Member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

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The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is an international alliance that consists of 8 member states and 3 observers from Eurasia. It was established on 26 April 1996 as Shanghai Five. Of the 8 member states and 3 observers, SCO currently also have 3 dialogue partners and 3 guest attendance entries.

Member states[edit]

Flag Country
GDP per cap.
HDI[2] Currency
Official languages Leaders Accession
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Islamabad 796,095 b192,779,818 214.3 4,749 0.538 Pakistani rupee
Urdu (National)
Head of State: Dr. Arif Alvi
Head of Government: Imran Khan
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
People's Republic of China
Beijing 9,640,011 a1,433,835,000 139.6 13,224 0.835 Renminbi (Chinese yuan, ¥)
Standard Chinese[3]
written in simplified characters[3]
see also languages of China
Head of State: Xi Jinping
Head of Government: Li Keqiang
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan
Republic of Kazakhstan
Astana 2,724,900 d17,670,900 5.94 4,108 0.578 Kazakhstani tenge (₸)
Kazakh (National)
Head of State: Nursultan Nazarbayev
Head of Government: Serik Akhmetov
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Bishkek 199,900 f6,008,600 27.4 3,262 0.517 Kyrgyzstani som
Kyrgyz (National)
Head of State: Almazbek Atambayev
Head of Government: Temir Sariev
Flag of Russia.svg Russia
Russian Federation
Moscow 17,075,400 b117,495,000 8.3 2,740 0.572 Russian ruble (₽)
also see Languages of Russia
Head of State: Vladimir Putin
Head of Government: Dmitry Medvedev
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan
Republic of Tajikistan
Dushanbe 143,100 e8,352,000 48.6 2,698 0.521 Tajikistani somoni
Tajik Persian Head of State: Emomalii Rahmon
Head of Government: Oqil Oqilov
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan
Republic of Uzbekistan
Tashkent 447,400 c31,022,500 61.4 5,630 0.533 Uzbekistani som
Uzbek Head of State: Shavkat Mirziyoyev
Head of Government: Abdulla Oripov
Flag of India.svg India
Republic of India
New Delhi 3,287,240 a1,284,480,000 364.4 5,808 0.609 Indian rupee ()
Hindi (Devanagari script) & 21 others.
Also see Languages of India
Head of State: Ram Nath Kovind
Head of Government: Narendra Modi

Observer states[edit]

Except for Afghanistan, the observers are due to be accorded full member status at the 2014 SCO summit.[5]

Flag Country
GDP per cap.
HDI[2] Currency
Official languages Leaders Status gained
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Kabul 652,230 d27,101,365 43.5 1,944 0.465 Afghan afghani
Head of State and Government: Ashraf Ghani 2012-06-07
Flag of Belarus.svg Belarus
Republic of Belarus
Minsk 207,595 c9,498,700 45.8 18,246 0.798 Belarusian ruble
Head of State: Alexander Lukashenko
Head of Government: Andrei Kobyakov
Flag of Iran.svg Iran
Islamic Republic of Iran
Tehran 1,648,195 c79,011,700 48.0 17,443 0.766 Iranian rial
Persian Head of State and Government:
Ali Khamenei & Hassan Rouhani
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 1,564,115 e3,067,550 1.75 11,919 0.727 Mongolian tögrög (₮)
Mongolian Head of State: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
Head of Government: Chimediin Saikhanbileg

Dialogue partner entries[edit]

Flag Country
GDP per cap.
HDI[2] Currency
Official languages Leaders Status gained
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia
Republic of Armenia
Yerevan 29,743 c2,998,600 102.0 8,164 0.733 Armenian dram
Armenian Head of State: Serzh Sargsyan
Head of Government: Hovik Abrahamyan
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan
Baku 86,600 c9,696,800 109.0 17,761 0.751 Azerbaijani manat
Azeri Head of State: Ilham Aliyev
Head of Government: Artur Rasizade
Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia
Kingdom of Cambodia
Phnom Penh 181,035 c15,626,444 84.0 3,276 0.555 Cambodian riel
Khmer Monarch: Norodom Sihamoni
Head of Government: Hun Sen
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
Kathmandu 147,181 c28,431,500 180.0 2,388 0.548 Nepalese rupee
Nepali Head of State: Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Head of Government: Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (Administrative)
Colombo (Commercial)
65,610 c20,966,000 309.0 10,410 0.757 Sri Lankan rupee
Head of State and Government: Maithripala Sirisena 2009-06-16
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey
Republic of Turkey
Ankara 783,562 c78,741,053 102.0 19,698 0.761 Turkish lira
Turkish Head of State: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Head of Government: Binali Yildirim

Future participation[edit]

Observer Iran has submitted an application for full membership.[6] Meanwhile, in 2012 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka applied for observer status within the organization.[7] Egypt[8] and Syria has also submitted an application for observer status,[6] while Egypt, Israel,[9][10] Maldives and Ukraine[11] have applied for dialogue partner status.[12][13]

Guest attendance entries[edit]


  1. ^ a b c at purchasing power parity, per capita, in international dollars (rounded IMF 2012)
  2. ^ a b c at Human Development Index (New 2013 Estimates for 2012)
  3. ^ a b Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b "Syria applies for observer status at Shanghai security bloc — Russian Foreign Ministry". Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-02-13. Retrieved 2015-07-11.
  7. ^ "Azerbaijan asks to join a new alliance of China and Russia".
  8. ^ "Syria, Egypt may join Shanghai Cooperation Organization as observers". Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-06-05. Retrieved 2015-12-21.
  9. ^ "Syria, Israel, Egypt willing to join SCO's activity - president's special envoy". Interfax. 2016-06-23. Archived from the original on 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2016-06-24.
  10. ^ "Xi's Eurasian visit: Shanghai Spirit gives new leap to SCO". CCTV. 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2016-06-24.
  11. ^ "Kiev Request For SCO Partner Status Still in Force".
  12. ^ "Egypt applies to become dialogue partner of Shanghai security bloc — Kremlin aide". Russian News Agency TASS. 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
  13. ^ "Azerbaijan intends to become SCO observer". 2015-02-10. Retrieved 2015-08-15.