Member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

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The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is an international alliance that consists of 8 member states and 4 observers from Eurasia. It was established on 26 April 1996 as the Shanghai Five. In addition to the 8 member states and 4 observers, the SCO currently has 9 dialogue partners and 4 guest attendance entries.

Member states[edit]

Flag Country
Capital
Largest city
Area
(km²)
Population
(2016)
Density
(/km²)
GDP per cap.
(PPP)
[1]
HDI[2] Currency
Official languages Leaders Accession
Flag of India.svg India
Republic of India
New Delhi Mumbai 3,287,240 a1,284,480,000 364.4 8,484 0.640 Indian rupee ()
(INR)
Hindi (Devanagari script), English & 21 others.
Also see Languages of India
Head of State: Ram Nath Kovind
Head of Government: Narendra Modi
2017-06-09[3]
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Islamabad Karachi 796,095 b192,779,818 214.3 4,749 0.538 Pakistani rupee
(PKR)
Urdu (National)
English
Head of State: Arif Alvi
Head of Government: Imran Khan
2017-06-09[3]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China[a]
People's Republic of China
Beijing Shanghai (metropolitan area)
Chongqing (city proper)
9,640,011[b] a1,374,820,000 139.6 13,224 0.727 Renminbi (Chinese yuan, ¥)
(CNY)
Standard Chinese[4]
written in simplified characters[4]
see also languages of China
Head of State: Xi Jinping
Head of Government: Li Keqiang
1996-04-26
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan
Republic of Kazakhstan
Nur-Sultan Almaty 2,724,900 d17,670,900 5.94 24,108 0.788 Kazakhstani tenge (₸)
(KZT)
Kazakh (National)
Russian
Head of State: Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
Head of Government: Askar Mamin
1996-04-26
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Bishkek 199,900 f6,008,600 27.4 3,262 0.655 Kyrgyzstani som
(KGS)
Kyrgyz (National)
Russian
Head of State: Sadyr Japarov
Head of Government: Ulukbek Maripov
1996-04-26
Flag of Russia.svg Russia
Russian Federation
Moscow 17,075,400 b146,519,759 8.3 24,449 0.798 Russian ruble (₽)
(RUB)
Russian
also see Languages of Russia
Head of State: Vladimir Putin
Head of Government: Mikhail Mishustin
1996-04-26
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan
Republic of Tajikistan
Dushanbe 143,100 e8,352,000 48.6 2,698 0.624 Tajikistani somoni
(TJS)
Tajik Persian Head of State: Emomalii Rahmon
Head of Government: Kokhir Rasulzoda
1996-04-26
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan
Republic of Uzbekistan
Tashkent 447,400 c31,022,500 61.4 5,630 0.675 Uzbekistani som
(UZS)
Uzbek Head of State: Shavkat Mirziyoyev
Head of Government: Abdulla Oripov
2001-06-15

Military personnel[edit]

The following list is sourced from the 2018 edition of "The Military Balance" published annually by the International Institute for Strategic Studies.

Country Active military Reserve military Paramilitary Total Per 1000 capita
(total)
Per 1000 capita
(active)
China China[5] 2,035,000 510,000 1,500,000 4,045,000 2.9 1.5
India India[6] 1,440,000 2,096,000 1,585,950 5,121,950 4 1.1
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan[7] 39,000 0 31,500 70,500 3.8 2.1
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan[8] 10,900 0 9,500 20,400 3.5 1.9
Pakistan Pakistan[9] 653,000 0 0 653,000 3.1 3.1
Russia Russian Federation[10][Note 1] 1,013,628 2,572,500 2,310,859 5,896,987 41.5 7.1
Tajikistan Tajikistan[11] 8,800 0 7,500 16,300 1.9 1
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan[12] 48,000 0 20,000 68,000 2.3 1.6
Notes
  1. ^ The potential reserve personnel of Russia may be as high as 20 million, depending on how the figures are counted. However, an est. 2 million have seen military service within the last 5 years.

Observer states[edit]

Except for Afghanistan, the observers are due to be accorded full member status at the 2014 SCO summit.[13]

Flag Country
Capital
Area
(km²)
Population
(2016)
Density
(/km²)
GDP per cap.
(PPP)
[1]
HDI[2] Currency
Official languages Leaders Status gained
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Kabul 652,230 d27,101,365 43.5 1,944 0.465 Afghan afghani
(AFN)
Pashto
Dari
Head of State and Government: Ashraf Ghani 2012-06-07
Flag of Belarus.svg Belarus
Republic of Belarus
Minsk 207,595 c9,498,700 45.8 18,246 0.798 Belarusian ruble
(BYR)
Belarusian
Russian
Head of State: Alexander Lukashenko
Head of Government: Roman Golovchenko
2010-04-28
Flag of Iran.svg Iran
Islamic Republic of Iran
Tehran 1,648,195 c79,011,700 48.0 17,443 0.766 Iranian rial
(IRR)
Persian Head of State:
Ali Khamenei
Head of Government: Ebrahim Raisi
2005-06-23
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 1,564,115 e3,067,550 1.75 11,919 0.727 Mongolian tögrög (₮)
(MNT)
Mongolian Head of State: Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh
Head of Government: Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene
2004-06-17

Dialogue partner entries[edit]

Flag Country
Capital
Area
(km²)
Population
(2016)
Density
(/km²)
GDP per cap.
(PPP)
[1]
HDI[2] Currency
Official languages Leaders Status gained
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia
Republic of Armenia
Yerevan 29,743 c2,998,600 102.0 8,164 0.733 Armenian dram
(AMD)
Armenian Head of State: Armen Sarkissian
Head of Government: Nikol Pashinyan
2015-07-10
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan
Baku 86,600 c9,696,800 109.0 17,761 0.751 Azerbaijani manat
(AZN)
Azeri Head of State: Ilham Aliyev
Head of Government: Ali Asadov
2015-07-10
Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia
Kingdom of Cambodia
Phnom Penh 181,035 c15,626,444 84.0 3,276 0.555 Cambodian riel
(KHR)
Khmer Monarch: Norodom Sihamoni
Head of Government: Hun Sen
2015-07-10
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
Kathmandu 147,181 c28,431,500 180.0 2,388 0.548 Nepalese rupee
(NPR)
Nepali Head of State: Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Head of Government: Sher Bahadur Deuba
2015-07-10
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (Administrative)
Colombo (Commercial)
65,610 c20,966,000 309.0 10,410 0.757 Sri Lankan rupee
(LKR)
Sinhalese
Tamil
Head of State and Government: Gotabaya Rajapaksa 2009-06-16
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey
Republic of Turkey
Ankara 783,562 c78,741,053 102.0 19,698 0.761 Turkish lira
(TRY)
Turkish Head of State and Government: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 2012-06-07

Future participation[edit]

Observer Iran has submitted an application for full membership.[14] On September 17, 2021, the SCO has officially launched the procedures of Iran's accession to the SCO as a full member, which are expected to take "a fair amount of time".[15][16]

Meanwhile, in 2012 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, East Timor, Nepal and Sri Lanka applied for observer status within the organization.[17] Egypt[18] and Syria has also submitted an application for observer status,[14] while Egypt, Israel,[19] Maldives and Ukraine have applied for dialogue partner status.[20][21] Saudi Arabia,[22][23][24] Bahrain and Qatar has officially applied to join the SCO.[25][26]

Guest attendance entries[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The sovereignty of China is disputed. Since the conclusion of the Chinese Civil War, the Republic of China (ROC), which was formally established on 1 January 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution, which succeeded the former Qing dynasty's territories on mainland China, while the islands of Taiwan and Penghu were under Japanese rule at the time. The ROC gained control over the latter after the surrender of Japan in 1945, but soon lost its control of mainland to the communists due to the Chinese Civil War. The ROC government was relocated to Taipei in 7th December 1949 as its provisional capital and retains actual rule over the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, the Matsu, and other minor islands, all of which are collectively known as "Free Area" or Taiwan Area in contrast to Mainland China being under communist rule, thus making it a de facto island nation, and has become known colloquially as simply "Taiwan" due to the island of Taiwan forming the majority of the ROC-controlled territories; nonetheless, the ROC has not officially renounced its constitutional-defined territories which include areas effectively controlled by the People's Republic of China, Mongolia, Tuva (a Russian republic) etc. If claimed territories were taken into account, the ROC would not be a borderless country, nor a country centred around a major island. The ROC-controlled territories are also claimed by the People's Republic of China. Constitutionally, the ROC on Taiwan still views itself as the continuation of former Chinese republic, with legitimate sovereignty over mainland China despite no actual control. See: Political status of Taiwan, Retreat of the Republic of China to Taiwan, Four-Stage Theory of the Republic of China, Two Chinas, One-China policy, and Cross-strait relations.
  2. ^ The actual area under PRC control is 9,596,960.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c at purchasing power parity, per capita, in international dollars (rounded IMF 2012)
  2. ^ a b c at Human Development Index (New 2013 Estimates for 2012)
  3. ^ a b Bhattacherjee, Kallol (9 June 2017). "India, Pakistan become full members of SCO". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  4. ^ a b Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)
  5. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 249-250
  6. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 260
  7. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 188
  8. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 190
  9. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 291
  10. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 192
  11. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 207
  12. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 214
  13. ^ "MINA Breaking News - SCO To Admit New Members: Iran, India, Pakistan and Mongolia". macedoniaonline.eu. Archived from the original on 2014-08-06.
  14. ^ a b "Syria applies for observer status at Shanghai security bloc — Russian Foreign Ministry". Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-02-13. Retrieved 2015-07-11.
  15. ^ "News Analysis: Why is Iran keen on full SCO membership?". Xinhua. 18 September 2021.
  16. ^ "Iran Joins SCO". Financial Tribune. 17 September 2021.
  17. ^ "Azerbaijan asks to join a new alliance of China and Russia".
  18. ^ "Syria, Egypt may join Shanghai Cooperation Organization as observers". Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-06-05. Retrieved 2015-12-21.
  19. ^ "Syria, Israel, Egypt willing to join SCO's activity - president's special envoy". Interfax. 2016-06-23. Archived from the original on 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2016-06-24.
  20. ^ "Egypt applies to become dialogue partner of Shanghai security bloc — Kremlin aide". Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
  21. ^ "Azerbaijan intends to become SCO observer". 2015-02-10. Archived from the original on 2015-08-02. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
  22. ^ "以色列和沙特提交加入上合组织的相关申请". 环球网. 2019-08-15. Retrieved 2019-11-03.
  23. ^ "В МИД рассказали о странах, которые хотят участвовать в работе ШОС". RIA Novosti. 2019-08-15. Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  24. ^ "Саудовская Аравия устремилась в ШОС". Abkhazian Network News Agency. 2018-10-18. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  25. ^ "Катар, Бахрейн и Израиль просят о приеме в ШОС". Мир 24. 2017-12-05. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  26. ^ "SCO receives membership requests from Qatar, Bahrain". Interfax. 2017-12-05. Archived from the original on 2017-12-07. Retrieved 2019-08-22.

Bibliography[edit]