Member states of the African Union

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Member states of the African Union in green.

The member states of the African Union are the 55 sovereign states that have ratified or acceded to the Constitutive Act of the African Union to become member states to the African Union (AU).[1] The AU was the successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), and AU membership was open to all OAU member states.

From an original membership of 36 states when the OAU was established on 25 May 1963, there have been nineteen successive enlargements—the largest occurring on 18 July 1975 when four states joined. Morocco is the newest member state, having joined in January 2017.[2] Morocco was a founder member of the OAU but withdrew in 1984 following the organization's acceptance of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as a member state. Morocco rules over most of the territory, but sovereignty is disputed.

As of 2017, the AU spans the entirety of the African continent, with the exception of Ceuta, Melilla, and the plazas de soberanía. Also excluded are offshore islands that are integral parts of the transcontinental countries of France, Portugal, Spain and Yemen. The 55 member states are grouped into five regions.

The African Union is composed of fifty-two republics and three monarchies. The total population of the AU is 1,068,444,000 (2013).[3]

Current members[edit]

State[4] Accession Population Area (km²) Capital Language(s) Notes
 Algeria 1963-05-25 43,088,000 2,381,741 Algiers
 Angola 1979-02-11 30,053,000 1,246,700 Luanda Portuguese
 Benin 1963-05-25 11,722,000 112,622 Porto-Novo French Known as Dahomey until 1975.
 Botswana 1966-10-31 2,378,000 600,370 Gaborone
 Burkina Faso 1963-05-25 20,000,000 274,000 Ouagadougou French Known as Upper Volta until 1984. Suspended in September 2015 after a brief military coup.[5]
 Burundi 1963-05-25 11,529,000 27,830 Bujumbura
 Cameroon 1963-05-25 25,506,000 475,442 Yaoundé
 Cape Verde 1975-07-18 551,000 4,033 Praia Portuguese
 Central African Republic 1963-05-25 5,181,000 622,984 Bangui Suspended from March 2013 to April 2016 during the 2012–present Central African Republic conflict[6][7]
 Chad 1963-05-25 12,802,000 1,284,000 N'Djamena
 Comoros 1975-07-18 872,000 2,235 Moroni
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1963-05-25 91,931,000 2,344,858 Kinshasa French Known as Zaire from 1971–1997.
 Republic of the Congo 1963-05-25 4,500,000 342,000 Brazzaville French
 Djibouti 1977-06-27 1,078,000 23,200 Djibouti
 Egypt 1963-05-25 99,211,000 1,002,450 Cairo Arabic Suspended from July 2013 until June 2014
following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état[8][9]
 Equatorial Guinea 1968-10-12 887,000 28,051 Malabo
 Eritrea 1993-05-24 6,159,000 117,600 Asmara Eritrea returned to the 53-member organization after several years’ absence.
 Eswatini 1968-09-24 1,177,000 17,364 Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Mbabane (administrative)
Known as Swaziland from 1968–2018.
 Ethiopia 1963-05-25 96,633,458 1,104,300 Addis Ababa Amharic
 Gabon 1963-05-25 2,080,000 267,745 Libreville French
 Gambia 1965-10-01 2,238,000 10,380 Banjul English
 Ghana 1963-05-25 29,742,000 238,535 Accra English
 Guinea 1963-05-25 13,627,000 245,857 Conakry French Suspended from 23 December 2008
to January 2011
after a military coup.
 Guinea-Bissau 1973-11-19 1,776,000 36,544 Bissau Portuguese Suspended from April 2012 until June 2014
following the 2012 Guinea-Bissau coup d'état.[9][10]
 Ivory Coast 1963-05-25 26,275,000 322,460 Yamoussoukro French Suspended after the
2010–2011 Ivorian crisis.
 Kenya 1963-12-13 50,000,000 580,367 Nairobi
 Lesotho 1966-10-31 2,048,000 30,355 Maseru
 Liberia 1963-05-25 5,000,000 111,369 Monrovia English
 Libya 1963-05-25 6,578,000 1,759,541 Tripoli Arabic
 Madagascar 1963-05-25 27,055,000 587,041 Antananarivo Suspended from December 2001 – 10 July 2003 and from 20 March 2009 – 27 January 2014 after a political crisis.[11]
 Malawi 1964-07-13 20,289,000 118,484 Lilongwe
 Mali 1963-05-25 20,161,000 1,240,192 Bamako French Suspended from 23 March 2012 until October 2013 after a military coup.
 Mauritania 1963-05-25 3,516,806 1,030,700 Nouakchott Arabic Suspended 4 August 2005 after a military coup. Presidential elections were held in March 2007. Suspended 6 August 2008 after a military coup.
 Mauritius 1968-08-01 1,279,000 2,040 Port Louis
 Morocco
  • 1963-05-25 to 1984-11-12
  • 2017-01-31
35,587,000 446,550 Rabat Withdrew from the AU's predecessor, the OAU, in 1984 when a majority of member states supported
the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, proclaimed by the Polisario Front in 1976 claiming representation of Western Sahara
which is claimed by Morocco, as an AU member.[12][13] AU membership approved in January 2017.[14]
 Mozambique 1975-07-18 31,157,000 801,590 Maputo Portuguese
 Namibia 1990-06-01 2,408,000 825,418 Windhoek English
 Niger 1963-05-25 20,000,000 1,267,000 Niamey French Suspended 8 February 2010 after a military coup.
 Nigeria 1963-05-25 199,206,000 923,768 Abuja English
 Rwanda 1963-05-25 12,432,000 26,798 Kigali
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara) 1982-02-22 267,405 266,000 El Aaiun (de jure claimed)
Tifariti (de facto temporary)
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1975-07-18 222,000 964 São Tomé Portuguese
 Senegal 1963-05-25 16,793,000 196,723 Dakar French
 Seychelles 1976-06-29 96,000 451 Victoria
 Sierra Leone 1963-05-25 7,737,000 71,740 Freetown English
 Somalia 1963-05-25 11,998,222 637,661 Mogadishu
 South Africa 1994-06-06 58,333,000 1,221,037 Pretoria (executive)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
Cape Town (legislative)
 South Sudan 2011-08-15 13,400,000 619,745 Juba English
 Sudan 1963-05-25 43,222,000 1,886,068 Khartoum Suspended 6 June 2019 due to violence committed by the military following a coup d'état as part of the 2018–19 Sudanese protests.[15] Suspension was lifted three months later on September 6, 2019.[16]
 Tanzania 1963-05-25 52,067,000 945,203 Dodoma (Zanzibar: Arabic) Formed by a merger on 26 April 1964 of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which had both become members on 25 May 1963.
 Togo 1963-05-25 8,205,000 56,785 Lomé French Suspended 25 February 2005 after concerns over unconstitutional presidential appointment. Presidential elections were held 4 May 2005.
 Tunisia 1963-05-25 11,800,000 163,610 Tunis Arabic
 Uganda 1963-05-25 40,007,000 241,038 Kampala
 Zambia 1964-12-16 18,321,000 752,618 Lusaka English
 Zimbabwe 1980-06-01 15,658,000 390,757 Harare

Former members[edit]

Flag
Former African Union State
Years of membership
Population
Area (km²)
Capital
Language(s)
Notes
 Tanganyika Tanganyika 1963–1964 49,000,000 942,433 Dar es Salaam Swahili
English
Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged on 26 April 1964 to
form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar,
which was renamed Tanzania on 1 November 1964
 Zanzibar Zanzibar 1,303,569 2,461 Zanzibar City

Accession[edit]

South Africa joined on 6 June 1994 after the end of the apartheid and the April 1994 general election.

South Sudan, which seceded from Sudan on 9 July 2011, joined the AU on 27 July 2011.[17][18]

The AU's most recent member state is Morocco, having joined in January 2017. Morocco withdrew from the OAU in 1984 following the organization's acceptance of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as a member state. Morocco rules over most of the territory, but sovereignty is disputed.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "LIST OF COUNTRIES WHICH HAVE SIGNED, RATIFIED/ACCEDED TO THE CONSTITUTIVE ACT OF THE AFRICAN UNION" (PDF). African Union. 13 July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  2. ^ "Western Sahara welcomes Morocco's African Union membership". 31 January 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  3. ^ "The European Union and the African Union. A statistical portrait" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  4. ^ "LIST OF COUNTRIES WHICH HAVE SIGNED, RATIFIED/ACCEDED TO THE CONSTITUTIVE ACT OF THE AFRICAN UNION" (PDF). African Union. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  5. ^ "Communiqué of the 547th meeting of the PSC, at the level of Heads of State and Government, on the situation in Burkina Faso". Peace and Security Council. 26 September 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  6. ^ Dixon, Robyn (25 March 2013). "African Union suspends Central African Republic after coup". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  7. ^ "AU readmits Central African Republic". News24. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  8. ^ "African Union suspends Egypt after leaders overthrown". ITV. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  9. ^ a b "AU ends Egypt, Guinea Bissau suspension after elections". Reuters. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  10. ^ "Guinea-Bissau suspended from African Union". Al Jazeera English. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  11. ^ "African Union ends Madagascar suspension". Agence France-Presse. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  12. ^ BBC News (8 July 2001) – "OAU considers Morocco readmission". Retrieved 9 July 2006.
  13. ^ Arabic News (9 July 2002) – "South African paper says Morocco should be one of the AU and NEPAD leaders" Archived 19 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 9 July 2006
  14. ^ "Morocco rejoins African Union". Worldbulletin. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  15. ^ "African Union suspends Sudan over violence against protesters". The Guardian. 6 June 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  16. ^ "African Union lifts suspension of Sudan", Al Jazeera, September 7, 2019.
  17. ^ "African Union Welcomes South Sudan as the 54th Member State of the Union" Archived 2011-08-12 at the Wayback Machine, African Union, 2011-07-27. Retrieved on 2011-07-29.
  18. ^ "The African Union Applauds the Success of the Referendum in Southern Sudan". au.int. 9 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2011.