Member states of the African Union
The member states of the African Union are the 55 sovereign states that have ratified or acceded to the Constitutive Act of the African Union to become member states to the African Union (AU). The AU was the successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), and AU membership was open to all OAU member states.
From an original membership of 36 states when the OAU was established on 25 May 1963, there have been nineteen successive enlargements—the largest occurring on 18 July 1975 when four states joined. Morocco is the newest member state, having joined on 31 January 2017. Morocco was a founding member of the OAU but withdrew in 1984 following the organization's acceptance of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as a member state. Morocco rules over most of the territory, but sovereignty is disputed.
As of 2017, the AU spans the entirety of the African continent, with the exception of the Spanish North Africa semi-enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Vélez de la Gomera. Island states are also members of the AU, but not the offshore islands that are integral parts of the transcontinental countries of France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Yemen. The 55 member states are grouped into five regions, with the African diaspora, structured as the State of the African Diaspora, known as the 6th Region.
The African Union is composed of fifty-two republics and three monarchies. The total population of the AU is 1,068,444,000 (2013).
|Benin||1963-05-25||11,722,000||112,622||Porto-Novo||French||Known as Dahomey until 1975.|
|Burkina Faso||1963-05-25||20,000,000||274,000||Ouagadougou||French||Known as Upper Volta until 1984. Suspended in September 2015 after a brief military coup. Suspended again in January 2022 after another military coup.|
|Central African Republic||1963-05-25||5,181,000||622,984||Bangui||Suspended from March 2013 to April 2016 during the 2012–present Central African Republic conflict|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||1963-05-25||91,931,000||2,344,858||Kinshasa||French||Known as Zaire from 1971 to 1997.|
|Republic of the Congo||1963-05-25||4,500,000||342,000||Brazzaville||French|
|Egypt||1963-05-25||99,211,000||1,002,450||Cairo||Arabic||Suspended from July 2013 until June 2014|
following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état
|Eritrea||1993-05-24||6,159,000||117,600||Asmara||Eritrea returned to the 53-member organization after several years' absence.|
|Eswatini||1968-09-24||1,177,000||17,364||Lobamba (royal and legislative)
|Known as Swaziland from 1968 to 2018.|
|Guinea||1963-05-25||13,627,000||245,857||Conakry||French||Suspended from 23 December 2008 to January 2011 after the 2008 Guinean coup d'état, and suspended again in September 2021 after another coup.|
|Guinea-Bissau||1973-11-19||1,776,000||36,544||Bissau||Portuguese||Suspended from April 2012 until June 2014 following the 2012 Guinea-Bissau coup d'état.|
|Ivory Coast||1963-05-25||26,275,000||322,460||Yamoussoukro||French||Suspended after the 2010–2011 Ivorian crisis.|
|Madagascar||1963-05-25||27,055,000||587,041||Antananarivo||Suspended from December 2001 – 10 July 2003 and from 20 March 2009 – 27 January 2014 after a political crisis.|
|Mali||1963-05-25||20,161,000||1,240,192||Bamako||French||Suspended from 23 March 2012 until October 2013 after a military coup. Suspended again from 19 August to 8 October 2020 due to a military coup. Currently suspended since 1 June 2021 after another coup.|
|Mauritania||1963-05-25||3,516,806||1,030,700||Nouakchott||Arabic||Suspended 4 August 2005 after a military coup. Presidential elections were held in March 2007. Suspended 6 August 2008 after a military coup.|
|Morocco||1963-05-25||35,587,000||446,550||Rabat||Originally joined the AU's predecessor, the OAU, in 1963. However, withdrew in 1984 when a majority of member states supported the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, proclaimed by the Polisario Front in 1976 claiming representation of Western Sahara which is claimed by Morocco, as an OAU member. AU membership approved on 31 January 2017.|
|Niger||1963-05-25||20,000,000||1,267,000||Niamey||French||Suspended 8 February 2010 after a military coup.|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara)||1982-02-22||267,405||266,000||El Aaiun (de jure claimed)
Tifariti (de facto temporary)
|São Tomé and Príncipe||1975-07-18||222,000||964||São Tomé||Portuguese|
|South Africa||1994-06-06||58,333,000||1,221,037||Pretoria (executive)
Cape Town (legislative)
|Sudan||1963-05-25||43,222,000||1,886,068||Khartoum||Suspended 6 June 2019 due to violence committed by the military following a coup d'état as part of the 2018–19 Sudanese protests. Suspension was lifted three months later on 6 September 2019. Suspended again on 25 October 2021 following another coup d'état.|
|Tanzania||1963-05-25||52,067,000||945,203||Dodoma||Zanzibar: Arabic)||Formed by a merger on 26 April 1964 of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which had both become members on 25 May 1963.|
|Togo||1963-05-25||8,205,000||56,785||Lomé||French||Suspended 25 February 2005 after concerns over unconstitutional presidential appointment. Presidential elections were held 4 May 2005.|
|Former African Union State||Years of membership||Population||Area (km2)||Capital||Language(s)||Notes|
|Tanganyika||1963–1964||49,000,000||942,433||Dar es Salaam||Swahili
|Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged on 26 April 1964 to|
form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar,
which was renamed Tanzania on 1 November 1964
South Africa joined on 6 June 1994 after the end of the apartheid and the April 1994 general election.
South Sudan, which seceded from Sudan on 9 July 2011, joined the AU on 27 July 2011.
The AU's most recent member state is Morocco, having joined on 31 January 2017. Morocco withdrew from the OAU in 1984 following the organization's acceptance of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as a member state. Morocco rules over most of the territory, but sovereignty is disputed.
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- ^ Economic Community of the Sixth Region (ECO-6)
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- ^ Dixon, Robyn (25 March 2013). "African Union suspends Central African Republic after coup". Los Angeles Times. Johannesburg. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- ^ "AU readmits Central African Republic". News24. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- ^ "African Union suspends Egypt after leaders overthrown". ITV. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
- ^ a b "AU ends Egypt, Guinea Bissau suspension after elections". Reuters. 18 June 2014. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
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- ^ "Ethiopia is adding four more official languages to Amharic as political instability mounts". Nazret. Nazret. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- ^ Shaban, Abdurahman. "One to five: Ethiopia gets four new federal working languages". Africa News.
- ^ "African Union suspends Guinea following coup". Africanews.com. 10 September 2021. Retrieved 11 September 2021.
- ^ "Guinea-Bissau suspended from African Union". Al Jazeera English. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- ^ "African Union ends Madagascar suspension". Agence France-Presse. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- ^ "African Union suspends Mali following coup". Agence France-Presse, Reuters. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- ^ "African Union lifts Mali's suspension imposed in the wake of coup". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
- ^ "African Union announces 'immediate suspension' of Mali after second coup". France 24, Reuters, Agence France-Presse. France 24. 2 June 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
- ^ BBC News (8 July 2001) – "OAU considers Morocco readmission". Retrieved 9 July 2006.
- ^ Arabic News (9 July 2002) – "South African paper says Morocco should be one of the AU and NEPAD leaders" Archived 19 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 9 July 2006
- ^ "Morocco rejoins African Union". Worldbulletin. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- ^ "African Union suspends Sudan over violence against protesters". The Guardian. 6 June 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- ^ "African Union lifts suspension of Sudan", Al Jazeera, 7 September 2019.
- ^ "African Union Welcomes South Sudan as the 54th Member State of the Union" Archived 12 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, African Union, 2011-07-27. Retrieved on 29 July 2011.
- ^ "The African Union Applauds the Success of the Referendum in Southern Sudan". au.int. 9 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2011.