Member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

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The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is an international alliance that consists of 8 member states and 3 observers from Eurasia. It was established on 26 April 1996 as Shanghai Five. Of the 8 member states and 3 observers, SCO currently also have 3 dialogue partners and 3 guest attendance entries.

Member states[edit]

Flag Country
Capital
Area
(km²)
Population
(2016)
Density
(/km²)
GDP per cap.
(PPP)
[1]
HDI[2] Currency
Official languages Leaders Accession
Flag of India.svg India[Note 1]
Republic of India
New Delhi 3,287,240 a1,284,480,000 364.4 5,808 0.609 Indian rupee ()
(INR)
Hindi (Devanagari script) & 21 others.
Also see Languages of India
Head of State: Pranab Mukherjee
Head of Government: Narendra Modi
2017-06-09[4]
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan[Note 1]
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Islamabad 796,095 b192,779,818 214.3 4,749 0.538 Pakistani rupee
(PKR)
Urdu (National)
English
Head of State: Mamnoon Husain
Head of Government: Nawaz Sharif
2017-06-09
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
People's Republic of China
Beijing 9,640,011 a1,374,820,000 139.6 13,224 0.727 Renminbi (Chinese yuan, ¥)
(CNY)
Standard Chinese[5]
written in simplified characters[5]
see also languages of China
Head of State: Xi Jinping
Head of Government: Li Keqiang
1996-04-26
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan
Republic of Kazakhstan
Astana 2,724,900 d17,670,900 5.94 24,108 0.788 Kazakhstani tenge (₸)
(KZT)
Kazakh (National)
Russian
Head of State: Nursultan Nazarbayev
Head of Government: Serik Akhmetov
1996-04-26
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Bishkek 199,900 f6,008,600 27.4 3,262 0.655 Kyrgyzstani som
(KGS)
Kyrgyz (National)
Russian
Head of State: Almazbek Atambayev
Head of Government: Temir Sariev
1996-04-26
Flag of Russia.svg Russia
Russian Federation
Moscow 17,075,400 b146,519,759 8.3 24,449 0.798 Russian ruble (₽)
(RUB)
Russian
also see Languages of Russia
Head of State: Vladimir Putin
Head of Government: Dmitry Medvedev
1996-04-26
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan
Republic of Tajikistan
Dushanbe 143,100 e8,352,000 48.6 2,698 0.624 Tajikistani somoni
(TJS)
Tajik Persian Head of State: Emomalii Rahmon
Head of Government: Oqil Oqilov
1996-04-26
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan
Republic of Uzbekistan
Tashkent 447,400 c31,022,500 61.4 5,630 0.675 Uzbekistani som
(UZS)
Uzbek Head of State: Islam Karimov
Head of Government: Shavkat Mirziyoyev
2001-06-15

Observer states[edit]

Except for Afghanistan, the observers are due to be accorded full member status at the 2014 SCO summit.[6]

Flag Country
Capital
Area
(km²)
Population
(2016)
Density
(/km²)
GDP per cap.
(PPP)
[1]
HDI[2] Currency
Official languages Leaders Status gained
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Kabul 652,230 d27,101,365 43.5 1,944 0.465 Afghan afghani
(AFN)
Pashto
Dari
Head of State and Government: Hamid Karzai 2012-06-07
Flag of Belarus.svg Belarus
Republic of Belarus
Minsk 207,595 c9,498,700 45.8 18,246 0.798 Belarusian ruble
(BYR)
Belarusian
Russian
Head of State: Alexander Lukashenko
Head of Government: Mikhail Myasnikovich
2010-04-28
Flag of Iran.svg Iran
Islamic Republic of Iran
Tehran 1,648,195 c79,011,700 48.0 17,443 0.766 Iranian rial
(IRR)
Persian Head of State and Government:
Ali Khamenei & Hassan Rouhani
2005-06-23
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 1,564,115 e3,067,550 1.75 11,919 0.727 Mongolian tögrög (₮)
(MNT)
Mongolian Head of State: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
Head of Government: Chimediin Saikhanbileg
2004-06-17
Notes
  1. ^ a b Approved for membership, pending finalization of procedures.[3]

Dialogue partner entries[edit]

Flag Country
Capital
Area
(km²)
Population
(2016)
Density
(/km²)
GDP per cap.
(PPP)
[1]
HDI[2] Currency
Official languages Leaders Status gained
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia
Republic of Armenia
Yerevan 29,743 c2,998,600 102.0 8,164 0.733 Armenian dram
(AMD)
Armenian Head of State: Serzh Sargsyan
Head of Government: Hovik Abrahamyan
2015-07-10
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan
Baku 86,600 c9,696,800 109.0 17,761 0.751 Azerbaijani manat
(AZN)
Azeri Head of State: Ilham Aliyev
Head of Government: Artur Rasizade
2015-07-10
Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia
Kingdom of Cambodia
Phnom Penh 181,035 c15,626,444 84.0 3,276 0.555 Cambodian riel
(KHR)
Khmer Monarch: Norodom Sihamoni
Head of Government: Hun Sen
2015-07-10
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
Kathmandu 147,181 c28,431,500 180.0 2,388 0.548 Nepalese rupee
(NPR)
Nepali Head of State: Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Head of Government: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli
2015-07-10
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (Administrative)
Colombo (Commercial)
65,610 c20,966,000 309.0 10,410 0.757 Sri Lankan rupee
(LKR)
Sinhalese
Tamil
Head of State and Government: Maithripala Sirisena 2009-06-16
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey
Republic of Turkey
Ankara 783,562 c78,741,053 102.0 19,698 0.761 Turkish lira
(TRY)
Turkish Head of State: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Head of Government: Binali Yildirim
2012-06-07

Future participation[edit]

Observers India and Pakistan have been approved for membership, and are expected to join by 2017.[3] Observer Iran has also submitted an application for full membership.[7] Meanwhile, in 2012 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka applied for observer status within the organization.[8] Egypt[9] and Syria has also submitted an application for observer status,[7] while Egypt, Israel,[10][11] Maldives and Ukraine[12] have applied for dialogue partner status.[13][14]

Guest attendance entries[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c at purchasing power parity, per capita, in international dollars (rounded IMF 2012)
  2. ^ a b c at Human Development Index (New 2013 Estimates for 2012)
  3. ^ a b "India, Pakistan become full SCO members". The Hindu. 2015-07-11. Retrieved 2015-07-10. will technically become a member by next year after completion of certain procedures 
  4. ^ https://fr.sputniknews.com/international/201706101031778314-sommet-ocs-adhesion-inde-pakistan/
  5. ^ a b Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)
  6. ^ http://macedoniaonline.eu/content/view/25830/53/
  7. ^ a b "Syria applies for observer status at Shanghai security bloc — Russian Foreign Ministry". Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-02-13. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 
  8. ^ "Azerbaijan asks to join a new alliance of China and Russia". 
  9. ^ "Syria, Egypt may join Shanghai Cooperation Organization as observers". Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-06-05. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  10. ^ "Syria, Israel, Egypt willing to join SCO's activity - president's special envoy". Interfax. 2016-06-23. Archived from the original on 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2016-06-24. 
  11. ^ "Xi's Eurasian visit: Shanghai Spirit gives new leap to SCO". CCTV. 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2016-06-24. 
  12. ^ "Kiev Request For SCO Partner Status Still in Force". 
  13. ^ "Egypt applies to become dialogue partner of Shanghai security bloc — Kremlin aide". Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-08-15. 
  14. ^ "Azerbaijan intends to become SCO observer". 2015-02-10. Retrieved 2015-08-15.