Member states of ALBA

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Map of member states

Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA) has 10 member states and three observer states. In addition, Suriname is a "special guest member" which intends to become a full member.[1]

History[edit]

When it was launched, ALBA had two member states, Venezuela and Cuba.[2] Subsequently a number of other Latin American and Caribbean nations have entered into this Peoples' Trade Agreement (Spanish: Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos, or TCP) which aims to implement the principles of ALBA.

President Evo Morales, of poor but natural gas-rich Bolivia, joined the TCP on 29 April 2006, only days before he announced his intention to nationalize Bolivia's hydrocarbon assets.[3] Bolivia is a member of both UNASUR and ALBA, thus its attitude is crucial to relations between the two, says Marion Hörmann, since Bolivia is traditionally seen as a mediator between the Andean countries and the rest of South America. [4]. Venezuela and Ecuador are also members of UNASUR.[citation needed]

Newly elected President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua signed the agreement in January 2007;[5] Venezuela agreed to forgive Nicaragua's US$31 million debt as a result. On 23 February 2007, Ortega visited Caracas to solidify Nicaragua's participation in ALBA.[6] However, Nicaragua is also a member of the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA).

Rafael Correa, the president of Ecuador, signed a joint agreement with Hugo Chávez, for Ecuador to become a member of ALBA once he became president.[7] Ecuador officially joined in June 2009.[8]

In January 2008, the Caribbean island nation of Dominica joined ALBA.[9]

In April 2009, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was accepted as the seventh member of ALBA, while Grenada stated publicly that it was not yet ready to join the bloc.[10]

In June 2009, the Prime Minister of Jamaica said he would seek to address the future of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) given the effects of ALBA and Trinidad and Tobago's proposed political union with the OECS on the Caribbean Community as the two main elements he says will have a "destabilising effect" on the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) bloc.[11]

Antigua and Barbuda, Ecuador and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines formally joined ALBA on 24 June 2009.[12]

On 25 August 2008, Honduran President Manuel Zelaya signed an agreement to join the ALBA, with a rally in front of the Presidential House that was attended by many of the presidents of the countries that are part of ALBA, including Chávez and Morales.[13] The Honduran congress – led by Roberto Micheletti,[14] who later became Zelaya's main political enemy, and president of the interim government after the 2009 Honduran coup d'état – approved ALBA on 9 October 2008.[15][16] On 16 December 2009, the Honduran congress met to withdraw the country from the ALBA, claiming a "lack of respect" from Venezuela since the country's joining in 2008, citing in particular Hugo Chavez' remarks about a potential invasion of Honduras to restore Manuel Zelaya to office, after he was removed on 28 June 2009 in the 2009 Honduran coup d'état. Withdrawal from ALBA was ratified by the Honduran Congress on 13 January 2010. Economic relations with Venezuela continue, including via Petrocaribe.[17]

Saint Lucia joined as a full member on 30 July 2013.[18] Grenada and Saint Kitts and Nevis became members on 14 December 2014.[19] With their accession, all independent countries in the Lesser Antilles except Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago are now members.

Ecuador announced its withdrawal from ALBA on 23 August 2018.[20]

Member states[edit]

Common name
Official name
Date joined
Population
Area (km²)
GDP PPP (US$ bn)
Capital
 Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 2009-06-24 85,632 442 1.546 St. John's
 Bolivia Plurinational State of Bolivia 2006-04-29 9,119,152 1,098,581 43.424 La Paz
 Cuba Republic of Cuba 2004-12-14 11,451,652 110,861 108.2 Havana
 Dominica Commonwealth of Dominica 2008-01-20 72,660 754 .72 Roseau
 Grenada[19] Grenada 2014-12-14 109,590 348 St. George's
 Nicaragua Republic of Nicaragua 2007-02-23 5,891,199 129,495 15.89 Managua
 Saint Kitts and Nevis[19] Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis 2014-12-14 51,538 261 Basseterre
 Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 2013-07-20 180,870 617 2.101 Castries
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2009-06-24 120,000 389 1.085 Kingstown
 Venezuela Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela 2004-12-14 28,199,825 916,445 358.623 Caracas
ALBA Totals 10 Countries 69,513,221 2,513,337 636.481

Observer states[edit]

Haiti intends to join ALBA as a full member.[21]

Former member states[edit]

Common name
Official name
Date joined
Date withdrawn
Population
Area (km²)
GDP PPP (US$ bn)
Capital
 Honduras Republic of Honduras 2008-08-25 2009-12-16 9,112,867[22] 112,492 5,492 Tegucigalpa
 Ecuador Republic of Ecuador 2009-06-24 2018-08-23 14,573,101 256,370 106.993 Quito

References[edit]

  1. ^ El Universal, 6 February 2012, ALBA summit ends with entry of guest countries
  2. ^ Monthly Review, 2008-07-02, ALBA: Creating a Regional Alternative to Neo-liberalism?
  3. ^ "Leftist trio seals Americas pact". BBC News. 2006-04-29. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  4. ^ Regional Integration: Key Role for Bolivia
  5. ^ Venezuelanalysis.com, 12 January 2007, Nicaragua Joins Venezuela in Regional Association and Cooperation Agreements
  6. ^ Prensa Latina Archived 6 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Venezuelan and Ecuadorian Presidents Seal Friendship with Joint Declaration | venezuelanalysis.com
  8. ^ "Ecuador to Officially Join the ALBA Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cuba. 2009-06-03. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  9. ^ Fuller, Mike. "Dominica Joins ALBA Revolution". Retrieved 2008-01-28.
  10. ^ CARIBBEAN-ALBA-St.Vincent ready to join ALBA but Grenada is not, 21 April 2009
  11. ^ "UNDESIRED CONSEQUENCES: Golding says CARICOM under threat". Caribbean News Agency. 2009-06-10. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
  12. ^ http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90852/6683436.html
  13. ^ http://www.plenglish.com/article.asp?ID={572E71EE-08F1-4328-A8C2-83D8840AC033}&language=EN
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Bajo presiones, Congreso ratifica adhesión a la Alba
  16. ^ [2]
  17. ^ El Tiempo, 13 January 2010, El Parlamento de Honduras ratifica su salida de la Alba
  18. ^ Carib Journal St Lucia Officially Joins ALBA 9 August 2013
  19. ^ a b c http://alba-tcp.org/en/contenido/declaration-alba-tcp-xiii-summit-and-commemoration-its-tenth-anniversary-december-14-2014
  20. ^ "Secretaria Ejecutiva de la ALBA-TCP lamenta delcaraciones del canciller ecuatoriano". 2018-08-24. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
  21. ^ Haiti Willing to become Full ALBA Member
  22. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.