Member of parliament, Lok Sabha

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Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha, the meeting place of the members.
Incumbent
16th Lok Sabha

since 16 May 2014
Status Active
Abbreviation MP
Member of Lok Sabha
Reports to Speaker
Seat Parliament of India
Term length Five years
Constituting instrument Article 81 of Constitution of India
Formation 26 January 1950
First holder 17 April 1952
Salary 200,833 (US$2,800)
(incl. allowances)[1]
Website loksabha.nic.in
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This article is part of a series on the
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A member of parliament in Lok Sabha (abbreviated: MP) is the representative of the Indian people in the Lok Sabha; the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of parliament of Lok Sabha are chosen by direct elections on the basis of the adult suffrage. Parliament of India is bicameral with two houses; Rajya Sabha (upper house i.e. Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (lower house i.e. House of the People). The maximum permitted strength of members of parliament in the Lok Sabha is 552. This includes maximum 530 members to represent the constituencies and states, up to 20 members to represent the union territories (both chosen by direct elections) and not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian community to be nominated by the President of India. The party—or coalition of parties—having a majority in the Lok Sabha chooses the Prime Minister of India.[2][3][4]

History[edit]

The first instance of member of parliament equivalent in India dates back to 9 December 1946, the day Constituent Assembly of India was formed with the purpose of drafting a constitution for India. As opposed to be elected on the basis of adult suffrage, the Constituent Assembly of India consisted of indirectly elected representatives and were not categorized between Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. Muslims and Sikhs were given special representation as minorities. The Constituent Assembly of India took 2 years, 11 months and 17 days to draft the constitution for independent India and was dissolved in 1949.[5]

On 26 January 1950, the Indian constitution came into force and the first general elections (under the new constitution) were held in 1951-1952.[6] The 1st Lok Sabha was constituted on 17 April 1952 and had 489 constituencies, thereby first set of elected members of parliament of Lok Sabha in India.[7][8]

Eligibility criteria[edit]

A person must satisfy all following conditions to be qualified to become a member of parliament of the Lok Sabha;

  • Must be a citizen of India.
  • Must not be less than 25 years of age.
  • Must be a voter for any parliamentary constituency in India.
  • Candidate of a recognized political party needs one proposer from his constituency for his nomination.
  • An independent candidate needs ten proposers.
  • Candidates are required to make a security deposit of 10,000 (US$140).[4][9]

Disqualification grounds[edit]

A person would be ineligible for being a Member of the Lok Sabha if the person;

  • Holds any office of profit under the Government of India (other than an office permitted by Parliament of India by law).
  • Is of unsound mind.
  • Is an undischarged insolvent.
  • Has ceased to be a citizen of India.
  • Is so disqualified by any law made by the Indian parliament.
  • Is so disqualified on the ground of defection.
  • Has been convicted, among other things, for promoting enmity between different groups.
  • Has been convicted for offence of bribery.
  • Has been punished for preaching and practising social crimes such as untouchability, dowry, or sati.
  • Has been convicted for an offence and sentenced to imprisonment.
  • Has been dismissed for corruption or for disloyalty to the state (in case of a government servant).[4][9]

Term[edit]

The term of a member of parliament of Lok Sabha (dissolved) is five years from the date appointment for its first meeting. During a state of emergency, the term however can be extended by the Parliament of India by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time. After the state of emergency ends, the extension cannot exceed beyond a period of six months.[10]

Responsibilities of members of parliament[edit]

Broad responsibilities of the members of parliament of Lok Sabha are;

  • Legislative responsibility: To pass Laws of India in the Lok Sabha.
  • Oversight responsibility: To ensure that the executive (i.e. government) performs its duties satisfactorily.
  • Representative responsibility: To represent the views and aspirations of the people of their constituency in the Parliament of India (Lok Sabha).
  • Power of the purse responsibility: To approve and oversee the revenues and expenditures proposed by the government.
  • The Union Council of Ministers, who are also members of parliament have an additional responsibility of the executive as compared to those who are not in the Council of Ministers.[9]

Salary, allowances and entitlements[edit]

India paid 176 crore (equivalent to 189 crore or US$26 million in 2017) to its 543 Lok Sabha members in salaries and expenses over 2015, or just over 2.7 lakh (equivalent to 2.9 lakh or US$4,000 in 2017) per month per member of parliament.[11] The Salary, allowances and pension of Member of the Lok Sabha is governed by the Members of Parliament Act, 1954. The act is in pursuance to the constitutional provisions where article 106 of the Constitution of India provides that the members of either House of Parliament shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined by Parliament by law.

The rules governing salaries, allowances and facilities such as medical, housing, telephone facilities, daily allowance etc. is looked after by a joint committee of both the houses (Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha). The committee is constituted from time to time after consultation with the Government of India.[1]

Strength[edit]

Seat distribution in the 16th Lok Sabha.
543 Lok Sabha constituencies

Article 81 of the Constitution of India 1949 has specified the maximum strength of members of parliament in the Lok Sabha to be 552. Total strength during in the 16th Lok Sabha is 545 against approved strength of 552. The number of members of parliament is distributed among the States in such a way that the ratio between the number of seats allotted to each State and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States.[12] Out of the maximum permitted strength,

  • Not more than 530 members to be chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the Indian states.
  • Not more than 20 members to represent the union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament of India may by law provide.
  • Not more than 2 members from the Anglo-Indian community to be nominated by the President of India (if in his opinion, the community is not adequately represented in the Lok Sabha).
  • Total permitted maximum strength of 552 members.[2][3]

"Strength of Member of Parliament in Lok Sabha as defined in Article 81 of the Constitution of India",

(1) Subject to the provisions of article 331, the House of the People shall consist of
(a) not more than 530 (five hundred and thirty members) chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and
(b) not more than 20 (twenty members) to represent the Union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide.
(2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1),
(a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States; and
(b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practicable, the same throughout the State:
(Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population of that State does not exceed six millions.)
(3) In this article, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published:
(Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published).
(i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) and the proviso to that clause, as a reference to the 1971 census; and
(ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause (2) as a reference to the 2001 census.
— Ministry of Law and Justice, Constitution of India (Part V—The Union.—Article 81.)[13]

Members of the Lok Sabha[edit]

Members of the lower house of the Indian Parliament (Lok Sabha) were elected in the Indian general election, 2014 held in April–May 2014. The total strength of the 16th Lok Sabha is 545, against the approved strength of 552.[14]

Number of constituencies: 1951-2014[edit]

The following is a list of the number of constituencies in the Lok Sabha in each election year, beginning in 1951. The numbers do not include 2 seats from the Anglo-Indian community, to which individuals are nominated by the President of India.

# Lok Sabha Date Constituencies
1 1st Lok Sabha Apr 1951 489
2 2nd Lok Sabha Apr 1957 494
3 3rd Lok Sabha Apr 1962 494
4 4th Lok Sabha Mar 1967 520
5 5th Lok Sabha Mar 1971 518
6 6th Lok Sabha Mar 1977 542
7 7th Lok Sabha Jan 1980 542
8 8th Lok Sabha Dec 1984 541
9 9th Lok Sabha Dec 1989 529
10 10th Lok Sabha Jun 1991 534
11 11th Lok Sabha May 1996 543
12 12th Lok Sabha Mar 1998 543
13 13th Lok Sabha Oct 1999 543
14 14th Lok Sabha May 2004 543
15 15th Lok Sabha May 2009 543
16 16th Lok Sabha May 2014 543
[12][15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Salaries, allowances and facilities to Members" (PDF). Lok Sabha website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-23. Retrieved 15 Aug 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "Lok Sabha". Lok Sabha. Retrieved 16 Jul 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "Lok Sabha, House of people". Parliament of India. Retrieved 16 Jul 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c "Members of Parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha)". elections.in. Retrieved 16 Jul 2016. 
  5. ^ "History of Indian Parliament Elections (Lok Sabha)". factly.in. Retrieved 19 Aug 2016. 
  6. ^ "Our Parliament". Parliament of India website. Archived from the original on 2011-05-17. Retrieved 19 Aug 2016. 
  7. ^ "1951 election" (PDF). Election Commission of India website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-08. Retrieved 19 Aug 2016. 
  8. ^ "Statistical Report On General Elections, 1951" (PDF). Election Commission of India website. Archived from the original on 2014-04-04. Retrieved 20 Aug 2016. 
  9. ^ a b c "The Indian Parliament". prsindia.org. Retrieved 16 Jul 2016. 
  10. ^ "Lok Sabha term". Government of India website. Retrieved 16 Jul 2016. 
  11. ^ MP pay jumped to 2.7 lakh per month in 2015
  12. ^ a b "Lok Sabha: House of the People". Parliament of India website. Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  13. ^ "Article 81 (page 39 & 40)" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-04-16. Retrieved 16 Jul 2016. 
  14. ^ "Notification by Election Commission" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  15. ^ "Statistical Reports Of General Election To Loksabha". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 17 Jul 2016.