unterberger, Richie. "Don't Play Us Cheap Review". AllMusic. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
  17. ^ a b c "Don't Play Us Cheap!". IBDB. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  18. ^ Deming, Mark. "Synopsis". AllMovie. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
  19. ^ Arnold, Gary (July 16, 1977). "'Greased Lightning': A Sketchy Saga of a Stock-Car Career". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  20. ^ a b "Reggae". IBDB. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  21. ^ a b "Waltz of the Stork". IBDB. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  22. ^ Booker, James (March 27, 1984). "James Booker's N.Y." The Washington Afro-American. p. 11. Retrieved March 15, 2014.
  23. ^ Wylie, William H. (March 11, 1986). "Movie director weighs his options". The Pittsburgh Press. p. D2. Retrieved March 15, 2014.
  24. ^ Randel, Tony (1999). Fist of the North Star (DVD). United States: WinStar TV & Video. ISBN 1-57252-654-8.
  25. ^ Obenson, Tambay A. (June 13, 2014). "'Unstoppable: A Conversation w/ Melvin Van Peebles, Gordon Parks & Ossie Davis' – a Documentary in Need of a Re-Release". Archived from the original on June 15, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  26. ^ "Madlib & Melvin Van Peebles – Brer Soul meets Lord Quas". October 1, 2005. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  27. ^ Epstein, Daniel Robert (January 19, 2006). "Melvin Van Peebles". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved June 23, 2006.
  28. ^ Tate, Greg (January 13, 2006). "The MVP of Black Cinema". Archived from the original on March 23, 2007. Retrieved March 3, 2007.
  29. ^ "The Apollo Salon Series". The Apollo Theater Foundation. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
  30. ^ a b Denton, Martin (June 22, 2009). "Unmitigated Truth: Life, a Lavatory, Loves, and Ladies". Archived from the original on June 29, 2009.
  31. ^ "NYC: Melvin Van Peebles wid Laxative". Uptown. January 3, 2011. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  32. ^ "Melvin Van Peebles With Laxative, Zebulon Cafe Concert, May 12, 2011". May 12, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  33. ^ "The winter of our discontent". November 8, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  34. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Occupy Wall Street montage to the song "Love, That's America" by Melvin Van Peebles #OWS, YouTube". October 26, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  35. ^ "Give The Drummer Some 10/05/12". Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  36. ^ "The cat is out of..." Facebook. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  37. ^ "Melvin Van Peebles - Fireside Chat". Archived from the original on December 21, 2013. Retrieved December 21, 2013.
  38. ^ "Melvin Van Peebles: Biography, Celebrity Facts and Awards". TV Guide. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  39. ^ vagabond. "Melvin Van Peebles | #nothingtobegainedhere". Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  40. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "(official video) Melvin Van Peebles wid Laxative – Lilly Done the Zampoughi". November 9, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2013 – via YouTube.
  41. ^ "Lilly Done the Zampoughi Every Time I Pulled Her Coattail (2012)". IMDb. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved June 30, 2018.
  42. ^ "We have a new video..." Facebook. November 10, 2012. Archived from the original on February 26, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  43. ^ a b Leland, John (September 19, 2013). "At 81, Still a Master of Reinvention". The New York Times.
  44. ^ "Methane Momma (2016)".
  45. ^ "From The Vaults – Photos: Melvin Van Peebles Records For Heliocentrics". Now-Again Records Newsletter. September 30, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  46. ^ Kesh, Jonathan. "5 Cool Sci-Fi Shorts From the 2018 Philip K. Dick Film Festival".
  47. ^ "Movies on Myrtle: Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Redux, Remix & Requiem Rescheduled!". Fort Greene Park Conservancy. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  48. ^ Wankoff, Jordan, and Deborah A. Ring. "Van Peebles, Melvin." Contemporary Black Biography, edited by Derek Jacques, et al., vol. 95, Gale, 2012, pp. 160–164. Gale eBooks.
  49. ^ Barnes, Mike (September 22, 2021). "Melvin Van Peebles Dies: Iconic Filmmaker, Actor, and Novelist Was 89". Indiewire.
  50. ^ Grobar, Matt (September 22, 2021). "Melvin Van Peebles Remembered: Spike Lee, David Alan Grier & Barry Jenkins Among Those Paying Tribute To Cinema's "True Revolutionary"". Deadline. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
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  54. ^ Brozan, Nadine (December 15, 1994). "CHRONICLE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 5, 2023.
  55. ^ Petersen, Scott (August 31, 1999). "FESTIVALS: Chicago's Underground Marketplace – of Fun & Ideas". IndieWire. Retrieved January 3, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  56. ^ "Congressional Record (Bound Edition), Volume 147 (2001), Part 15 - TRIBUTE TO MELVIN VAN PEEBLES". Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  57. ^ "Vital Reissues: Melvin Van Peebles, Ghetto Gothic". Billboard. June 2, 2001. p. 32. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  58. ^ Guerrasio, Jason (September 17, 2008). "Melvin Van Peebles to be Honored at Gothams". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved January 3, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  59. ^ Jackson, Angelique (November 10, 2021). "Ava DuVernay to Receive Inaugural Melvin Van Peebles Trailblazer Award at Celebration of Black Cinema & Television". Variety. Retrieved December 13, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  60. ^ "Equal Justice Now Announces Honorees and Host for the 2nd Annual Attorney Benjamin Crump Equal Justice Now Awards, in Los Angeles on June 10". June 26, 2022. Archived from the original on June 26, 2022. Retrieved June 26, 2022.
  61. ^ "Chester Himes papers, 1933-1984 | Amistad Research Center". Retrieved December 24, 2022.
  62. ^ "Le Chinois du XIVe". January 31, 2023. Archived from the original on January 31, 2023. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  63. ^ Aint supposed to die a natural death. 1973. OCLC 595072. (book)
  64. ^ Van Peebles, Melvin (1995). Panther: A Novel. ISBN 9781560250968. Retrieved March 22, 2019 – via Google Books.
  65. ^ Himes, Chester B. (1999). Yesterday Will Make You Cry. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-31829-6.
  66. ^ "Movies; An American Who Went to Paris". The New York Times. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  67. ^ Thompson, Lisa B. (September 28, 2021). "Don't Play Us Cheap: The Sacredness of Saturday Night, or the Gospel According to Melvin Van Peebles". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  68. ^ Gussow, Mel (February 27, 1973). "Van Peebles Offers Roukin One‐Man Show". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  69. ^ Gussow, Mel (April 10, 1983). "THEATER:'CHAMPEEEN!' CELEBRATES BESSIE SMITH". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  70. ^ Holden, Stephen (July 16, 1984). "THEATER: 'STORK BOOGIE,' BY MELVIN VAN PEEBLES". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  71. ^ Bacalzo, Dan (June 23, 2009). "Unmitigated Truth: Life, a Lavatory, Loves, and Ladies | TheaterMania". Retrieved December 23, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  72. ^ "MVP @ 80 | #nothingtobegainedhere". August 22, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  73. ^ "Melvin Van Peebles Biography". Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  74. ^ "Heliocentrics & Melvin Van Peebles – The Last Transmission". Rappcats. October 1, 2014. Retrieved March 22, 2019.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]